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Communication Theory
(EC 2252)
Prof.J.B.Bhattacharjee
Prof.J.B.Bhattacharjee
K.Senthil Kumar
K.Senthil Kumar
ECE Department
ECE Department
Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Rajalakshmi Engineering College
Review of Spectral characteristics

Periodic and Non-periodic Signals: A signal is said to be
periodic, if it exhibits periodicity. i.e.,
x(t +T)=x(t) , for all values of t.
Periodic signal has the property that it is unchanged
by a time shift of T. A signal that does not satisfy the
above periodicity property is called a non-periodic
signal.

Periodic signals can be represented using the Fourier
Series. Non-periodic signals can be represented
using the Fourier Transform.

Both Fourier series and Fourier Transform deal with
the representation of the signals as a combination of
sine and cosine waves.
Fourier Series

Fourier series: a complicated waveform analyzed
into a number of harmonically related sine and
cosine functions

A continuous periodic signal x(t) with a period T may
be represented by:

x(t)=Σ

k=1
(A
k
cos kω t + B
k
sin kω t)+ A
0

Dirichlet conditions must be placed on x(t) for the
series to be valid: the integral of the magnitude of
x(t) over a complete period must be finite, and the
signal can only have a finite number of
discontinuities in any finite interval
Fourier Series Equations

The Fourier series represents a periodic
signal T
p
in terms of frequency components:

We get the Fourier series coefficients as
follows:

The complex exponential Fourier coefficients
are a sequence of complex numbers
representing the frequency component ω
0
k.
p
T / 2 ω where , e X x(t)
0
k
t ikω
k
0
π · ·

−∞ ·

·
p
0
T
t ikω
p
k
dt x(t)e
T
1
X

Periodic signals represented by Fourier Series have Discrete spectra.
The Fourier Transform

Fourier transform is used for the non-
periodic signals. A Fourier transform
converts the signal from the time domain
to the spectral domain.

Continuous Fourier Transform:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

∞ −

∞ −

·
·
df e f H t h
dt e t h f H
ift
ift
π
π
2
2

Non-periodic signals represented by Fourier transform have Continuous spectra.
Fourier Transform Pairs
Note: Π stands for rectangular function. Λ stands for triangular function.
9 9
Introduction to Communication
Introduction to Communication
Systems
Systems

Communication – Basic process of
exchanging information from one location
(source) to destination (receiving end).

Refers – process of sending, receiving
and processing of information/signal/input
from one point to another point.
Source
Destination
Flow of information
Figure 1 : A simple communication system
10 10

Electronic Communication System –
defined as the whole mechanism of
sending and receiving as well as
processing of information electronically
from source to destination.

point-to-point, mobile communications,
satellite systems.
11 11
Objectives
Objectives

Communication System – to produce an
Communication System – to produce an
accurate replica of the transmitted
accurate replica of the transmitted
information that is to transfer information
information that is to transfer information
between two or more points (destinations)
between two or more points (destinations)
through a communication channel, with
through a communication channel, with
minimum error.
minimum error.
12 12
NEED FOR COMMUNICATION
NEED FOR COMMUNICATION

Interaction purposes – enables people to
Interaction purposes – enables people to
interact in a timely fashion on a global level in
interact in a timely fashion on a global level in
social, political, economic and scientific areas,
social, political, economic and scientific areas,
through telephones, electronic-mail and video
through telephones, electronic-mail and video
conference.
conference.

Transfer Information – Tx in the form of audio,
Transfer Information – Tx in the form of audio,
video, texts, computer data and picture through
video, texts, computer data and picture through
facsimile, telegraph or telex and internet.
facsimile, telegraph or telex and internet.

masses, through radio, television or teletext.
masses, through radio, television or teletext.
13 13
Terms Related To Communications
Terms Related To Communications

Message – physical manifestation produced by the
information source and then converted to electrical
signal before transmission by the transducer in the
transmitter.

Transducer – Device that converts one form of energy
into another form.

Input Transducer – placed at the transmitter which
convert an input message into an electrical signal.

Example – Microphone which converts sound energy to
electrical energy.
Message
Input
Transducer
Electrical
Signal
14 14

Output Transducer – placed at the receiver which Output Transducer – placed at the receiver which
converts the electrical signal into the original converts the electrical signal into the original
message. message.

Example – Loudspeaker which converts electrical Example – Loudspeaker which converts electrical
energy into sound energy. energy into sound energy.

Signal – electrical voltage or current which varies Signal – electrical voltage or current which varies
with time and is used to carry message or information with time and is used to carry message or information
from one point to another. from one point to another.
Electrical
Signal
Output
Transducer
Message
15 15
Elements of a Communication
Elements of a Communication
System
System

The basic elements are : Source,
The basic elements are : Source,
Destination.
Destination.
Information
Source
Transmitter
Channel
Transmission
Medium
Noise
Figure : Basic Block Diagram of a Communication System
16 16
Function of each Element.
Function of each Element.

Information Source
Information Source
– the communication system
– the communication system
exists to send messages. Messages come from
exists to send messages. Messages come from
voice, data, video and other types of information.
voice, data, video and other types of information.

Transmitter
Transmitter
– Transmit the input message into
– Transmit the input message into
electrical signals such as voltage or current into
electrical signals such as voltage or current into
electromagnetic waves such as radio waves,
electromagnetic waves such as radio waves,
microwaves that is suitable for transmission and
microwaves that is suitable for transmission and
compatible with the channel. Besides, the
compatible with the channel. Besides, the
transmitter also do the modulation and encoding
transmitter also do the modulation and encoding
(for digital signal).
(for digital signal).
17 17
Block Diagram of a Transmitter
Block Diagram of a Transmitter
5 minutes exercise;
5 minutes exercise;
Describe the sequence of events that happen at
Describe the sequence of events that happen at
Modulating
Signal
Audio
Amplifier
Modulator
RF
Amplifier
Carrier
Signal
Transmitting
Antenna
18 18

Channel/Medium
Channel/Medium
– is the link or path over
– is the link or path over
which information flows from the source to
which information flows from the source to
establish a communication networks.
establish a communication networks.

There are 5 criteria of a transmission
There are 5 criteria of a transmission
system; Capacity, Performance, Distance,
system; Capacity, Performance, Distance,
Security and Cost which includes the
Security and Cost which includes the
installation, operation and maintenance.
installation, operation and maintenance.

2 main categories of channel that
2 main categories of channel that
commonly used are; line (guided media)
commonly used are; line (guided media)
and free space (unguided media)
and free space (unguided media)
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– Receives the electrical signals or
– Receives the electrical signals or
electromagnetic waves that are sent by the
electromagnetic waves that are sent by the
transmitter through the channel. It is also
transmitter through the channel. It is also
separate the information from the received
separate the information from the received
signal and sent the information to the
signal and sent the information to the
destination.
destination.

Basically, a receiver consists of several stages
Basically, a receiver consists of several stages
of amplification, frequency conversion and
of amplification, frequency conversion and
filtering.
filtering.
20 20

Destination
Destination
– is where the user receives the
– is where the user receives the
information, such as loud speaker, visual
information, such as loud speaker, visual
display, computer monitor, plotter and printer.
display, computer monitor, plotter and printer.
RF
Amplifier
Mixer
Local
Oscillator
Intermediate
Frequency
Amplifier
Demodulator
Audio
Amplifier
Destination
Receiving Antenna
21 21
Analog Modulation
Analog Modulation

Baseband Transmission
Baseband Transmission

Baseband signal is the information either in a
Baseband signal is the information either in a
digital or analogue form.
digital or analogue form.

Transmission of original information whether
Transmission of original information whether
analogue or digital, directly into transmission
analogue or digital, directly into transmission
medium is called baseband transmission.
medium is called baseband transmission.

Example: intercom (figure below)
Example: intercom (figure below)
Microphone Voice
Audio
Amplifier
Audio
Amplifier
Speaker
Voice
Wire
22 22
Baseband signal is not suitable for
Baseband signal is not suitable for
long distance communication….
long distance communication….

Hardware limitations
Hardware limitations

Requires very long antenna Requires very long antenna

Baseband signal is an audio signal of low frequency. Baseband signal is an audio signal of low frequency.
For example voice, range of frequency is 0.3 kHz to For example voice, range of frequency is 0.3 kHz to
3.4 kHz. The length of the antenna required to 3.4 kHz. The length of the antenna required to
transmit any signal at least 1/10 of its wavelength ( transmit any signal at least 1/10 of its wavelength (λ λ). ).
Therefore, L = 100km (impossible!) Therefore, L = 100km (impossible!)

Interference with other waves
Interference with other waves

Simultaneous transmission of audio signals will cause Simultaneous transmission of audio signals will cause
interference with each other. This is due to audio interference with each other. This is due to audio
signals having the same frequency range and signals having the same frequency range and
receiver stations cannot distinguish the signals. receiver stations cannot distinguish the signals.
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Modulation
Modulation

Modulation – defined as the process of modifying a Modulation – defined as the process of modifying a
carrier wave (radio wave) systematically by the carrier wave (radio wave) systematically by the
modulating signal. modulating signal.

This process makes the signal suitable for transmission This process makes the signal suitable for transmission
and compatible with the channel. and compatible with the channel.

Resultant signal – modulated signal Resultant signal – modulated signal

2 types of modulation; Analog Modulation and Digital 2 types of modulation; Analog Modulation and Digital
Modulation. Modulation.

Analogue Modulation – to transfer an analogue low pass Analogue Modulation – to transfer an analogue low pass
signal over an analogue bandpass channel. signal over an analogue bandpass channel.

Digital Modulation – to transfer a digital bit stream the Digital Modulation – to transfer a digital bit stream the
carrier is a periodic train and one of the pulse parameter carrier is a periodic train and one of the pulse parameter
(amplitude, width or position) changes according to the (amplitude, width or position) changes according to the
audio signal. audio signal.
24 24
Purpose of Modulation Process in
Purpose of Modulation Process in
Communication Systems
Communication Systems

To generate modulated signal that is suitable for To generate modulated signal that is suitable for
transmission and compatible with the channel. transmission and compatible with the channel.

To allow efficient transmission – increase transmission To allow efficient transmission – increase transmission
speed and distance, eg; speed and distance, eg;
1. 1. By using high frequency carrier signal, the information By using high frequency carrier signal, the information
(voice) can travel and propagate through the air at (voice) can travel and propagate through the air at
greater distances and shorter transmission time greater distances and shorter transmission time
2. 2. Also, high frequency signal is less prone to noise and Also, high frequency signal is less prone to noise and
interference. Certain types of modulation have the useful interference. Certain types of modulation have the useful
property of suppressing both noise and interference property of suppressing both noise and interference
3. 3. For example, FM use limiter to reduce noise and keep For example, FM use limiter to reduce noise and keep
the signal’s amplitude constant. PCM systems use the signal’s amplitude constant. PCM systems use
repeaters to generate the signal along the transmission repeaters to generate the signal along the transmission
path. path.
25 25
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Amplitude Modulation (AM)

Objectives:-
Objectives:-

Recognize AM signal in the time domain, frequency Recognize AM signal in the time domain, frequency
domain and trigonometric equation form domain and trigonometric equation form

Calculate the percentage of modulation index Calculate the percentage of modulation index

Calculate the upper sidebands, lower sidebands and Calculate the upper sidebands, lower sidebands and
bandwidth of an AM signal by given the carrier and bandwidth of an AM signal by given the carrier and
modulating signal frequencies modulating signal frequencies

Calculate the power related in AM signal Calculate the power related in AM signal

Define the terms of DSBSC, SSB and VSB Define the terms of DSBSC, SSB and VSB

Understand the modulator and demodulator operations Understand the modulator and demodulator operations
26 26
Introduction
Introduction

Modulation Modulation

The alteration of the amplitude, phase or frequency of an oscillator in The alteration of the amplitude, phase or frequency of an oscillator in
accordance with another signal. accordance with another signal.

Input signal is encoded in a format suitable for transmission Input signal is encoded in a format suitable for transmission

A low frequency information signal is encoded over a higher frequency signal A low frequency information signal is encoded over a higher frequency signal

Carrier Signal Carrier Signal

Sinusoidal wave, Sinusoidal wave,

Modulating Signal/Base band Modulating Signal/Base band

Information signal, Information signal,

Modulated Wave Modulated Wave

Higher frequency signal which is being modulated Higher frequency signal which is being modulated

Modulation Schemes Modulation Schemes

t f V v
c c c
π 2 sin ·
t f V v
m m m
π 2 sin ·
27 27
Carrier Signal,
Vc
Modulating Signal,
Vm
Modulation Schemes
Modulated
Signal
V
AM
V
PM
V
FM
28 28
Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude Modulation

Time Domain
Time Domain

Frequency Domain
Frequency Domain
29 29
t f V v
m m m
π 2 sin ·
) 2 (sin 2 sin
2 sin
t f t f V
t f V V
c m m
c c AM
π π
π
+
·
Modulator
Information Signal
Carrier Signal
Output
t f V v
c c c
π 2 sin ·
AM Modulator
AM Modulator
30 30
Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude Modulation
Vc
- Vc
Vm
- Vm
Vam
- Vam
31 31
Modulation Index
Modulation Index

Modulation Index, m Modulation Index, m

Indicates the amount that the carrier signal is modulated. Indicates the amount that the carrier signal is modulated.

It is an expression of the amount of power in the sidebands. It is an expression of the amount of power in the sidebands.

Modulation level ranges = 0-1 where Modulation level ranges = 0-1 where
• 0 = no modulation 0 = no modulation
• 1 = full modulation 1 = full modulation
• >1 = distortion >1 = distortion
Vc
Vm
m ·
min max
min max
V V
V V
m
+

·
32 32
Modulation Index
Modulation Index
Vc
Vm
m ·
33 33
Modulation Index
Modulation Index
Vmin
Vmin (p-p)
Vmax
Vmax (p-p)
min max
min max
V V
V V
m
+

·
34 34
Modulation Index
Modulation Index
m = 0 m = 0.5
m = 1
35 35
fc
Bandwidth
Bandwidth
2
mVc
2
mVc
V
C
fm B
fm fc fm fc B
2
) ( ) (
·
− − + ·

Bandwidth for AM signal,
Bandwidth for AM signal,
fc-fm fc+fm
36 36
Power Distributions
Power Distributions

Total transmitted power, P
Total transmitted power, P
T T

If R= 1,
If R= 1,
USB LSB C T
P P P P + + ·

2
m
1 P P
2
C T

,
`

.
|
+ ·
fc-fm fc+fm fc
37 37
Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC)
Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC)

It is a technique where it is transmitting both the It is a technique where it is transmitting both the
sidebands without the carrier (carrier is being sidebands without the carrier (carrier is being
suppressed/cut) suppressed/cut)

Characteristics: Characteristics:

Power content less Power content less

Same bandwidth Same bandwidth

38 38
Single Side Band
Single Side Band
(SSB)
(SSB)

Improved DSBSC
Improved DSBSC
and standard AM,
and standard AM,
which waste
which waste
power and
power and
occupy large
occupy large
bandwidth
bandwidth

SSB is a process
SSB is a process
of transmitting
of transmitting
one of the
one of the
sidebands of the
sidebands of the
standard AM by
standard AM by
suppressing the
suppressing the
carrier and one of
carrier and one of
the sidebands
the sidebands

Saving power
Saving power

Reduce BW by 50%
Reduce BW by 50%

Increase efficiency,
Increase efficiency,
increase SNR
increase SNR

Complex circuits for
Complex circuits for
frequency stability
frequency stability
39 39
Vestigial Side Band (VSB)
Vestigial Side Band (VSB)

VSB is mainly used in TV broadcasting for
VSB is mainly used in TV broadcasting for
their video transmissions.
their video transmissions.

TV signal consists of
TV signal consists of

Audio signal – transmitted by FM
Audio signal – transmitted by FM

Video signal – transmitted by VSB
Video signal – transmitted by VSB

A video signal consists a range of frequency
A video signal consists a range of frequency
and fmax = 4.5 MHz.
and fmax = 4.5 MHz.

If it transmitted using conventional AM, the
If it transmitted using conventional AM, the
required BW is 9 MHz (BW=2fm). But
required BW is 9 MHz (BW=2fm). But
according to the standard, TV signal is
according to the standard, TV signal is
limited to 7 MHz only
limited to 7 MHz only

So, to reduce the BW, a part of the LSB of
So, to reduce the BW, a part of the LSB of
picture signal is not fully transmitted.
picture signal is not fully transmitted.
40 40
Vestigial Side Band (VSB)
Vestigial Side Band (VSB)

The frequency spectrum for the TV signal / VSB:
The frequency spectrum for the TV signal / VSB:
Lower
Video
Bands
Upper
Video
Bands
Total TV signal bandwidth = 7 MHz
Video
Carrier
Audio
Carrier
4.5 MHz
Upper
Audio
Bands
Lower
Audio
Bands
1.25 6.75 5.75 7.0 6.25 0
f (MHz)
41 41
Modulator Circuits
Modulator Circuits

R1
R2
R3
Diode
C
L
Modulating
Signal
Output
Carrier
A
B
C
D
E
42 42
Modulator Circuits
Modulator Circuits

A. Modulating Signal
B. Carrier
C. Sum of carrier and
modulating signal
D. Diode current
E. AM output across
tuned circuit
43 43
Demodulator
Demodulator

R
1
Di ode
C
1
C’
R’
AM
Signal
A B
C
44 44
Demodulator
Demodulator

A. AM signal
B. Current pulses
through diode
C. Demodulating signal
D. Modulating signal
45 45
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)

Objectives:-
Objectives:-

Recognize FM signal in the time domain, frequency Recognize FM signal in the time domain, frequency
domain and trigonometric equation form domain and trigonometric equation form

Calculate the percentage of modulation index Calculate the percentage of modulation index

Calculate the upper sidebands, lower sidebands and Calculate the upper sidebands, lower sidebands and
bandwidth of an FM signal by Carsons’s Rule and bandwidth of an FM signal by Carsons’s Rule and
Bessel Function Table Bessel Function Table

Calculate the power related in FM signal Calculate the power related in FM signal

Understand the modulator and demodulator of FM Understand the modulator and demodulator of FM
46 46
Introduction
Introduction

FM is the process of varying the frequency of a carrier wave in FM is the process of varying the frequency of a carrier wave in
proportion to a modulating signal. proportion to a modulating signal.

The amplitude of the carrier is kept constant while its The amplitude of the carrier is kept constant while its
frequency is varied by the amplitude of the modulating signal. frequency is varied by the amplitude of the modulating signal.

In all types of modulation, the carrier wave is varied by the In all types of modulation, the carrier wave is varied by the
AMPLITUDE of the modulating signal. AMPLITUDE of the modulating signal.

FM signal does not have an envelope, therefore the FM FM signal does not have an envelope, therefore the FM
receiver does not have to respond to amplitude variations receiver does not have to respond to amplitude variations   it it
can ignore noise to some extent. can ignore noise to some extent.
47 47
Frequency Modulation
48 48
Frequency Modulation
Frequency Modulation

The importance features about FM waveforms
The importance features about FM waveforms
are:
are:

The frequency varies The frequency varies

The rate of change of carrier frequency changes is The rate of change of carrier frequency changes is
the same as the frequency of the information signal the same as the frequency of the information signal

The amount of carrier frequency changes is The amount of carrier frequency changes is
proportional to the amplitude of the information proportional to the amplitude of the information
signal signal

The amplitude is constant The amplitude is constant
49 49

Carrier Signal Carrier Signal

Sinusoidal wave Sinusoidal wave

Modulating Signal/Base band Modulating Signal/Base band

Information signal Information signal

Modulated Wave Modulated Wave

Higher frequency signal which is being modulated Higher frequency signal which is being modulated

Where Where
t f V v
c c c
π 2 sin ·
t f V v
m m m
π 2 sin ·
Frequency Modulation
Frequency Modulation
) 2 sin 2 ( cos t f t f V v
m c c FM
π β π + ·
m
f
KVm
π
β
2
·
50 50
Frequency Modulation
Frequency Modulation

Time Domain
Time Domain

Frequency Domain
Frequency Domain
51 51
FM Modulator
FM Modulator
52 52
FM Modulator
FM Modulator
t f V v
m m m
π 2 sin ·
t f V v
c c c
π 2 sin ·
Modulator
Information Signal
Carrier Signal
Output
) 2 sin 2 ( cos t f t f V v
m c c FM
π β π + ·
53 53
Frequency
Frequency
 Carrier Frequency Carrier Frequency

As in FM system, carrier frequency in FM systems must be higher than the As in FM system, carrier frequency in FM systems must be higher than the
information signal frequency. information signal frequency.
 Maximum Frequency Maximum Frequency
 Minimum Frequency Minimum Frequency
 Carrier Swing Carrier Swing
f fc f ∆ − ·
min
f fc f
x
ma
∆ + ·
f f
cs
∆ ·2
54 54
Modulation Index
Modulation Index

Modulation Index, m @ Modulation Index, m @ β β

Indicates the amount that the carrier signal is modulated. Indicates the amount that the carrier signal is modulated.

It is an expression of the amount of power in the sidebands. It is an expression of the amount of power in the sidebands.

Modulation level ranges = Modulation level ranges = 0 0 – –

Where Where
• Δ Δf = fd = frequency deviation f = fd = frequency deviation
• fm = modulating frequency fm = modulating frequency
• Vm = amplitude of modulating signal Vm = amplitude of modulating signal
fm
f
m

·

π 2
kVm
f · ∆
55 55
Modulation Index
Modulation Index

β
β
= 1
= 1

β
β
= 5
= 5
56 56
Modulation Index
Modulation Index

β
β
= 25
= 25
57 57
Modulation Index
Modulation Index
58 58
Bandwidth
Bandwidth

Using Bessel Function, the bandwidth for
Using Bessel Function, the bandwidth for
FM signal,
FM signal,
n = number of pairs of the significant sidebands n = number of pairs of the significant sidebands
fm = the frequency the modulating signal fm = the frequency the modulating signal
nfm BW 2 ·
59 59
Bandwidth
Bandwidth

Using Carson’s Rule, to estimate the
Using Carson’s Rule, to estimate the
bandwidth for an FM signal transmission.
bandwidth for an FM signal transmission.
Δ Δf f = peak frequency deviation = peak frequency deviation
f f
m(max) m(max)
= highest modulating signal frequency = highest modulating signal frequency
) ( 2
(max) m
f f BW + ∆ ·
60 60
Power Distributions
Power Distributions

FM transmitted power, P
FM transmitted power, P
FM FM
where
where

2R
P

R
V
P
2
C
2
rms
FM
· ·
2
V
V
rms
·
Narrowband FM and Wideband FM

Narrowband FM has only a single pair of significant
sidebands. The value of modulation index β <1.

Wideband FM has a large number (theoretically
infinite) number of sidebands. The value of
modulation index β >=1.
Generation of Narrowband FM (NBFM)

The modulator splits the carrier into two paths. One path is
direct. The other path contains a -90 degree phase shift unit
and a product modulator. The difference between the signals in
the two paths produces the NBFM signal.
INTEGRATOR
-90 PHASE
SHIFTER
PRODUCT
MODULATOR
Σ
_
+
NBFM
WAVE
CARRIER
WAVE
MODULATING
WAVE
) 2 sin 2 ( cos t f t f V v
m c c FM
π β π + ·
) 2 sin( ) 2 sin( ) 2 ( cos
, 1
t f t f V t f V v
have we then If
m c c c c NBFM
π π β π
β
− ·
<
Frequency Modulators

A frequency modulator is a circuit that varies carrier
frequency in accordance with the modulating signal.

There are two types of frequency modulator circuits.

(1) Direct FM: Carrier frequency is directly varied by the
message through voltage-controlled oscillator.

Eg: Varactor diode modulator.

(2) Indirect FM: Generate NBFM first, then NBFM is
frequency multiplied for targeted Δf.

Eg: Armstrong modulator
64 64
FM
FM Varactor Modulator
The Operation of the Varactor Modulator

The info signal is applied to the base of the input transistor and
appears amplified and inverted at the collector.

This low freq signal passes through the RF choke (L1) and is
applied across the varactor diode.

Varactor diode behaves as voltage controlled capacitor.

When low reverse biased voltage is applied, more capacitance
is generated and thus decrease the frequency.

When high reverse biased voltage is applied, less
capacitance is generated and thus increase the
frequency.

The varactor diode changes its capacitance in
sympathy with the info signal and therefore
changes the total value of the capacitance in the
tuned circuit.

The changing value of capacitance causes the
oscillator freq to increase and decrease under the
control of the information signal.

The output is therefore an FM signal.
Armstrong of indrect FM generation

In this method the message signal is first
subjected to NBFM modulator using a crystal-
controlled oscillator for generating carrier.

Crystal control provides frequency stability.

The NBFM wave is next multiplied in frequency by
using a frequency multiplier so as to produce the
desired wideband FM.
Frequency Demodulator

The FM demodulating circuits used to recover the
original modulating signal.

Any circuit that will convert a frequency variation
in the carrier back into a proportional voltage
variation can be used to demodulate or detect FM
signals.

A popular method used for FM demodulation is the
Frequency discriminator.
Frequency discriminator
Output of the Frequency discriminator

The Frequency discriminator circuit consists of
the slope ciruit followed by the envelope
detector.

The slope circuit converts the instantaneous
frequency variations of the FM input signal to
instantaneous amplitude variations.

These amplitude variations are rectified by the
envelope detector to provide a DC output
voltage which varies in amplitude and polarity
with the input signal frequency.
71 71
FM vs AM:
FM vs AM:

Better noise
Better noise
immunity
immunity

Rejection of
Rejection of
interfering signals
interfering signals
because of capture
because of capture
effect
effect

Better transmitter
Better transmitter
efficiency
efficiency

Excessive use of
Excessive use of
spectrum
spectrum

More complex and
More complex and
costly circuits
costly circuits
Review of Probability

Sample Space ：the space of all possible outcomes (δ)

Event ：a collection of outcomes ：subset of δ

Probability ：a “measure” assigned to the events of a
sample space with the following properties ：
1. for all event A in S
2.
3. If A and B are mutually exclusive,

Theorem:

The Conditional probability of an event A given the
occurrence of event B is
0 ≥ ) ( A P
1 ) ( · S P
) ( ) ( ) ( B P A P B A P + ·
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( B A P B P A P B A P  − + ·

) (
) (
) | (
B P
B A P
B A P

·

Two events A and B are independent if

Random Variables

A rule which assigns a numerical value to
each possible outcomes of a chance
experiment.

If the experiment is flipping a coin. Then a
random variable X can be defined as :
) ( ) ( ) ( B P A P B A P ⋅ · 
S
1
H X(S
1
)=1
S
2
T X(S
2
)=-1

Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)

Properties of CDF ：
1.
2.
3.

Probability Density Function (PDF)

Properties of PDF ： ,
,
) (x F
X
} { Prob x X ≤
0 ) ( , 1 ) ( , 1 ) ( 0 · −∞ · ∞ ≤ ≤
X X X
F F x F
). ( ) ( lim ) (
0
0
i.e. right, from continuous is x F x F x F
X X
x x
X
·
+

. of function ing nondecreas a is ) ( x x F
X
) (x f
X dt t f x F
dx
x dF
x
X X
X

∞ −
· ) ( ) (
) (
0 ) ( ≥ x f
X
1 ) ( ·

∞ −
dx x f
X
df x f x F x F x X x P
x
x
X X X
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
1 2 2 1 ∫
· − · ≤ <

Random Processes: A random process is
a mapping from the sample space to an
ensemble of time functions.
X
1
(t)
X
2
(t)
X
N
(t)
Sample function
t
The totality of all sample
functions is called
an ensemble
For a specific time
X(tk) is a random variable

A random process X(t) is a Gaussian process if for
all n and for all (t
1
t
2
... t
n
), the sequence of
random variables { X(t
1
), X(t
2
)... X(t
n
) } has a jointly
Gaussian density function.

Central limit theorem

The sum of a large number of independent and
identically distributed(i.i.d) random variables
getting closer to Gaussian distribution.

Thermal noise can be closely modeled by
Gaussian process.
Gaussian process

Property 1

For Gaussian process, knowledge of the mean(m)
and covariance(C) provides a complete statistical
description of process.

Property 2

If a Gaussian process X(t) is passed through a LTI
system, the output of the system is also a
Gaussian process. The effect of the system on X(t)
is simply reflected by the change in mean(m) and
covariance(C) of X(t).
Noise Theory

Shot noise: It results from the shot effect in the
amplifying devices and active device. It is
caused by random variation in the arrival of
electrons (or holes) at the output of the devices.

For diode, the rms shot noise current is given by:
system of bandwidth δ
current diode direct i
electron of charge e
noise shot rms i
δ 2ei i
f
p
n
f p n
·
·
·
·
·

Thermal noise is the electrical noise arising from
the random motion of electrons in a conductor.
The noise power generated by a resistor is given
by:
system of bandwidth δ
e temperatur absolute T
constant s Boltzmann' k
power noise P
kTδ P
f
n
f n
·
·
·
·
·

White noise: It is the idealized form of noise,
whose spectrum is independent of the
operating frequency. The power spectral
density of white noise w(t) is S
w
(f)=N
0
/2. The
autocorrelation R
w
(t) of white noise is an
impulse as shown below.
S
w
(f)
R
w
(τ )
) (τ δ
2
N
0
2
0
N
f
τ
81 81
Narrow band noise (Ideal case)
Narrow band noise (Ideal case)

w(t) w(t)

n(t) n(t)

filtered noise is narrow-band noise filtered noise is narrow-band noise

n(t) = n n(t) = n
I I
(t)cos(2 (t)cos(2
π
π f f
C C
t) - n t) - n
Q Q
(t)sin(2 (t)sin(2
π
π f f
C C
t) t)
• where n where n
I I
(t) is inphase, n (t) is inphase, n
Q Q

∴ filtered signal x(t) filtered signal x(t)

x(t) = s(t) + n(t) x(t) = s(t) + n(t)

- Average Noise Power = N - Average Noise Power = N
0 0
B B
T T

BPF
Noise Figure

Consider a signal source. The signal to noise ratio
(SNR) available from the source is given by:

Consider that the source is connected to an amplifier
with gain G. Since all amplifiers contribute noise, the
available output SNR will be less than the SNR of the
source.
system of bandwidth δ
e temperatur absolute T
constant s Boltzmann' k
source the from power signal P
/kTδ P (S/N)
f
si
f si in
·
·
·
·
·
 The noise power at the output of the amplifier will be

The noise factor F is defined as :
 When noise factor is expressed in decibels, it is called noise figure.
Noise figure = (F) dB = 10logF
f
no
si
no
f
si
GkT
P

P
P
kT
P
F
output at ratio power S/N available
input at ratio power S/N available
F
δ δ
· × ·
·
G
f no
GkT P δ ·

The noise power expressed in terms of a
temperature is callled Noise Temperature.

If the amplifier noise is P
na
, then the equivalent
noise temperature T
e
of the amplifier is given by
the equation
k / P Te
f na
δ ·
0
0 f f 0 f na
f 0 na
1)T - (F Te
1)T - (F k / 1)kT - (F k / P Te
as written be can re temperatu noise The
1)kT - (F P Since
· ∴
· · ·
·
δ δ δ
δ

RF section: It generally consists of a pre-selector
and an amplifier stage. The pre-selector is a
center frequency that is tuned to the desired
carrier frequency. The other functions of the RF
section are detecting, band limiting and

Mixer/converter section: It is the stage of down-
converts the received RF frequencies to
intermediate frequencies (IF) which are simply
frequencies that fall somewhere between the RF
and information frequencies, hence the name
intermediate. This section also includes a local
oscillator (LO).

IF Section: IF or intermediate frequency section
is the stage where its primary functions are
amplification and selectivity.

AM detector Section: AM detector section is the
stage that demodulates the AM wave and
converts it to the original

information signal.

Audio section: Audio section is the stage that
amplifies the recovered information.
88 88
Performance of CW Modulation Systems
Performance of CW Modulation Systems

Introduction
Introduction

- Receiver Noise (Channel Noise) :
- Receiver Noise (Channel Noise) :

1. RX Model
1. RX Model

S
w
(f)
R
w
(τ )
) (τ δ
2
N
0
2
N
0
f
τ
N0 = KTe where K = Boltzmann’s constant N0 = KTe where K = Boltzmann’s constant
Te = equivalent noise Temp. Te = equivalent noise Temp.
Average noise power per unit bandwidth Average noise power per unit bandwidth
SNR

The signal x(t) available for demodulation is defined by
 The output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
O
is defined as the ratio of
the average power of the demodulated message signal to the
average power of the noise, both measured at the receiver output.
 The channel signal-to-noise ratio, (SNR)
C
is defined as the ratio of
the average power of the modulated signal to the average power of
the channel noise in the message bandwidth, both measure at the

For the purpose of comparing different CW modulation systems,
we normalize the receiver performance by dividing (SNR)O by
(SNR)C. This ratio is called figure of merit for the receiver and is
defined as
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t s t x + ·
C
O
SNR
SNR
) (
) (
merit of Figure ·
90 90
Let’s consider the case of DSB-SC. The expression for the
modulated signal is given as
The carrier wave is statistically independent of the message
signal. The average power of DSB-SC modulated
component of s(t) is
+
BPF
x(t)
Product
modulator
y(t)
DSB-SC
signal s(t)
Noise
w(t)
LPF
v(t)
Local
Oscillator
cos(w
c
t)
Coherent
detector
) ( ) 2 cos( ) ( t m t f A t s
c C
π ·
2
2
m c
P A

With a noise PSD of N
0
/2 the average noise power in the
message bandwidth W equals WN
0
(baseband scenario).

Pm is the power of the message. Hence we have

Finding an expression for (SNR)
O
, we have
0
2
C
2
(SNR)
WN
P A
m c
·
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t s t x + ·
( ) ( ) ( ) t f t n t f t n t m t f A
c Q c I c c
π π π 2 sin ) ( 2 cos ) ( ) ( 2 cos − + ·
( )
[ ] ( ) ( ) t f t n t f t n t m A t n t m
A
t f t x t v
c Q c I c I
c
c
π π
π
4 sin ) (
2
1
4 cos ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
2 cos ) ( ) (
− + + + ·
·

Output of the LPF is

The power of the signal component at the receiver
output is . The average power of the filtered
noise is 2WN
0
.

The average noise power at the receiver output is

Hence we have,
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) ( t n t m A t y
I c
+ ·
4 /
2
m
P A
C
¹
'
¹
≤ ≤ − + + −
· ·
elsewhere
W f W f f S f f S
f S f S
c N c N
N N
Q I
, 0
), ( ) (
) ( ) (
0 0
2
2
1
2
2
1
WN WN ·

,
`

.
|
0
2
0
2
2 2 /
4 /
WN
P A
WN
P A
(SNR)
m c m c
O,DSB-SC
· ·
1
) (
) (
merit of Figure · ·
C
O
SNR
SNR
Noise in AM receiver using envelope detection

The expression for AM signal is given as
where it is assumed that
The average power of the carrier in the AM signal s(t) is
The average power of the information bearing component
is
Average power of the full AM signal s(t) is
[ ] ( ) t f t m k A t s
c a c
π 2 cos ) ( 1 ) ( + ·
1 ) ( < t m k
a
+
BPF
x(t)
Envelope
Detector
y(t)
AM signal
s(t)
Noise
w(t)
. 2 /
2
C
A
( ) t f t m k A
c a c
π 2 cos ) (
2 /
2 2
m a C
P k A
2 / ) 1 (
2 2
m a C
P k A +

Hence, the channel signal to noise ratio for AM is

Finding an expression for (SNR)
O
, we have
[ ]
0
2 2
,
2
1
) (
WN
P k A
SNR
m a C
AM C
+
·
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t m k A t y
I a C
+ ≈
0
2 2
,
2
) (
WN
P k A
SNR
m C
AM O
a
·
m
m
AM
C
O
P k
P k
SNR
SNR
Merit of Figure
a
a
2
2
1 ) (
) (
+
·
) ( ) ( ) ( t n t s t x + ·
[ ] ) 2 sin( ) ( ) 2 cos( ) ( ) ( ) ( t f t n t f t n t m k A A t x
c Q c I a C C
π π − + + ·
) ( of envelope ) ( t x t y ·
Threshold Effect

When carrier-to-noise ratio is small as compared
to unity the noise term dominates the
performance of the envelope detector and is
completely different. Representing the
narrowband noise n(t) in terms of its envelope and
phase, we have

The phasor diagram for x(t) = s(t) + n(t) becomes
[ ] ) ( 2 cos ) ( ) ( t t f t r t n
c
Ψ + · π
R
e
s
u
lta
n
t y
(
t)
r(t)
) (t Ψ
[ ] [ ] ) ( cos ) ( 1 t t m k A
a C
Ψ +

The noise envelope is used as a reference here due to its
dominance. Here it is assumed that Ac is small as
compared to r(t). If we neglect the quadrature component
of the signal with respect to the noise we have

Hence, when carrier-to-noise ratio is small the detector
has no component that is strictly proportional to the
message signal m(t). Recalling that is uniformly
distributed over radians. Hence, it follows that we have a
complete loss of information at the detector output (as
expected value will be zero). This loss of information m(t)
at the output of the envelope detector is called the
threshold effect.
[ ] [ ] ) ( cos ) ( ) ( cos ) ( ) ( t t m k A t A t r t y
a C C
Ψ + Ψ + ≈
) (t Ψ
Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis

FM results is an unacceptably low SNR at the high
frequency end of the message spectrum. To offset this
undesirable occurrence, pre-emphasis and de-emphasis
technique is used.

Pre-emphasis consists in artificially boosting the spectral
components in the higher part of the message spectrum.
This is accomplished by passing message signal m(t) ,
through the pre-emphasis filter, denoted Hpe(f) . The pre-
emphasized signal is used to frequency modulate the carrier
at the transmitting end.

In the receiver, the inverse operation, de-emphasis, is
performed. This is accomplished by passing the
discriminator output through a filter, called the de-emphasis
filter, denoted Hde(f ) .
98 98
Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis in FM
P.S.D. of noise at FM Rx output
P.S.D. of typical message signal
 Commercial FM radio 에서 사용

otherwise 0
2
f
A
f N
(f) S
output tor discrimina the at (t) n noise of P.S.D
W f W - ,
) (
1
) (
2
C
2
0
Nd
d
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

·
≤ ≤ ·
T
pe
de
B
f H
f H
Information theory
Information theory

What is
What is
information theory
information theory
?
?

Information theory
Information theory
is needed to enable the
is needed to enable the
communication system to carry information
communication system to carry information
(signals) from sender to receiver over a
(signals) from sender to receiver over a
communication channel
communication channel

it deals with mathematical modelling and analysis of a it deals with mathematical modelling and analysis of a
communication system communication system

compression compression and data and data transfer rate. transfer rate.

Those answers can be found and solved by
Those answers can be found and solved by
entropy
entropy
and
and
channel capacity
channel capacity

Information is a measure of uncertainty. The less
is the probability of occurrence of a certain
message, the higher is the information.

Since the information is closely associated with
the uncertainty of the occurrence of a particular
symbol, When the symbol occurs the information
associated with its occurrence is defined as:
k'. ' symbol by carried n informatio the is I and
k' ' symbol of occurrence of y probabilit the is P where
) log(P - )
P
1
( log I
k
k
k
k
k
· ·
Entropy
Entropy

Entropy
Entropy
is defined in terms of probabilistic
is defined in terms of probabilistic
behaviour of a source of information
behaviour of a source of information

In information theory the source output are
In information theory the source output are
discrete random variables that have a
discrete random variables that have a
certain fixed finite alphabet with certain
certain fixed finite alphabet with certain
probabilities
probabilities

Entropy is an average information content for
Entropy is an average information content for
the given source symbol. (bits/message)
the given source symbol. (bits/message)

·
·
1
0
2
)
1
( log
K
k
k
k
p
p H

Rate of information:

If a source generates at a rate of ‘r’
messages per second, the rate of
information ‘R’ is defined as the average
number of bits of information per second.

‘H’ is the average number of bits of
information per message. Hence
R = rH bits/sec
Source Coding
Source Coding

Source coding
Source coding
(a.k.a lossless data
(a.k.a lossless data
compression) means that we will remove
compression) means that we will remove
redundant information from the signal prior the
redundant information from the signal prior the
transmission.
transmission.

Basically this is achieved by assigning short
Basically this is achieved by assigning short
descriptions to the most frequent outcomes of
descriptions to the most frequent outcomes of
the source output and vice versa.
the source output and vice versa.

The common source-coding schemes are prefix
The common source-coding schemes are prefix
coding, huffman coding, lempel-ziv coding.
coding, huffman coding, lempel-ziv coding.
Source Coding Theorem
Source Coding Theorem

Source coding theorem
Source coding theorem
states that the output of
states that the output of
any information source having entropy H units per
any information source having entropy H units per
symbol can be encoded into an alphabet having N
symbol can be encoded into an alphabet having N
symbols in such a way that the source symbols
symbols in such a way that the source symbols
are represented by code words having a weighted
are represented by code words having a weighted
average length
average length
not less than H/logN
not less than H/logN
.
.

Hence source coding theorem says that encoding
Hence source coding theorem says that encoding
of messages from a source with entropy H can be
of messages from a source with entropy H can be
done, bounded by the fundamental information
done, bounded by the fundamental information
theoretic limitation that the
theoretic limitation that the
Minimum average
Minimum average
number of symbols/message is
number of symbols/message is
H/logN.
H/logN.
Source coding example
Source coding example

Prefix coding
Prefix coding
has an important feature
has an important feature
that it is always uniquely decodable and
that it is always uniquely decodable and
it also satisfies Kraft-McMillan (see
it also satisfies Kraft-McMillan (see
formula 10.22 p. 624) inequality term
formula 10.22 p. 624) inequality term

Prefix codes can also be referred to as
Prefix codes can also be referred to as
instantaneous codes, meaning that the
instantaneous codes, meaning that the
decoding process is achieved
decoding process is achieved
immediately
immediately

Shannon-Fano Coding: In Shannon–Fano
coding, the symbols are arranged in order from
most probable to least probable, and then
divided into two sets whose total probabilities
are as close as possible to being equal. All
symbols then have the first digits of their codes
assigned; symbols in the first set receive "0" and
symbols in the second set receive "1".

As long as any sets with more than one member
remain, the same process is repeated on those
sets, to determine successive digits of their
codes. When a set has been reduced to one
symbol, of course, this means the symbol's code
is complete and will not form the prefix of any
other symbol's code.

Huffman Coding: Create a list for the symbols, in
decreasing order of probability. The symbols with
the lowest probability are assigned a ‘0’ and a ‘1’.

These two symbols are combined into a new
symbol with the probability equal to the sum of
their individual probabilities. The new symbol is
placed in the list as per its probability value.

The procedure is repeated until we are left with 2
symbols only for which 0 and 1 are assigned.

Huffman code is the bit sequence obtained by
working backwards and tracking sequence of 0’s
and 1’s assigned to that symbol and its
successors.

Lempel-Ziv Coding: A drawback of Huffman code
is that knowledge of probability model of source is
needed. Lempel-Ziv coding is used to overcome
this drawback.

while Huffman’s algorithm encodes blocks
of fixed size into binary sequences of
variable length, Lempel-Ziv encodes blocks
of varying length into blocks of fixed size.

Lempel-Ziv coding is performed by parsing the
source data into segments that are the shortest
subsequences not encountered before.
Mutual Information
Mutual Information

Consider a communication system with a source of entropy H(X). Consider a communication system with a source of entropy H(X).
The entropy on the receiver side be H(Y). The entropy on the receiver side be H(Y).

H(X|Y) and H(Y|X) are the conditional entropies, and H(X,Y) is the H(X|Y) and H(Y|X) are the conditional entropies, and H(X,Y) is the
joint entropy of X and Y. joint entropy of X and Y.

Then the Mutual information between the source X and the Then the Mutual information between the source X and the
receiver Y can be expressed as: receiver Y can be expressed as:
I(X,Y) = H(X) - H(X|Y) I(X,Y) = H(X) - H(X|Y)

H(X) is the uncertainty of source X and H(X/Y) is the uncertainty of H(X) is the uncertainty of source X and H(X/Y) is the uncertainty of
X given Y. Hence the quantity H(X) - H(X|Y) represents the X given Y. Hence the quantity H(X) - H(X|Y) represents the
reduction in uncertainty of X given the knowledge of Y. Hence reduction in uncertainty of X given the knowledge of Y. Hence
I(X,Y) is termed mutual information. I(X,Y) is termed mutual information.
Source
X
Channel
Y
Channel Capacity
Channel Capacity

Capacity in the channel is defined as a
Capacity in the channel is defined as a
intrinsic ability of a channel to convey
intrinsic ability of a channel to convey
information.
information.

Using mutual information the channel
Using mutual information the channel
capacity of a discrete memoryless channel is
capacity of a discrete memoryless channel is
the
the
maximum
maximum
average mutual information in
average mutual information in
any single use of channel over all possible
any single use of channel over all possible
probability distributions.
probability distributions.

Thus Channel capacity C=max( I(X,Y) ).
Thus Channel capacity C=max( I(X,Y) ).
Shannon’s Channel Coding theorem
Shannon’s Channel Coding theorem

The Shannon theorem states that given a noisy channel The Shannon theorem states that given a noisy channel
with channel capacity with channel capacity C C and information transmitted at a and information transmitted at a
rate rate R R, then if , then if R R < < C C there exist codes that allow the there exist codes that allow the
small. This means that theoretically, it is possible to transmit small. This means that theoretically, it is possible to transmit
information nearly without error at any rate below a limiting information nearly without error at any rate below a limiting
rate, rate, C C. .

The converse is also important. If The converse is also important. If R R > > C C, an arbitrarily small , an arbitrarily small
probability of error is not achievable. All codes will have a probability of error is not achievable. All codes will have a
probability of error greater than a certain positive minimal probability of error greater than a certain positive minimal
level, and this level increases as the rate increases. So, level, and this level increases as the rate increases. So,
information cannot be guaranteed to be transmitted reliably information cannot be guaranteed to be transmitted reliably
across a channel at rates beyond the channel capacity. across a channel at rates beyond the channel capacity.
Shannon-Hartley theorem or Information
Capacity Theorem

An application of the channel capacity concept to an
additive white Gaussian noise channel with B Hz
bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio S/N is the
Information Capacity Theorem.

It states that for a band-limited Gaussian channel
operating in the presence of additive Gaussian
noise, the channel capacity is given by
C = B log
2
(1 + S/N)
where C is the capacity in bits per second, B is the
bandwidth of the channel in Hertz, and S/N is the
signal-to-noise ratio.

As the bandwidth of the channel increases, it is
possible to make faster changes in the
information signal, thereby increasing the
information rate.

However, as B  ∞, the channel capacity does
not become infinite since, with an increase in
bandwidth, the noise power also increases.

As S/N increases, one can increase the
information rate while still preventing errors due
to noise.

For no noise, S/N  ∞ and an infinite information
rate is possible irrespective of bandwidth.
Implications of the Information Capacity
Implications of the Information Capacity
Theorem
Theorem
Rate distortion theory

Rate distortion theory is the branch of information
theory addressing the problem of determining the
minimal amount of entropy or information that
should be communicated over a channel such
that the source can be reconstructed at the

Rate distortion theory can be used for the given
below situations:

1. Source coding in which the coding alphabet
cannot exactly represent the source information.

2. when the information is to be transmitted at a
rate greater than channel capacity.
Lower the bit rate R by allowing some
acceptable distortion D of the signal

Rate Distortion Function:

The functions that relate the rate and
distortion are found as the solution of the
following minimization problem.

In the above equation, I(X,Y) is the Mutual
information.
Rate distortion function for Gaussian
memory-less source

If Px(X) is Gaussian, variance is σ
2
and
if we assume that successive samples
of the signal x are stochastically
independent, we find the following
analytical expression for the rate
distortion function.
A Plot of the Rate distortion function for
Gaussian source
Lossy Source Coding

Lossy source coding is the representation of the source in
digital form with as few bits as possible while maintaining an
acceptable loss of information.

In lossy source coding, the source output is encoded at a rate
less than the source entropy.

Hence there is reduction in the information content of the
source.

Eg: It is not possible to digitally encode an analog signal with
a finite number of bits without producing some distortion.