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Understanding Six Sigma Manual

6

Preetesh anand MBA finance

History of Six Sigma

Understanding Six Sigma

The U.S Defense system developed a system known as SQC to manage the complex weapon system & to handle the distributed defense contractors. SQC:- is a set of tools that originated in the Military Standards and the basis of SQC process was 3 sigma limits which yields a rate of 2700 defects per million. After World war 2 US companies returned to their Original strategy while the defeated countries were rebuilding their Industries. General Mc Arthur who was the Governor general of JAPAN at that time Imported some of the U.S. Pioneers of SQC to help train their counterparts in JAPAN. By 1970~ 1980 Japanese producers were renowned for their Quality & durability. U.S Companies slowly realized that to attain the desired Quality level two things are necessary One should be able to measure the quality level I.e it should be Quantifiable & Measurable. Motorola pioneered the Use of Six Sigma , Bill Smith VP &Senior QA Manager of Motorola is regarded as the Father of Six Sigma.

History of Six Sigma

Understanding Six Sigma

**Quality Management & Six Sigma
**

“ Six Sigma Management” --Lead by American Companies

Six Sigma

Total Optimization of R&D, Production , Sales and Service is necessary

• Small group of sections • Toward total Solution

Total Quality Management

Improve Product Quality

Total Quality Control

Quality ` Control

“ Production line focussed Improvement “ --Lead by Japanese Companies

Nokia. GE.History of Six Sigma Understanding Six Sigma Most of service called products were from reworked products at the factories • Bill Smith Report Hidden Factory and Rolled throughput Yield concept are Induced • Actual Practice Strategy by Dr. Texas Instruments. Sony started Six Sigma . Allied Signal . Michael Harry • The Malcom Baldridge Award of 1988 of Motorola • After Motorola. ABB. Polaroid. Lockheed Martin. …. LG Electronics.

Definitions Population Total Study Group Understanding Six Sigma Sample Small Group taken from Population Data The facts derived from the sample The Group of 100 Sample people who possesses a Fan Age and Number of decision makers purchasing a Fan .

e the facts derived from the sample. Conclusion Sample : A Sample is a portion of the whole collection of Items (population) Population : The population consists of the set of all measurements in which the investigation is interested. that characterizes the sample.Definitions Data Point : The single entity in the sample. Population Sample The Characteristic of populaton : parameter The Characteristic of Sample : Statistic . Statistics : An application theory & method to reach appropriate & wise decisions in unknown circumstances. Statistic : A numerical value such as standard deviation or mean . Understanding Six Sigma Data : The trend of data points in a sample I. Information : The data presented in a form which conveys some result. It is also called Universe.

g Length of a Playground.The data which can has only two options Yes/No. Thickness of the paint coating. ect. C) Discreet Data : .g Quality of Food ( OK/NG). It is the Count of the Number of Attributes E. E.g number of Heart Beats in one minute. B) Attribute Data :. .Understanding Six Sigma Types of Data A. True/False is called Attribute data.The Data which can be measured and has unit associated with it is called continuous data. Number of Type A defects. It can be in fractions.The data which can be measured only in whole number and has no units associated with it is called Discreet data. E.) Continuos Data : .

x LSL .e the curve gets close to X-Axis but it never touches it Standard Normal curve is one having Mean=0.Understanding Six Sigma Characteristics of Normal Curve Normal Distribution Curve is known as Density Curve meaning the area under the curve is equal to one.) The Normal curve is a bell shaped curve and it has single peak (Mode ) at the center. and standard deviation =1. B) The mean & median of the distribution are equal and are located at the peak. D) The curve is asymptotic I. A. C) The Normal distribution curve is symmetrical USL about the mean.

8 . 1 . 5 . 8 Median Term = 4. 3 . 1 .g Consider the data set given below 1 . 4 . E.5 ( 5th . 2 . X= Σ n Xi = x1 +x2 +x3 +x4+…….) Median : The Median term of the given data is given by n + 1 th term. Mean = 1+ 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15/5 = 3 Mean of Sample.. 3 . It is equal to the sum of all Observations divided by the number of Observations in the set.) Mean : The mean of a set of Observations is their average. 7.3) = 3. 4 . of Terms = 8.4th Term ) = 3 + 0.5th Term = 4th Term + 0.Understanding Six Sigma Measures of Central Tendency of Data A. 7 . 2 . Arrange data in Increasing Order = 1 .5 .xn I=1 n b. 1 . 4 .5 ( 4. 5 . No. E.g 3. 5 . 2 . where n is the number of Median = 2 Observations in the given data(arranged in increasing order).

15. 12.g Calculate the Median of the Following data : 2. 15 No. 10 . 3. 4. 5. Mode = 3 E. Arrange the data in Increasing Order 2. 8 . 4. 6. 10 Sol. 8.g 3. 6. 4 .of Observations = (7 + 1 ) / 2 = 4th Term = 8 . 6 . 3.Understanding Six Sigma Measures of Central Tendency of Data C) Mode : The value Occurring maximum number of times E. 4 . 12 . 7.

5. c ) Variance ( σ 2) : It is defined as the square of the standard deviation to account for the total variation observed in the data.Understanding Six Sigma Measures of Spread/Dispersion of Data a. USL = 12 .g : The Process Specification = 10 ± 2 Sol. 5 Variation ( σ 2 ) = 2. b) Standard Deviation ( σ ) : It gives tells us about the variation in data .LSL = 12 .25 D a ta 1 2 3 4 5 M ean = 3 V a r ia t io na r i a t2io n V -2 4 -1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 0 10 .8 = 4 Consider the data set 3. LSL =8 Range = USL . 1.) Range : The Difference between Maximum & Minimum value. 2. E. 4 Mean = 3 Standard Deviation ( σ ) = (10/4 )1/2 = 1.

Understanding Six Sigma Measures of Spread/Dispersion of Data d) Quartile : It divides the total range into 4 equal parts (quarters ) and tells that in which Quartile a particular data point is lying.75th Term = 17. Q3= 3* 2. 11. 18 . 9. contains 50 % of the Total data points Upper Limit UL = Q3 + 1.25th Term = 2nd Term + 0.5th Term = 13 + 0.5 IQR Lower Limit LL = Q1 .50 . UL = 17. Q1 = n + 1 4 th . Q2 = 2 * n + 1 th 4 .Q1. Interquartile Range ( IQR ) = Q3 .75 IQR = Q3 -Q1 = 17.25 = 7. 14 .5 (7.25 Q2= 2* 2.Q2 and Q3 are 1st 2nd & 3rd Quartiles resp. Q3 = 3 * n + 1 th 4 where Q1. 17. 14. 18 .25th Term = 4.25 ( 3rd Term .1.25 . 10.50) = -1 .75 . second & Third Quartile for the data given below.75 + 1. 13. 17 . 23 Q1 = [ ( 8 +1) / 4 ] th = 2.5( 7. 13 Sol . 11 . 10 . Arrange data in Increasing order = 9 . Also calculate the IQR & Upper & Lower Limits.5 (14 . 23. UL = 10.5 IQR Eg.1.25th Term = 6.10.25( 1) = 10.13 ) = 13.5.2nd Term ) = 10 + 0. Calculate the First .50 ) = 29 .

not harder . Customer Satisfaction. Cost.??????? 1) Statistical Measurement : We measure defect rates in all the Processes through an expanding statistical concept.Six Sigma : Introduction Understanding Six Sigma What is Six Sigma …. and we use ‘ σ ’in measuring process capability. 3) Philosophy : We should work smarter. 2) Business Strategy : We gain a competitive edges in Quality.

Improve Processes Lower Hanging Fruit Seven Basic Tools 3σ Wall. Improve Designs Bulk of Fruit Process Characterization and Optimization 4 σ Wall. Work with suppliers Ground Fruit Logic and Intuition Process Capability .807 308.Six Sigma : Introduction Z Level Harvest Sweet Fruit Understanding Six Sigma Z 6 5 4 3 2 PPM 3.4 233 6.537 Defect Opportunity Design for Manufacturablity 5 σ Wall.210 66.

99 99 4 % 99.Six Sigma : Introduction Understanding Six Sigma The Percentage Acceptable Area under the Curve Increases as the Z Value ( the Number of Standard Deviations σ ) Increases .45 % 99. whereas the Area outside the Curve represents the Rejection .9936 % 99.99 99 99 8 % USL x LSL The Area Under the Curve represents the Acceptance or Yield.3 % 95. 1σ 2σ 3σ 4σ 5σ 6σ 68.73 % 99.

Six Sigma : D-M-A-I-C Theme Selection Understanding Six Sigma Objective Theme Selection (Define) Measurement Y Capability OK ? N Analysis • Define problem • Define range • Measuring capability of CTQ • Clearfy measuring method • Clearfy factors Redesign Measurement Analysis Redesign ? N Improvement Improvement Y • Find vital few • Optimize process N Capability OK ? Y Control Control • Control vital few • Set up control system .

807 defects per million opportunities • Relies on inspection to find defects • Belives high quality is expensive • Benchmarks themselves against their competition • Believes 99% is good enough • Defines CTQs internally The 6 Sigma Company • Spends 5% of sales dollars on cost of failure • Produces 3.3σ Vs 6σ Company Understanding Six Sigma The 3 Sigma Company • Spends 15-25% of sales dollars on cost of failure • Produces 66.4 defects per million opportunities • Relies on capable prcesses that don’t produce defects • Knows that the high quality producer is the low cost produer • Benchmarks themselves against the best in the world • Believes 99% is Unacceptable • Defines CTQs from customers .

Define-Application of Six Sigma Understanding Six Sigma Six Sigma is a tool that can be applied to all business systems. Design. Sales & Service Guarantee for design completion • Selecting CTQ to meet customer requirement • Deciding reasonable Tolerance • Guarantee CTQ’s through capability analysis R&D Six Sigma Mfg Quality Assurance in Manufacturing Stages • Improve serious Problems • Real Time Monitoring • CTQ control system SVC Maximizing Sales & Service • Improve cycle time & accuracy • Cost Improvement . Manufacturing.

Define Understanding Six Sigma Define Phase • Pareto Analysis • Process Mapping • Logic Tree • 3/5 Why Analysis • RTY • QFD • FMEA • Brainstorming .

a certain number of bookcases are rejected due to scratches. or separate charts for groups within your data. Pareto chart can draw one chart for all your data (the default). Example :The company you work for manufactures metal bookcases. First you count the number of times each defect occurred." A cumulative percentage line helps you judge the added contribution of each category." By ordering the bars from largest to smallest. then you enter the name of the defect each time it occurs into a worksheet column called Damage. You want to make a Pareto chart to see which defect is causing most of your problems. chips. rather than a continuous scale. or dents.20% of items purchased by the company accounts for 80% of the value 1st Item in the figure below indicates the highest no of faults Pareto Charts are a type of bar chart in which the horizontal axis represents categories of interest. . During final inspection. Pareto Principle is also known as 80/20 . a Pareto chart can help you determine which of the defects comprise the "vital few" and which are the "trivial many. bends. The categories are often "defects.Define Understanding Six Sigma Pareto Analysis : The Origin of the Tool lies with the Italian Economist Vilfredo Pareto. Pareto charts can help to focus improvement efforts on areas where the largest gains can be made.

Define Da m a ge Scratch Scratch Bend Chip Dent Scratch Chip Scratch Counts 274 59 19 43 4 8 6 10 Understanding Six Sigma • Choose Stat > Quality Tools > Pareto Chart. Graph window output . Click OK. • Choose Chart defects data in and enter Damage.

(General area or specific process you intend to improve) • Brainstorm and order process steps with your team. overtime $.Flow improvements . %OTD • Analyze map for key business issues -could be in the areas of : . • Code activities using symbols for easy analysis.Cycle time improvements . scrap. The Process Mapping Method • Define the Process boundary.yield. rolled throughput yield.Define Process Mapping Understanding Six Sigma • Process mapping is used to document process to examine part and information flow. • Walk through the process to validate map. %schedule. costs. • Add key process metrics .Quality improvements .Process loss or waste . capacity. • It is a key tool in identifying opportunities for improvement.

Define Process Mapping Car Shop arrival Understanding Six Sigma [ex] Vehicle Purchasing Meeting Salesman Trial Driving? Yes No Small Talk Look around first car Look around second car Look around third car Shop around for another shop No Whether you buy or not? Yes Decide to buy Review the sales manager Operation Receive key and Tag Trial Driving Decision Decide Contract Value Delay measurement Storage Decide the Price Whether you No purchase another or not? Yes Review the sales manager Visit another car shop No Decide to buy Decide the price Yes Reasonable price? Make out final contract w Get a loan Credit check Stand by for a loan Drive the new car Transmission .

L painting Case Ass’y 73.0% I/Case extrusion/mold Case forming Cycle 97.7% × 83.7% assembly 83.4% ▲ Case ▲ Door × 89. B/Plate 91.2% O/Case.Define Process Mapping [ex] Refrigerator .4% 99.0% .0% D/Liner extrusion/mold 99.7% Understanding Six Sigma D/Plate plate/paint 99.8% Front .6% 81.7% × 97.R1 Line Rolled Throughput Yield Door Ass’y 89.7% LQC & appearance 96.4% Door assembly 97.8%× ▲ Cycle ▲ assembly ▲ LQC& appearance 96.3% 99.CTQ.7% Door forming 93.5% Output Rolled Though put Yield = 73.5% = 52.

Define Logic Tree (Structure Tree) Understanding Six Sigma • Used to break down problem into manageable groups to identify root cause or area of focus. Collectively Exhaustive : Also there should be nothing left to represent the Main factor Why Electromagnetic Losses Inductance Lamination Why Rotor Endrings Mechanical Area A Area B OD Core length RPM Stator Assembly 6σ is a kind of type which can improve the problem (RPM) by practicing improvement activity for the lower level displayed in the long run .MECE .Mutually Exclusive Collectively Exhaustive Mutually Exclusive : When a Problem is broken into further sub parts there should not be anything common among the factors. • Breakdown the problem on the base of MECE .

.Define Understanding Six Sigma 5 Why Analysis : Five Why analysis is done to determine the root cause of the Problem . It is Observed that by the time you arrive at the 5th Why the solution of the Problem is with you. It is a kind of brainstorming to reach the root cause of the Problem. you can locate the root cause at the 3rd or 4th Why also.. It is not essential to ask why 5 times.

Define Rolled Throughput Yeild

Understanding Six Sigma

**RTY : Rolled throughput Yeild : It is the Probability that the product will pass through all
**

the stages without any rejection / rework. RTY is calculated by calculating the YFT’s of Individual stages.

**RTY = YFT1 * YFT2 * ……… YFTn
**

in series.

,

where YFT’s are the First time yields of the Individual Stages/Process connected

YNA

= Normalized

Yield = ( RTY of the line )1/no.ofstagesinLine

YNA gives the average yield of line . This is used to calculate when we have to compare the performance of two lines on the basis of RTY.

Define

Understanding Six Sigma

RTY is the probability of going through all the processes with zero-defect the first time . Also, it provides an indication of opportunities to reduce the waste. Goal

-Process 1: (Acceptancerate:99.0%) -Process 2 (92.0%) -Process 3 (97.0%) Final Inspn. (97.0%)

Input

To increase productivity To increase productivity through Quality Improvement through Quality Improvement Overall process’s defect, m/c Overall process’s defect, m/c trouble, No work,L/B,Model trouble, No work,L/B,Model Change Loss,Non-value added work 66Sigma Sigma TDR, 66Sigma, NWT, TDR, Sigma, NWT, One man one project One man one project

Target

Change Loss,Non-value added work

Tool

Activity

Un-controlled Loss

Total Process Defect-rate

- Process defect rate - Self & sequential inspection

Final Product

**RTY = 0.99×0.92×0.97×0.97= 85.7 %
**

* RTY : Rolled Throughput Yield

To improve all the hidden defects of all the processes

**Define Yield First Time
**

1000

Understanding Six Sigma

Painted Components

**Are the parts Good ?
**

No

820

Yes

100

Rework & Reprocess ( Rust, Chemical Wash)

Yes

**Can the parts be repaired ?
**

50

30

Yes

Rework & Pass-on ( Paint Touch up)

No Scrap (Dent)

•YRT provides an indication of opportunities to reduce waste. .… = First Time Yield of each process YNA = (YRT)**1/Opp YNA = Normalized Yield Opp = Number of opportunities YFT gives the probability of going through one process with zero defects. of units tested YRT = YFT1 x YFT2 x YFT3 YRT = Rolled Throughput yield YFT1. •YNA allows for calculation of Z value of processes. •YNA allows for comparison between processes. •YRT gives the probability of going through all the processes with zero defects in the first time. of units that pass the first time U = No. •YNA us average yield of processes.Define First Time Yield Rolled Throughput Yield Understanding Six Sigma Normalised Yield YFT = S/U YFT = First Time Yield S = No.YFT2.

• Rank part characteristics by impact on meeting technical specifications(CTQ’S) QFD translates the Voice of the Consumer into the Voice of the Engineer. converting those requirements into Tech changes in the Process through Quality Matrix. • Rank cues by importance and translate them into technical specifications required to meet customer cues. reliability requirements. . • Identify key consumer cues by reviewing market. general requirements and current quality issues. Rank technical specifications by impact on customer cues and translate them into potential part characteristics(CTQ’S).Define QFD : Understanding Six Sigma Quality Function Deployment ( What Customer Wants ) It is defined in two steps : a) Converting customer’s Voice into Engineers Voice b) Converting Engineers voice into Technical CTQ’s & CTP’s QFD is tool which is used to generate data in the form of taking feedback from the customer through quality matrix.

Define Understanding Six Sigma QFD : Sub Process 1 : To Convert Consumer’s Voice into Engineer’s Voice E n g in e er's V o ice Capacity of Motor System for Gas Charging HE Coils Fins per Inch 1 1 3 1 9 66 Type of Comp Blower /Scroll P riro ty Ra nkin g L e ss P rice L ow No ise Customer's Requirement Air F low Le ss P o w e r M o re Coo lin g Ra tin g 9 3 1 9 9 212 3 9 1 9 3 170 1 9 9 1 3 126 1 1 3 3 9 82 10 6 5 8 3 .

Define Understanding Six Sigma QFD : Sub Process 2 : To Convert Engineer’s Voice into Potential CTP’s & CTQ’s Potential CTP's & CTQ's Comp Specifications EER Specifications Gas Charging Qty Variation less than 5mg HE Design Spec to be maintained 1 1 3 3 9 1600 KW Rating Priroty Ranking Engineer's Voice Type of Comp Capacity of Motor Blower /Scroll Design System for Gas Charging HE Coils Fins per Inch 9 1 1 1 1 3096 1 9 1 1 1 2016 3 3 9 1 1 2428 3 1 1 9 3 1848 212 170 126 82 66 .

Define

Understanding Six Sigma

FMEA : Failure Mode Effect Analysis ( What Customer Doesn’t want ) It gives you possible reasons in which a given Process / Design of part of a Product can Fail. To every Failure Mode we associate RPN Number RPN : Risk Priority Number = Severity * Occurrence * detection Rating Scale Severity

(1 ~ 10) (1 ~ 10) (1 ~ 10)

1 : If the Problem is Less Severe 10 : If the Problem is Life Threatening. 1 : If the Problem has chances of less occurrence 10 : If the Problem has more chances of occurrence 1 : If the Problem is easily detectable. 10 : If it is difficult to locate/detect the Problem

Occurrence

Detection

FMEA is used to proactively identify and rank risks in a product design and assign appropriate actions to be taken to prevent the failure mode.

Define

Understanding Six Sigma

FMEA Process • Brainstorm potential failures of the product design. • Assign severity and probability (likelihood of occurrence) ratings to each potential failure mode. • Determine existing control measures being taken to eliminate significant failure modes. • Develop actions to be taken to eliminate or reduce risk on all remaining significant failure modes.

Define

Understanding Six Sigma

Brainstorming : It is Discussion among the Process Experts.The basic rule of brainstorming is no ideas are criticized. Brainstorming is of three Types : a) Freewheel b) Round Robin c) Card Method In Freewheeling type of brainstorming, everybody participates in the simultaneous discussion In Round Robin type of brainstorming each Individual in the group is given a chance to give his opinion In Card type method the Individuals write their Ideas on the Card

Measure Understanding Six Sigma Measure Phase • Gage R & R • Types of Sampling • Process Capability • Four Block Diagram The Aim of the measure stage is to : a. It tells the present Level of the Process. . To Establish the validity of the measuring system & operator b.

we do better secure correct measurement system before the project.Measure Understanding Six Sigma Six Sigma is based on the measured data. What’s more. Overall Variation Part to Part Variation Measurement System Variation Variation due to gage Repeatability Variation due to Operator Reproducibility Operator Operator by Part . There will be unfavorable consequences from analysis using statistical tool if we have a problem with measuring system. Therefore. then experiment will end up in failure. the process gets worse.

Gage R & R . σ2R&R = σ2Repeatibility Measurement error variation Variation due to Gage + σ2Reproducibility Variation due to Operator .Introduction Understanding Six Sigma σ2Total Total variation = σ2Part-Part + σ2R&R Measurement error variation Variation due to differences among the parts.

Reading 2 = 12. Example : Consider two Operators who successively measures the Thickness of paint coating on same Ref L/R part using the same gauge.Introduction Understanding Six Sigma What is Gage R&R Gage R & R is Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility. Example : Consider one Operator who successively measures the Thickness of paint coating on Ref L/R part using the same gauge.5 .5 .Gage R & R . Difference = 0. Repeatability is the variation due to equipment variation. ◆ Repeatability = EV(Equipment Variation) It is the variation observed in the system when one Operator measures the same part twice using the same gage.2 . variation due to Operator (Reproducibility ) Total Gage R&R = E. Reading 1 = 12. Difference = 0.0 .V2 . Operator 1 = 14.6 .V2 +A. variation due to Gage (Repeatability) ◆ Reproducibility = AV(Appraiser Variation) It is the variation observed in the system when two different operators measures the same part using the same gage.8 . Operator 2 = 14. Reproducibility is the variation due to change in operator.

Gage R &R . Understanding Six Sigma Repeatability : “Getting consistent results” Measure/Re-measure variation Reproducibility ? Variation obtained from different operators using the same device when measuring the identical characteristic on the same parts.Long Study Method Repeatability ? ☞ Variation observed with one measurement device when used several times by one operator while measuring the identical characteristic on the same parts. Operator A Operator B Operator C Reproducibility .

. • When we want to compare the performance of each Gage. • Selection of the most appropriate gage for the task.Purpose Understanding Six Sigma Gage R&R • Gage R & R is used to ensure that the measured data used for statistical tests is valid. • Maintenance of measurement system ( Calibration ) • For measurement training for existing and New Staff.Gage R & R . • When we want to exclude the Gage error from results.

• This method can divide the total variation observed in the system through Gage R & R into repeatability & reproducibility. so that we can get to know what we have to improve Operator or Gage . ◆ Long study method • Requires minimum 2 Operators.Measure ~ Gage R & R ◆ Short study method Understanding Six Sigma Two types of Gage R&R Study • Requires minimum 2 operators and minimum 5 parts with each part measured at least once. minimum 10 parts with each part measured at least twice. • This method cant separate the total variation Observed through Gage R &R into repeatability & reproducibility • Permits speedy acceptance for adapting Gauge.

73 % •Gauge R & R as % of Tolerance = (0.5.15 /1.3464 x 100) /1.08 ) = 0.9 4.0 ± 0.0 ) Solution : The Measurements taken by the two Operators for the Five Parts are listed below P a rt 1 2 3 4 5 O p e ra to r 1 p e ra to r 2R a n g e s (1-2) O 4. (tolerance = 1.08 • Gauge Error = ( 6.1 4.Gage R & R ~ Short Study Short Study Method Understanding Six Sigma Example : The height of a component has specifications given by 5.0 = 34.1 0.7 4.7 0.15 indicates the Confidence Level of 99 % .2 5.1 0.1 R a n g e S u m 0.19) (0.0 indicates a Confidence Level of 99.4 / 5 = 0.64 % Gauge Error is calculated by multiplying the average range by a constant d ( to be taken from the Table ) .1 5 5. 6.3464 5.0 /d) ( R-bar) = (5.7 0 5.4 • Average Range ( R-bar ) = Σ R / n = 0.8 0.8 4.1 4.

35 2.09 1.40 2.16 Number of operators 3 4 1.34 .Gage R & R ~ Short Study Understanding Six Sigma d* values for distribution of the average range Number of parts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 1.35 2.77 2.08 1.72 2.24 1.10 1.17 1.18 1.34 2.35 2.08 5 2.81 2.08 1.11 1.48 2.38 2.41 1.37 2.36 2.73 2.91 2.16 1.72 2.09 1.21 1.15 1.75 2.73 2.28 1.17 1.72 2.74 2.19 1.12 1.23 1.

•Ex) In case of part feature tolerance equals +/-0. the sampling must be proceeded by a plan. • Resolution is the smallest unit of measure the gage is able to read. so the total range of variation and specification are covered. because the chances of discrepancy are more near these limits . • The Previous Readings should not be conveyed while taking Next Reading.002 and Gage R&R ≤20% to be recommended. • Most values should lie near the LSL/USL . ★ Gage selection(Resolution) •The Gage must have a resolution of less than or equal to 10% of the one sided specification or process variation.Gage R & R ~ Guidelines Pre Requisites for Gage R & R ★ Understanding Six Sigma Blind Test : • The Operator should not be aware that Gage R&R is going On. Gage must have resolution 0. ★ Intentional Sampling : • The samples must not be randomly selected.020.

Gage R &R ~ Long Study Method Understanding Six Sigma An acceptable value for a Gage R&R Study (Continuos Data .) ≤ 20% : Acceptable : Conditional : Unacceptable % Study Variation & % Study Tolerance 20% to 29% ≥ 30% An improvement plan to lower the gauge R&R variation should be implemented.25 . If there is no improvement . consideration should be made for the risks associated with high Gauge R &R Number of Distinct Categories P Value of the Operator * Part >4 > 0.

Gage R &R .Long Study Method Long study method (using Minitab) Understanding Six Sigma Input : Parts. Operator & Measurement data Select: ANOVA Select: ANOVA .

???????? X ..R Method ANOVA Part to Part Variation Repeatability Reproducibility Part to Part Variation Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Operator by Part ANOVA Method further breaks the Variation due to Operator(Reproducibility) into Operator & Operator by Part .Gage R &R .Long Study Method Understanding Six Sigma Why ANOVA method is more accurate than X(bar) R Method….

0 83.6 0.ANOVA Method Two-Way ANOVA Table With Interaction Source Parts Operator Parts * Operator Repeatability Total DF 9 1 9 20 39 SS 81.25 indicates that an operator is having a problem measuring some the parts.000 2.161 . Hence Gage R&R is not acceptable.Gage R &R .889 P 0.250 0.04444 0.06667 0.10000 0. Two-Way ANOVA Table Without Interaction Source Parts Operator Repeatability Total DF 9 1 29 39 SS 81.4 83.6 0.071 P 0.168 0.000 0.Long Study Method Long study method (using Minitab) Gage R&R Study .1 MS 9.4 1.552 Understanding Six Sigma If significant.04828 F 187.10000 0.000 0.1 0.06667 0.810 2. P-value < 0.05000 F 204.1 1.1 MS 9.

00 %Tolerance (SV/Toler) 33.25460 2.89 100.11 97.23 227.00259 0.30513 9.00919 9.85 14. number of distinct categories > 4 Number of Distinct Categories = 9 .21972 0.04828 0.50153 1.11024 %Study Var (%SV) 14.96 7.22553 0.Long Study Method Long study method (using Minitab) Understanding Six Sigma % Study Variation < 20 % and % Study Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Part-To-Part Total Variation VarComp 0.47 3.05085 0.00259 2.76 For Gage R&R to be acceptable.05086 0.11 0.79 100.35 3.Gage R &R .35316 1.35 98.30513 0.09 0.21 2.83 32.51837 Study Var (6 * SD) 1.05085 1.31831 0. Gage R&R is acceptable Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Part-To-Part Total Variation StdDev (SD) 0.63 7.63 225.30546 (of VarComp) 2.00 Tolerance> 20%.

Long Study Method Understanding Six Sigma % Study Variation = σ σ σ σ Gg R R ae & * 100 to l v ria n ta a tio % Study Tolerance = 6. Ex. we cannot measure again .0 * Gg R R ae & * 100 to l v ria n ta a tio Gage R & R( Nested ) : Used for Destructive Testing Gage R & R (Nested ) is used when each part is measured once only as when measuring. The torque release of a bolt during QC sampling.Gage R &R .

Stability Time 2 Bias : It is a measure of the distance between the average value the measurements and the "True" or "Actual" value of the sample or part. .Gage R &R . (Accuracy is typically expressed as 1-%Bias) Stability ? * Setting a true value is a one that is measured by the most accurate measuring device.Long Study Method Accuracy ? True (Reference) value Understanding Six Sigma Accuracy The degree of agreement of the measured value to the true magnitude (unbiased values). Observed average Time 1 Stability is the total variation in the measurements obtained with a measurement system on the same master or reference value when measuring the same characteristic over an extended time period.

(Gage is less accurate at the low end of specification or operating range than at the high end).Long Study Method Linearity ? Actual values Understanding Six Sigma LSL USL Linearity is the difference in the bias values throughout the expected operating range of the gage.Gage R &R . Actual values (No Bias) Reference value Reference values Larger Bias Small Bias .

5 Good Poor Zshift (Process Control) A C 1 2 3 Z.0 0.5 2. technology is fine C : Process control is good.Measure .4 Block Diagram Block Diagram Poor Understanding Six Sigma 2. poor technology B : Must control the process better.5 1.st 4 5 (Process Technology ) B D 6 Good A : Poor control.0 1. poor technology D : World Class .

Gage R & R . Acceptability of Gage R & R (discreet data) • % Gage R & R should be less than 5 % .Discreet Data Understanding Six Sigma Pre-Requisites Gage R & R (discreet data) • The Minimum Number of Samples should be at least 20 • Minimum Number of Operators should be at least 2 • Each Operator must take at least two readings of each Part.

of Disagreements/Total Opportunities X100 = 3 / 20 x 100% = 15% • If the results of checkers are different.Gage R & R . it is unacceptable and an alternate measurement system should be found. • If the gage cannot be improved. the gage • must be improved and re-evaluated.Discreet Data Understanding Six Sigma Gage R & R (discreet data) Visual Inspection Gage Study 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 •The gage is acceptable if both the Appraisers (four per part) agree. • % Gage R&R = No. Appra ise r "A" 1 2 G G G G NG G NG NG G G G G NG NG NG NG G G G G G G G G G NG G G G G G G G G G G NG G NG G NG G Appra ise r "B" 1 2 G G G G G G NG NG G G G G NG NG G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G NG G 18 Samples ..

• The Measurement System is stable over time.Gage R & R . . • The measurement system error is small enough and acceptable enough relevant to the process variation or Specification Gage R & R Indicates that whether the Measurement System is good enough for the collection of Data.Importance Understanding Six Sigma From the Gauge R & R Study we can determine the Following : • Gage resolution is adequate.

or standards.Measure . . aims. Specifications or requirements are the numerical values within which the system is expected to operate. goals.Capability Analysis Understanding Six Sigma Capability analysis is a set of calculations used to assess whether a system is statistically able to meet a set of specifications or requirements. the minimum and maximum acceptable values. Specifications are numerical requirements. that is.

X 3σ w in ith 3σ w in ith Process Capability ( Cp) is the Tolerance width in Relation to the process capability.LSL Cp = Product Specification Cpk Manufacturing Variability k = USL .LSL 6σ within = Cp (k-1) CPL = X . . Considers sample data variation & location simultaneously.Measure Understanding Six Sigma Cp = Specification Width Process Capability Cp = USL-. Capability Index (Cpk ) accounts for the process centering. Takes no account of the process centering.LSL 2 T-µ CPU = USL . expressed as the best short Term performance.

SEM * SEM = σ p (n)1/2 Standard deviation of Population Sample Size n=8 n=30 Sample Size . Statisticians use the normal distribution as an approximation to the sampling distribution. whenever the sample size is at least 30.Central Limit Theorem Understanding Six Sigma Central limit theorem states that as the sample size increases.Measure . the sampling distribution of the mean will approach normality. SEM : Standard Error of Mean Standard error of mean gives the difference between the standard deviation of Population & Standard deviation of sample.

Even though this difference reduces further by increasing sample size. Sample Size • Less than 8 • Between 8 ~ 30 • 30 & above Difference b/t Standard deviation of Population and Sample high variation Moderate Variation Minimum Variation As the sample size increases. Hence while sampling. it is evident that for sample size 30 the difference between the standard deviations of sample and population is very less. . so the curve line representing the difference becomes parallel to X-axis. but this reduction is negligible. sample size of 30 is considered as the idle sample size. At sample size 30 the difference is minimum and it remains constant & beyond 30 it remains constant.Central Limit Theorem Understanding Six Sigma From the graph shown on the previous slide.Measure .. above 8 samples the difference between standard deviation of Population & sample reduces drastically.

Measure .each & every type of data point present in the population would be covered in the Sample. Example : In the above example if take the sample in such a way that in the subgroup operator.Sampling Understanding Six Sigma Types of Sampling 1. 2. 3) Clustered Sampling : In this type of Sampling. then the difference in the variation of taste within the sub group would be minimum but among the Sub groups would be maximum. if we take the Sample group in which all Supervisors/Operators/Managers are there. Example : During the draw of lottery tickets each & every lottery ticket number has an equal chance of winning the Prize. Example : For determining the Quality of Food in the Canteen. . the sub group taken for sampling has data points of same type. supervisor and manager are taken so the difference in the taste would be maximum within the sub group and minimum among the subgroup.) Random Sampling : In this type of Sampling each data point of the Population has an equal chance/ Probability of being selected.) Stratified Sampling : In this type of Sampling .

Measure Understanding Six Sigma BLACK NOISE (Signal) RATIONAL SUBGROUPS WHITE NOISE (Common Cause variation) PROCESS RESPONSE TIME .

• It represents how the process is actually performing over time(Sustained process capability). . Also known as Special Cause or assignable cause variation. Also known as common cause variation • It is not controllable variation within the existing technology. Black Noise • Black Noise represents the outside influences on a process that cause average to shift and drift. • It is potentially controllable variation with the existing process technology.Measure White Noise Understanding Six Sigma • White noise represents the variation present in every process. • Represents that best the process can be with the present technology(Inherent process capability).

Measure Understanding Six Sigma From a statistics perspective. Problem with Spread Desired Current situation Desired Problem with Centering Current situation LSL T USL LSL T USL Shift Accurate but not Precise Precise but not Accurate . There are only two problems.

Measure Process Capability Ratios Understanding Six Sigma The greater the design margin.LSL +3σ Process Width Zst = 3 Cp Zlt = 3Cpk Design Width . the lower the Total Defects Per Unit Design margin is measured by the Process Capability Index (Cp) Cp = Maxium Allowable Range of Characteristic Normal variation of Process X -3σ +3σ Cp = USL .

Data taken over a period of time . Process Capability (Entitlement . Defined by technology control . Cp s t ) Technology: Control Cpk . Process Performance can be) Zlt is always less tahn Zst. Defined by technology and process .The best process .0 and Cp=2. Data taken over a short enough period of time that there are no long enough that external factors external influences on the can influence the process.5 and Cpk=1.5 6σ means Zst =6.0 .Measure Is it Control or Technology? Long Term Data Short Term Data Understanding Six Sigma . Z lt (σ lt ) . Z st (σ . process Z st : Z lt . because the long term value is reduced by the shift of the process 6σ means Zlt =4.

Ascertaining whether we have considered all factors & nothing is Left Out. Pick out the Vital few Potential Factors out of Trivial Many. c. To List down all the Possible factors through Brainstorming. Statistical verification of Potential Factors by means of various type of Tests. . b.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Analyze Phase • Cause & Effect Diagram • Hypothesis Testing • Mean Testing • Variance Testing • Regression Analysis The Aim of the Analyze Phase is to : a. d.

Cause & Effect Diagram Cause & Effect Diagram Cause Cause Cause Understanding Six Sigma Cause Effect Cause Cause Cause The Purpose of this tool is to Find out the start of the collection of Data and analysis.Machine. The Middle Bones indicates the direction of path from cause to effect .(Money can be considered wherever relevant) .Analyze . It list down all the Probable causes responsible for the main effect . The Lighter Boxes may consist of Five Ms . Lighter Boxes at the end of the Large Bones are main groups in which ideas are classified.Measurement & Method. Cause & Effect Diagram is also known as Fishbone Diagram / 4M Diagram.Man. The Symptom or result is put under the Dark Box on the Right..

Analyze .Cause & Effect Diagram Understanding Six Sigma Man New casual Handling problem M/C not clean Machine Cylinder Failure Die Setting OUT CASE DENT Dented sheet Chips on sheet Sheet thickness Piece check Method Piece unloading Material .

Continuous Data 1) F-test : Compares Variances • Levene’s Test • Bartlett’s Test 2) t-test : Compares means • 1 sample t-test • Paired t-test • 2 sample t-test Discrete Data 3) Chi Square Test : Compares counts • Goodness of Fit • Contingency Table . The equality is confirmed by actually conducting tests on the sample. σ 1 = σ 2 ) or not equal (Alternate Hypothesis : µ 1≠ µ 2 ..Analyze . in case the sample taken for comparison from Population does not correctly represent the There are many types of hypothesis test. an assumption. Hypothesis Testing is defined as the comparison of two Populations (equality of mean/ variance ) by taking samples from those Populations.Hypothesis Hypothesis Testing Understanding Six Sigma Hypothesis means something taken to be true for the Purpose of argument or Investigation .µ 1 µ 2 . or the comparison required. σ 1 ≠ σ 2 ) . The test is selected depending on the type of data Population. It is assumed in the beginning that the two Populations are equal (Null Hypothesis . There is always a risk associated with the Hypothesis .

Population Ho In this case the samples correctly represent the Population so sample mean = Population mean. Ha is the one that Ha Ho Correct Decision In this case as the samples does not correctly represent the Population so sample mean ≠ Population mean.This is like the defendant being assumed to be innocent.Hypothesis Hypothesis Testing Understanding Six Sigma Ho(Null Hypothesis) is assumed to be true . Incorrect Decision In this case as the samples correctly represent the Population so sample mean = Population mean.Analyze . Incorrect Decision Sample Type 2 Error β In this case as the samples does not correctly represent the Population so sample mean ≠ Population mean. Correct Decision Ha Type 1 Error α . must be proved. Ha(Alternative Hypothesis) is alternatives the Null Hypothesis.

Analyze . .Hypothesis Important Terms Understanding Six Sigma 1. This also happens when a weird sample is selected for comparison. It is not possible to simultaneously commit a Type 1 and Type 2 decision error. This happens when a weird sample gets selected for the comparison of mean/variance.) 1-α = Confidence of the Test The probability that can be determined as a right thing when the Null Hypothesis is correct. ) Type 2 Error : This error gives us the probability of accepting the wrong material. 2. It is also known as β − Error or Consumer’s Risk.) Type 1 Error : This error gives us the probability of rejecting the Right Material . It’s value generally lies around 10 %. 4) 1-β = Power of the test The rejecting probability when null Hypothesis you want to test is not right. It is also known as α − Error or Producer’s Risk. 3 . Generally It’s value lies around 5 %.

Analyze .Tests used for Comparison Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Mean Testing Continuous Data 1 Sample Z Test 1 Sample t Test 2 Sample t Test ANOVA Testing Variance Testing Test for Equal Variance Discrete Data 1 Proportion Test 2 Proportion Test Chi-Square Test 2 Variance Test .

enter 0. enter 90. 4 In Standard deviation.. enter 5.2.4 4. This procedure is based upon the normal distribution. you use the Z-procedure. Example : Measurements were made on nine widgets.6 . 2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample Z.7 4. In Confidence level. 5 In Test mean.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 1 Sample Z Test :computes a confidence interval or performs a hypothesis test of the mean when the population standard deviation. This test compares the mean of the sample with some test Population with known standard deviation. 3 In Samples in Columns.2. Click OK. You know that the distribution of measurements has historically been close to normal with s = 0.1 4. σ is known. enter Values. Values 4.1 4. Because you know s. Click OK in each dialog box. 7 Click Graphs.9 5. and you wish to test if the population mean is 5 and obtain a 90% confidence interval for the mean. Check Individual value plot. 6 Click Options.6 5 5.7 4. Solution : 1 Open the worksheet enter the values.

Analyze

One-Sample Z: Test of Values

**Understanding Six Sigma
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Test Mean doesn’t lie within the confidence Interval SE Mean 90% CI Z -3.17 p value < 0.05, Hence Ha, alternate Hypothesis P 0.002

mu = 5 vs not = 5

The assumed standard deviation = 0.2 Variable Values N Mean StDev

9 4.78889 0.24721

0.06667 (4.67923, 4.89855)

Analyze

Interpreting the results

Understanding Six Sigma

The test statistic, Z, for testing if the population mean equals 5 is -3.17. The p-value, or the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true, is 0.002. This is called the attained significance level, p-value, or attained α of the test. Because the p-value of 0.002 is smaller than commonly chosen α -levels, there is significant evidence that m is not equal to 5, so you can reject H0 in favor of m not being 5. A hypothesis test at α = 0.1 could also be performed by viewing the individual value plot. The hypothesized value falls outside the 90% confidence interval for the population mean (4.67923, 4.89855), and so you can reject the null hypothesis.

1 Sample t test : computes a confidence interval or performs a hypothesis test of the mean when Population standard , σ is unknown. This procedure is based upon the tdistribution, which is derived from a normal distribution with unknown σ .

Example : Measurements were made on nine widgets. You know that the distribution of widget measurements has historically been close to normal, but suppose that you do not know σ . To test if the population mean is 5 and to obtain a 90% confidence interval for the mean, you use a t-procedure.

Analyze

Solution : 1 Open the worksheet enter the data. 2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1-Sample t. 3 In Samples in columns, enter Values. 4 In Test mean, enter 5.

**Understanding Six Sigma
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Values 4.9 5.1 4.6 5 5.1 4.7 4.4 4.7 4.6

5 Click Options. In Confidence level enter 90. Click OK in each dialog box One-Sample T: Values Test of mu = 5 vs not = 5 Variable N Mean Values StDev SE Mean 90% CI T P 0.034

9 4.78889 0.24721 0.08240

(4.63566, 4.94212) -2.56

Result Interpretation : The p-value < 0.05 , also “ 0 “ does not lie within the Confidence Interval so Null Hypothesis is rejected and Alternate Hypothesis is accepted. It confirms that the sample mean is not equal to Population Mean ).

You can have increasing confidence in the results as the sample sizes increase. The energy consumption data (BTU. Example : A study was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of two devices for improving the efficiency of gas home-heating systems. Suppose that you performed a variance test and found no evidence for variances being unequal .In) are stacked in one column with a grouping column (Damper) containing identifiers or subscripts to denote the population.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 2 Sample t test : computes a confidence interval and performs a hypothesis test of the difference between two population means when σ 's are unknown and samples are drawn independently from each other.Now you want to compare the effectiveness of these two devices by determining whether or not there is any evidence that the difference between the devices is different from zero. Energy consumption in houses was measured after one of the two devices was installed. . and for small samples it works best if data were drawn from distributions that are normal or close to normal. The two devices were an electric vent damper (Damper=1) and a thermally activated vent damper (Damper=2). This procedure is based upon the t-distribution.

Understanding Six Sigma BU T .6 1 .1 8 7 .2 0 8 1 .9 1 .4 1 3 1 . 5 In Subscripts.2 4 4 1 .9 6 1 .8 1 .8 9 7 .6 5 .9 2 1 1 .5 9 3 .4 7 6 .6 2 2 7 2 .7 1 .6 D p am er 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .2 9 6 .2 8 6 1 .5 8 5 8 .0 6 4 .3 0 6 6 5 .In 7 7 . 4 In Samples.2 2 7 .0 0 4 1 .0 1 9 1 .2 0 8 9 7 .9 1 .8 9 2 .7 1 1 .In'. 3 Choose Samples in one column.2 0 1 8 1 .6 9 8 .9 3 6 6 .6 3 5 4 .2 1 9 8 9 .3 7 3 .2 2 8 7 3 .8 4 8 8 .2 5 4 8 4 .8 6 2 .0 6 6 1 .6 1 .8 9 3 .8 1 .5 1 .9 1 .9 1 .1 1 2 1 .Analyze Solution : 1 Open the worksheet .2 1 .5 1 . enter Damper.2 1 .9 8 1 .9 1 .7 2 1 6 8 . 2 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 2-Sample T.3 2 1 9 4 .7 9 2 . Click OK.3 0 5 9 . 6 Check Assume equal variances.6 0 4 6 2 .4 3 3 9 7 . enter the data. enter 'BTU.3 0 1 .

14 Difference = mu (1) .38 P-Value = 0.8818 . 0.mu (2) Estimate for difference: -0.Analyze Minitab Output : Two-Sample T-Test and CI: BTU.701 DF = 88 Both use Pooled StDev = 2.979631) T-Test of difference = 0 (vs not =): T-Value = -0.39 Understanding Six Sigma 50 10.In.In Damper N 1 2 40 Mean StDev SE Mean 9.450131.235250 95% CI for difference: (-1.91 3.48 0.77 0.02 2. Damper Two-sample T for BTU.

Next is the hypothesis test result. thus suggesting that there is no difference.38. 2. a 95% confidence interval is (-1. A second table gives a confidence interval for the difference in population means. Since we previously found no evidence for variances being unequal. there is no evidence for a difference in energy use when using an electric vent damper versus a thermally activated vent damper. 0. and 88 degrees of freedom.701. Since the p-value is greater than commonly chosen a-levels. The test statistic is -0.Analyze Result Interpretation : Understanding Six Sigma Minitab displays a table of the sample sizes. For this example.98) which includes zero. is used to calculate the test statistic and the confidence intervals. and standard errors for the two samples. sample means. with pvalue of 0. . we chose to use the pooled standard deviation by choosing Assume equal variances. The pooled standard deviation. standard deviations.8818.45.

analysis of variance extends the two-sample t-test for testing the equality of two population means to a more general null hypothesis of comparing the equality of more than two means. . two methods are selected here to demonstrate Minitab's capabilities. versus them not all being equal. you use the one-way ANOVA procedure (data in stacked form) with multiple comparisons. You place a sample of each of the carpet products in four homes and you measure durability after 60 days. However. It is a tool used to search for the significant X factors that have an influence on the response variable Y. In effect. you would choose one multiple comparison method as appropriate for your data. Generally.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma ANOVA : is a tool with which we can compare several means. Because you wish to test the equality of means and to assess the differences in means. Example : You design an experiment to assess the durability of four experimental carpet products.

51 10. Check Tukey's.92 13.66 10. 5 Click OK in each dialog box.Analyze Solution : 1 Open the worksheet enter the data 2 Choose Stat > ANOVA > One-Way. Understanding Six Sigma 4 Click Comparisons.95 12.06 7.52 12.03 14.4 18.1 22. Check Hsu's MCB.62 11.19 7.5 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 . 3 In Response. family error rate.28 14. In Factor. enter Carpet.42 10.94 14. 18. family error rate Durability Carpet and enter 10. enter Durability.46 21.

MTW One-way ANOVA: Durability versus Carpet Source DF SS MS F P Carpet 3 146.566 (-------*--------) 3 4 12.6 Total 15 309.24% R-Sq(adj) = 34.157 (-------*-------) 2 4 9.808 1.8 3.483 3.0 20.506 (-------*-------) 4 4 18.0 15.4 48.115 5.435 (-------*-------) ---------+---------+---------+---------+ 10.Analyze Results for: EXH_AOV.9 S = 3.0 25.05% Individual 95% CIs For Mean Based on Pooled StDev Level N Mean StDev ---------+---------+---------+---------+ 1 4 14.5 13.0 Understanding Six Sigma .58 0.691 R-Sq = 47.735 3.047 Error 12 163.

823 (-------*-------) 4 0.629 8.678 3.498 -4.058 ------+---------+---------+---------+--(------*-------) ------+---------+---------+---------+---10 0 10 20 .632 11.076 (------*-------) 4 -4.118 3.073 10.131 (------*-------) ------+---------+---------+---------+---10 0 10 20 Carp = 3 subtracted from: Carpet 4 Lower -2.003 (------*-------) 3 -9.83% Carpet = 1 subtracted from: Carpet Lower Center Upper ------+---------+---------+---------+--2 -12.380 16.383 (-------*------) ------+---------+---------+---------+---10 0 10 20 Carp = 2 subtracted from: Carpet Lower Center Upper ------+---------+---------+---------+--3 -4.675 6.308 Upper 13.443 Center 5.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Tukey 95% Simultaneous Confidence Intervals All Pairwise Comparisons among Levels of Carpet Individual confidence level = 98.426 -1.748 3.

10. the mean durability for carpets 2 and 4 appears to be different. If Hsu's MCB method is a good choice for these data. differences in treatment means appear to have occurred at family error rates of 0. For this set of comparisons. When you use Tukey's method.748.498).380. Carpet 2 mean subtracted from the carpet 3 and 4 means: The means for carpets 2 and 4 are statistically different because the confidence interval for this combination of means (0. . By not conditioning upon the F-test. 3.748.003.131) excludes zero. the confidence interval for the mean of carpet 1 minus the mean of carpet 2 is (3. 12. For example. -4.498. You can easily find confidence intervals for entries not included in the output by reversing both the order and the sign of the interval values.003) gives the confidence interval for the carpet 1 mean subtracted from the carpet 2 mean. none of the means are statistically different because all of the confidence intervals include 0. 4. 3. Carpet 3 mean subtracted from the carpet 4 mean: Carpets 3 and 4 are not statistically different because the confidence interval includes 0. carpets 2 and 3 might be eliminated as a choice for the best. 8.Analyze Tukey's comparisons Understanding Six Sigma Tukey's test provides 3 sets of multiple comparison confidence intervals: Carpet 1 mean subtracted from the carpet 2. 16.629. and 4 means: The first interval in the first set of the Tukey's output (-12.

Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 1 Proportion Test : Performs a test of one binomial proportion. For example. You could take a random sample of spark plugs and determine whether or not the actual proportion defective is consistent with the claim. For a two-tailed test of a proportion: H0: p = p0 versus H1: p ≠ p0 where p is the population proportion and p0 is the hypothesized value. . Use 1 Proportion to compute a confidence interval and perform a hypothesis test of the proportion. an automotive parts manufacturer claims that his spark plugs are less than 2% defective.

In addition.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Example : A county district attorney would like to run for the office of state district attorney. 5 From Alternative. enter 950. a 95% confidence bound was constructed to determine the lower bound for the proportion of supporters. choose greater than.65. you collected data on 950 randomly selected party members and find that 560 party members support the candidate. 1 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 1 Proportion. enter 560. enter 0. Click OK in each dialog box. As her campaign manager. 2 Choose Summarized data. In Number of events. 4 Click Options. A test of proportion was performed to determine whether or not the proportion of supporters was greater than the required proportion of 0. She has decided that she will give up her county office and run for state office if more than 65% of her party constituents support her. 3 In Number of trials. .65. You need to test H0: p = . In Test proportion.65 versus H1: p > .65.

000 Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma The p-value of 1.65.0 suggests that the data are consistent with the null hypothesis (H0: p = 0.65).589474 0. As her campaign manager.Analyze Session window output Test and CI for One Proportion Test of p = 0. that is.562515 1. .65 vs p > 0.65 95% Lower Exact Sample X N Sample p Bound P-Value 1 560 950 0. you would advise her not to run for the office of state district attorney. the proportion of party members that support the candidate is not greater than the required proportion of 0.

You might include the product sample with half of your mailings and see if you have more responses from the group that received the sample than from those who did not. . For example.p2 ≠ p0 where p1 and p2 are the proportions of success in populations 1 and 2. respectively.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 2 Proportion Test : Performs a test of two binomial proportions. suppose you wanted to know whether the proportion of consumers who return a survey could be increased by providing an incentive such as a product sample. Use the 2 Proportions command to compute a confidence interval and perform a hypothesis test of the difference between two proportions. For a two-tailed test of two proportions: H0: p1 . and p0 is the hypothesized difference between the two proportions.p2 = p0 versus H1: p1 .

. Use this information to guide your choice of brand for purchase. Records indicate that six Brand X machines and eight Brand Y machines needed service. you need to authorize the purchase of twenty new photocopy machines. enter 44. enter 42. You decide that the determining factor will be the reliability of the brands as defined by the proportion requiring service within one year of purchase. 1 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 2 Proportions. under Trials. 3 In First sample. 2 Choose Summarized data. under Trials. After comparing many brands in terms of price. you have narrowed the choice to two: Brand X and Brand Y. 4 In Second sample. Under Events.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Example : As your corporation's purchasing manager. copy quality. Under Events. Because your corporation already uses both of these brands. enter 50. and features. Click OK. warranty. enter 50. you were able to obtain information on the service history of 50 randomly selected machines of each brand.

0957903.880000 0.58 P-Value = 0. 0.04 95% CI for difference: (-0.p (2) Estimate for difference: 0.564 .Analyze Session window output Understanding Six Sigma Test and CI for Two Proportions Sample 1 2 X 44 42 N 50 50 Sample 0.175790) Test for difference = 0 (vs not = 0): Z = 0.840000 p Difference = p (1) .

the proportion of photocopy machines that needed service in the first year did not differ depending on brand.096 to 0. That is. the data are consistent with the null hypothesis (H0: p1 .564 is larger than commonly chosen a levels. You can make the same decision using the 95% confidence interval.p2. As the purchasing manager.Analyze Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma Since the p-value of 0. Because zero falls in the confidence interval of (-0. If you think that the confidence interval is too wide and does not provide precise information as to the value of p1 . . you need to find a different criterion to guide your decision on which brand to purchase.p2 = 0). you may want to collect more data in order to obtain a better estimate of the difference.176) you can conclude that the data are consistent with the null hypothesis.

Test for Independence is for testing Null hypothesis that two criteria of Classification . 1) Goodness of Fit 2) Test for Homogeneity 3) Test for Independence The test for Goodness of fit determines if the sample under analysis was drawn from a population that follows some specified distribution . Chi Square test is a statistical test which consists of three different type of Analysis. Test for Homogeneity answers the proposition that several populations are homogenous with respect to some characteristic.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Chi Square Test : It is a measure of the Observed & expected frequencies.

You query 100 people about their political affiliation and record the number of males (row 1) and females (row 2) for each political party. .Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Example : You are interested in the relationship between gender and political party affiliation. 2 Choose Stat > Tables > Chi-Square Test (Table in Worksheet). 3 In Columns containing the table. Click OK. enter Democrat. Republican and Other.MTW. The worksheet data appears as follows: Column 1 Democrat 28 22 Column 2 Republican 18 27 Column 3 Other 4 1 1 Open the worksheet EXH_TABL.

DF = 2.Analyze Session window output Chi-Square Test: Democrat.320.00 0.00 0. .360 Total 50 Republican 18 22.900 27 22.900 5 Understanding Six Sigma Total 50 50 100 Chi-Sq = 4.50 0.900 1 2.115 2 cells with expected counts less than 5.50 0. Republican. Other Expected counts are printed below observed counts Chi-Square contributions are printed below expected counts Democrat 1 28 25.360 2 22 25.50 0.50 0. P-Value = 0.900 45 Other 4 2.

P-Value = 0.360 2 22 25.320.900 1 2. Republican.50 0.900 27 22.50 0. Column Totals .50 0.50 0.900 5 Understanding Six Sigma Total 50 Observed Values Expected Values Chi Square Values 50 Row Totals 100 Grand Total Chi-Sq = 4. Other Expected counts are printed below observed counts Chi-Square contributions are printed below expected counts Democrat 1 28 25.00 0.900 45 Other 4 2.115 2 cells with expected counts less than 5.Analyze Session window output Chi-Square Test: Democrat.00 0. DF = 2.360 Total 50 Republican 18 22.

Analyze Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma No evidence exists for association (p = 0. 2 have expected counts less than five (33%). Formulae’s : a) Expected Value = Row Total * Column Total Grand Total b) Chi Square Value = ( Observed Value . of rows .1) * ( No.115) between gender and political party affiliation. repeat the test. omitting the Other category. of Columns . even if you had a significant p-value for these data.Expected Value )2 Expected Value c) Degrees of Freedom(DF) = (No. Of the 6 cells. you should interpret the results with caution. Therefore. To be more confident of the results.1) .

of variance among two populations using an F-test and Levene's test. or homogeneity. Many statistical procedures. assume that the two samples are from populations with equal variance. . including the two sample t-test procedures. The variance test procedure will test the validity of this assumption.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma 2 Variance Test : Use to perform hypothesis tests for equality.

You are interested in comparing the variances of the two populations so that you can construct a two-sample t-test and confidence interval to compare the two dampers.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Example : A study was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of two devices for improving the efficiency of gas home-heating systems. 3 In Samples. Click OK. The energy consumption data (BTU.In) are stacked in one column with a grouping column (Damper) containing identifiers or subscripts to denote the population. select the column which contain the values 4 In Subscripts. 2 Choose Samples in one column. enter Damper. . The two devices were an electric vent damper (Damper = 1) and a thermally activated vent damper (Damper = 2). Energy consumption in houses was measured after one of the two devices was installed. 1 Choose Stat > Basic Statistics > 2 Variances.

5 3.0 3.I n F-Test Test Statistic P-Value Test Statistic P-Value 1.0 1 Dam per 2 5 10 BTU.0 2.996 1 Dam per Levene's Test 2 2.00 0.558 0.I n 15 20 .19 0.5 95% Bonferroni Confidence I ntervals for StDevs 4.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Test for Equal Variances for BTU.

558 Levene's Test (any continuous distribution) Test statistic = 0. p-value = 0.00.76702 Upper 4.19.56416 F-Test (normal distribution) Test statistic = 1.01987 2.996 .Analyze Test for Equal Variances: BTU.02726 3.In versus Damper Understanding Six Sigma 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals for standard deviations Damper 1 2 N 40 50 Lower 2. p-value = 0.40655 2.25447 StDev 3.

996 are greater than reasonable choices of a. Note that the 95% confidence level applies to the family of intervals and the asymmetry of the intervals is due to the skewness of the chi-square distribution. the results of the F-test and Levene's test are given in both the Session window and the graph. the p-values of 0. . so you fail to reject the null hypothesis of the variances being equal. Finally. these data do not provide enough evidence to claim that the two populations have unequal variances. The graph also displays the side-by-side boxplots of the raw data for the two samples. That is. it is reasonable to assume equal variances when using a two-sample t-procedure.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Result Interpretation The variance test generates a plot that displays Bonferroni 95% confidence intervals for the population standard deviation at both factor levels. Thus.For the energy consumption example.558 and 0.

enter Temp Oxygen. . Before performing analysis of variance. Click OK.Analyze populations Understanding Six Sigma Test for Equal Variance is used when comparing the variance of two or more than two Example : You study conditions conducive to potato rot by injecting potatoes with bacteria that cause rotting and subjecting them to different temperature and oxygen regimes. 2 Choose Stat > ANOVA > Test for Equal Variances. you check the equal variance assumption using the test for equal variances. enter Rot. 1Open the worksheet . 3 In Response. 4 In Factors.

744 0.858 Levene's Test 2 16 6 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 95% Bonferroni Confidence Intervals for StDevs .37 0.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Test for Equal Variances for Rot Temp Oxygen Bartlett's Test 2 10 6 10 Test Statistic P-Value Test Statistic P-Value 2.71 0.

26029 1. Oxygen 95% Bonferroni confidence intervals for standard deviations Temp 10 10 10 16 16 16 Oxygen 2 6 10 2 6 10 N 3 3 3 3 3 3 Lower 2.51188 8.427 101.00000 6.744 Levene's Test (any continuous distribution) Test statistic = 0.55744 3.29150 3. p-value = 0.37.862 Bartlett's Test (normal distribution) Test statistic = 2.858 Test for Equal Variances: Rot versus Temp.60555 3.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Test for Equal Variances: Rot versus Temp.55677 StDev 5.71.799 54. Oxygen .32666 Upper 81.80104 1.890 46.28146 2.481 55.54013 1. p-value = 0.50012 3.349 128.

these data do not provide enough evidence to claim that the populations have unequal variances. the p-values of 0. so you fail to reject the null hypothesis of the variances being equal. That is. Note that the 95% confidence level applies to the family of intervals and the asymmetry of the intervals is due to the skewness of the chi-square distribution.744 and 0.858 are greater than reasonable choices of a.Analyze Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma The test for equal variances generates a plot that displays Bonferroni 95% confidence intervals for the response standard deviation at each level. . For the potato rot example. Bartlett's and Levene's test results are displayed in both the Session window and in the graph.

One theory says that blower fan velocity affects evaporation of solvent in the paint. You are trying to prove that such a relationship exists by analyzing the data below.Analyze . .Regression One Variable Regression with Minitab Example: Understanding Six Sigma You are trying to optimize the performance of an paint cure oven.

Regression The Concept of Regression Understanding Six Sigma A mathematical equation of describing a relationship between the ”Y” and “X’s” →Creating a Model of process Y = b0 + b1x + error where b0 = constant b1 = slope That is. Is the Annual sales reducing or increasing according to change floor space Annual Sales There appears to be a linear relationship between floor space and annual sales… 350 300 250 200 50 100 150 Floor Space .Analyze .

. Use least squares procedures when your response variable is continuous.Regression Understanding Six Sigma Regression analysis is used to investigate and model the relationship between a response variable and one or more predictors. Use partial least squares regression when your predictors are highly correlated or outnumber your observations.· Use logistic regression when your response variable is categorical. Least squares regression minimizes the sum of squared errors to obtain parameter estimates.Both least squares and logistic regression methods estimate parameters in the model so that the fit of the model is optimized.Analyze .

5 2.1 2.7 6. Score1 Score2 4.7 1.2 8.0 2.5 3.Analyze .0 2.1 2.5 8.0 3. You can use regression to see if Score 1 explains a significant amount of variance in Score 2 to determine if Score 1 is an acceptable substitute for Score 2. This approach is less costly but also is less precise.5 .1 9.Regression Understanding Six Sigma Example : You are a manufacturer who wants to obtain a quality measure on a product.2 1.8 7.0 4. which uses a different product score (Score 1) in place of the actual quality measure (Score 2).1 2.5 2. There is an indirect approach. but the procedure to obtain the measure is expensive.

enter Score1. 3 In Predictors.Analyze . 4 Click OK.000 S = 0.127419 R-Sq = 95.218 Score1 Predictor Coef SE Coef T P Constant 1.1% The R2 value shows that Score 1 explains 95. 2 In Response.21767 0.7% of the variance in Score 2.51 0. enter Score2.12 + 0.1177 0.000 Score1 0.1093 10.23 0.01740 12.Regression 1 Choose Stat > Regression > Regression.7% R-Sq(adj) = 95. Understanding Six Sigma Regression Analysis: Score2 versus Score1 The regression equation is Score2 = 1. indicating that the model fits the data extremely well. .

b. c. To List down all the Possible factors through Brainstorming. Statistical verification of Potential Factors by means of various type of Tests.Analyze Understanding Six Sigma Analyze Phase • 4M Diagram • Hypothesis Testing • Mean Testing • Variance Testing • Regression Analysis The Aim of the Analyze Phase is to : a. Pick out the Vital few Potential Factors out of Trivial Many. d. Ascertaining whether we have considered all factors & nothing is Left Out. .

Cause & Effect Diagram 4 M Diagram MAN MACHINE Cause Cause Understanding Six Sigma Cause Cause Effect Cause Cause Cause METHOD MATERIAL 4 M ( Man. Lighter Boxes at the end of the Large Bones are main groups in which ideas are classified.. Method.Method. Machine & Material ) Diagram is used to list down all the Probable factors (causes ) responsible for the Major Problem ( Effect ).Man.Analyze . Machine & Material. The Lighter Boxes consist of Four Ms . After brainstorming the Significant Factors are selected for further comparison ( Hypothesis Testing ) The Symptom or result is put under the Dark Box on the Right. . The Middle Bones indicates the direction of path from cause to effect.

That is.Analyze Interpreting the results Understanding Six Sigma The test for equal variances generates a plot that displays Bonferroni 95% confidence intervals for the response standard deviation at each level. Bartlett's and Levene's test results are displayed in both the Session window and in the graph. . so you fail to reject the null hypothesis of the variances being equal. these data do not provide enough evidence to claim that the populations have unequal variances.858 are greater than reasonable choices of a. Note that the 95% confidence level applies to the family of intervals and the asymmetry of the intervals is due to the skewness of the chi-square distribution.744 and 0. For the potato rot example. the p-values of 0.

Analyze . Is the Annual sales reducing or increasing according to change floor space Annual Sales There appears to be a linear relationship between floor space and annual sales… 350 300 250 200 50 100 150 Floor Space .Regression The Concept of Regression Understanding Six Sigma A mathematical equation of describing a relationship between the ”Y” and “X’s” →Creating a Model of process Y = b0 + b1x + error where b0 = constant b1 = slope That is.

Both least squares and logistic regression methods estimate parameters in the model so that the fit of the model is optimized.. Use partial least squares regression when your predictors are highly correlated or outnumber your observations. Use least squares procedures when your response variable is continuous. Understanding Six Sigma Regression analysis is used to investigate and model the relationship between a .Analyze . Least squares regression minimizes the sum of squared errors to obtain parameter estimates.Regression response variable and one or more predictors. Use logistic regression when your response variable is categorical.

) Enter the columns A. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 A 2 2 8 6 5 8 5 3 2 1 9 5 3 2 1 4 2 1 2 5 B 3 1 3 4 5 3 1 2 2 8 7 6 5 6 7 2 4 6 5 6 C 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Yield 85 71 3129 1384 875 3159 823 254 150 298 4631 978 367 296 303 556 266 294 313 1058 Solution : 1.Analyze .C are factors & yield is response.Interpret the output results.No. .Regression Understanding Six Sigma Example : Do regression and residual analysis for yield as shown in the table. Please note that A. S. B.B. C (Factors ) and Yield ( response ) in minitab Excel sheet.

Regression Understanding Six Sigma 2) Go to stat> Regression > Regression.Analyze . .

B.Regression 3) Select Yield as Response and A. Understanding Six Sigma .C as Predictors by double clicking on all.Analyze .

B.21 -0.54 9.61 2.537 R-Sq = 86.000 Residual Error 16 3803071 237692 Total 19 29111633 Source A B C DF 1 1 1 Seq SS 23966672 1314871 27018 Unusual Observations Obs 11 A 9.9% R-Sq(adj) = 84.72 -1.579 T -3.70 135. Regression Analysis: Yield versus A.544 SE Coef 360.3 457.Regression 4) Click OK.000 0.54 C Predictor Constant A B C Coef -1277.28 4.042 0.740 Understanding Six Sigma R2 & R2 (adj) > 64 % indicating a strong corelation between the Factors & the Response (Yield) S = 487.Analyze .003 0.1.1277 + 458 A + 136 B .5% Analysis of Variance Source DF SS MS F P Regression 3 25308562 8436187 35. .44R R denotes an observation with a large standardized residual.34 P 0.00 Yield 4631 Fit 3707 SE Fit 308 Residual 924 St Resid 2. C The regression equation is Yield = .6 47.64 61.49 0.

Analyze .` Understanding Six Sigma Predictors Fitted Value : The predicted y or . The formula for the residual of an observation is: ei = (yi .Regression Minitab fits the regression Line using the Least square method. Residuals :The difference (ei) between the observed values and predicted or fitted values (data minus fits). As shown in the diagram the least square method minimizes the sum of the squared distances between the points and the fitted Line. This part of the observation is not explained by the fitted model.i) YIELD = RESIDUAL + FITS Response . the mean response value for the given predictor values using the estimated regression equation.

b11.Regression Understanding Six Sigma Three Regressions Models Linear Y = bo + b1X Quadratic Y = bo + b11 X2 Cubic Y = bo + b1X + b11 X2 Y is the response. and b1.Analyze . bo is the intercept. X is the predictor. and b111 are the coefficients .

It Transfers sustainability of the improvement to the appropriate members of the Advocacy Team • Provides communication of new procedures and systems to process owners • Ensures that the new process conditions are documented and monitored .Control Understanding Six Sigma Control Phase • Statistical Process Control • Control Chart AIM of Control Phase Control Charts are used to track process statistics over Time and to detect the presence of Special Causes. • Provides structured closure of projects and re-allocation of resources • Provides systematic changes to ensure the process continues in a new path of optimization.

. Statistical Process Control Enables us to control our process using statistical methods to signal when process adjustments are needed. Six Sigma Quality focuses on moving control up stream in a process to leverage the input characteristics for the Y response.Control Statistical Process Control (SPC)? (SPC) Understanding Six Sigma Statistical Statistical methods are used to monitor and analyze process variation from sample data Process Any repetitive (manual or automatic) task or steps Control Provides an early warning signal that a process has changed. If we can measure and control the vital few X’s. The warning allows you to make decisions about the process while there is still time to correct the problem before it can be seen in the final output. control of the Y should be assured.

If we can measure and control the vital few X’s.Noise .Control The Logic of SPC Desired Output Understanding Six Sigma Process Capability ● Upper Control Limit X Controller Input Lower Control Limit ● Samples Process A B C D E L M N O P Controllable factors Uncontrollable factors . .Inherent causes Output SPC has traditionally been used to monitor and control the output of processes. control of Y should be assured.Adjustable .Special .Common causes .Assignable causes . Six Sigma Quality focuses on moving control upstream to the leverage input characteristic for Y.

or when its time plot reveals certain patterns. When the bounds are breached . the process may be out of control. range. Addition and subtraction of the required number of standard deviations ( three ) give us the Upper Control Limit ( UCL ) and the Lower Control Limit ( LCL) of the control chart. A control chart is a time plot of a statistic.should remain stable through the time. . The limits give the desired range of values for the statistic. The idea is that when a process is in control . the Mean should stay somewhere around the middle line ( the grand mean for the process ) and not wander off by more than the fixed standard deviations of the process . When the statistic is outside the bounds. standard deviation . The required number standard deviations is chosen so that there will be a small probability of exceeding them when the process is in control . for example . the variable being measured . the process is deemed out of control. a quality engineer can identify any potential problem with the Production process .Control Understanding Six Sigma Control Charts A Control chart is a graphical display of measurements ( usaually aggregated in the form of means or other statistics) of an Industrial Process through time. with a centerline and upper and lower control limits.the mean of every four Observations. or proportion. By carefully scrutinizing the chart. such as a sample mean.

Control Procedure of Control Chart Selection Characteristic definition of control chart Variable Data Type? No No Understanding Six Sigma No No Defect ratio Faults of parts Yes No Subgroup sampling? Yes Average calculation Yes No Median Control chart Yes n =constant Yes Yes Yes u Control chart X Control chart n＞ 8 Yes Easy to calculate Subgroup Xbar-R Control chart No c Control chart No Yes Xbar-R Control chart n =constant Yes p Control chart Xbar-R Control chart pn control chart This procedure is on the condition that data can be collected after Gage R&R. .

5 f D e f e c t s • Refer to the diagram for a summary list of the specific control chart types e f / U n it i v i d u N a ul &m b e r o f D v i n g R a u n Cg e h a r t m R n v a r i a b le = 1 In order to select the appropriate control chart for monitoring your process.Types of Control Charts T V y p e s o f C o n t r o l C h a r t s a r i a b l e s A Ct t r h i ba ur t t s e s C h f o r m o n i t fo o r r i n m g o n i t o r i n c o n t i n u o u d s i s X c 'r s e t e X 's A v e X b n t y p v S t d X b n M e X n t y p I n M o X n d d & < i c 1 a 0 A Understanding Six Sigma a r t s • There are basically two types of control charts: g –Variables charts . a diameter or consumer satisfaction a r & R p C h a r t < 1 0 .5 c k s d p u / d p o –Attribute charts .these charts are used for e r a g eN u& m b e r D e f e c t i v e D e v i a n t i po n C h a r t monitoring discrete X variables. or inventory levels. . such as.these charts are used for monitoring X variables that are continuous. l l y &N uR m a nb ge er o c C h a r t c > 5 3 . There are specific control charts for both continuous data and discrete data.Control . t y p i c ≥ a5 l 0 l y n rating. 1 0 i a n R . i c a l l y t 3r a. first determine if your key process variables (X’s) are continuous or discrete. r a g e F & r a R c a t i no gn e D e f e c t i v e such as. σa r & n ≥ 5 0 ( c o n s t a n t ) t r a c ≥k s # d e f good/bad counts.

Control Understanding Six Sigma Variable control chart : Customer Satisfaction Index Example : A consumer services organization wants to monitor consumer satisfaction for their company. Each week. a survey from each of the company’s ten regional service centers is evaluated and the scores are tabulated.096 and R = 0. n = 10 Process average.4504 . higher is better: The vital information for creating an Xbar/R control chart : Total subgroups = 25 Subgroup size. In this example. The following is an example of how an Xbar/R control chart could be used to monitor consumer satisfaction. X = 4.

0 . Standard deviation : 1.Standard deviation : 0.Generate : 10 .R Calc > Random Data > Normal Distributions .Store in column(s) : c1-c25 .Control Understanding Six Sigma File Open : S4 > Xbar .Mean : 4.Store the stacked data in : c26 .8.Stack the following columns : c1-c25 .6 Manip > Stack > Stack Columns .6 ( Only c7 Mean : 2.

308 x 0.4504 = 4.1005 .4504 = 0.Control Control Limit Formulas: Understanding Six Sigma UCL X = X + A2 × R LCL X = X − A2 × R UCL R = D 4 × R LCL R = D 3 × R While it is acceptable to compute temporary control limits after 5 to 10 subgroups. Actual Control Limiit Calculations for the Data UCL = 4.777 x 0.8003 UCLR = 0.096 .308 x 0.096 + 0.0.957 UCLR = 1.4504 = 0.223 x 0. permanent limits require at least 25 subgroups of data points that are In-control for both the average and range charts.235 UCL = 4.4504 = 3.

3 2 6 2 .7 6 1 1 .1 2 8 1 .1 3 6 0 .9 5 1 5 0 .7 9 7 9 0 .5 6 8 2 .6 5 9 1 .6 6 0 1 .2 6 7 2 .2 3 9 0 .9 7 0 1 .2 6 6 2 .2 6 7 2 .2 8 7 1 .1 1 5 2 .5 3 4 2 .4 8 3 0 .0 7 8 c4 0 .0 3 2 0 .7 1 6 d2 1 .0 0 4 1 .8 8 6 2 0 .9 7 0 3 .7 2 9 0 .4 1 9 0 .0 7 6 0 .2 8 4 B4 3 .0 9 9 1 .3 3 7 0 .6 9 3 2 .8 1 6 1 .1 8 5 0 .7 6 0 2 .4 2 7 1 .9 5 9 4 0 .7 7 7 B3 0 0 0 0 0 .9 2 1 3 0 .7 0 4 2 .2 8 2 2 .Control .1 8 2 1 .9 4 0 0 0 .3 0 8 A3 3 .Control chart Understanding Six Sigma Constant used for Control chart n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A2 2 .3 7 3 0 .9 6 5 0 0 .9 5 4 1 .1 8 4 0 .2 2 3 D4 3 .0 8 9 1 .9 2 4 1 .8 8 0 1 .1 1 8 0 .0 3 0 .9 7 2 7 .9 7 5 D3 0 0 0 0 0 0 .5 7 5 2 .9 6 9 3 0 .8 4 7 2 .8 1 5 1 .0 2 3 0 .8 8 2 1 .5 7 7 0 .0 5 9 2 .8 6 4 1 .6 2 8 1 .

5 S u b g ro u p 0 4 5 10 15 20 25 3.5 4 6 X= 3. identify and fix the assignable source of the variation. independently.0 SL = 3. • The appropriate action would be to investigate. . • This change in “consumer satisfaction” score was driven by some assignable cause (either system-related or region initiated).9 3 8 3.4 4 0 6 Sample Range 3 2 1 0 • The weekly evaluation averages 7 and 16 fell below 3.3 2 9 2.0 S L = 0.957.5 0 9 R = 1. An “Out-of-control” indication can come from either chart.9 7 5 -3.Control Understanding Six Sigma Example of a variable control chart : Customer Satisfaction Index Customer Satisfaction Index 4. • The variation among the regional centers for week 7 is larger than expected.5 3.0 S L = 3.0 S L = 4.5 1 Sample Mean -3.

Of the total appointments for each month. A problem solving team was assembled and decided to use a p Chart to track the percentages of “no shows”.39333+3(.39333.60667)/100)? = 0. Year Month % Failed Year Month % Failed Month %Failed 1996 Jul 40 Jan 20 Jul 16 Aug 36 Feb 26 Aug 10 Sep 36 1997 Mar 25 Sep 12 Apr 19 Oct 12 May 20 Jun 18 Oct 42 Nov 42 Dec 40 p Chart Formulas: np n np p= n p= UCL = p + 3 p = 236/600 = 0.39333. where np = 40+36+36+42+42+40 = 236 the fraction is based on 600. The dental clinic began logging monthly percentages of “no shows” for each month. total possible for 6 months UCL = .246 p × 1− p n ( ) and LCL = p − 3 p × 1− p n ( ) .39333*.3(. % “no shows” plus % “shows” equal 100%.60667)/100)? = 0. the average total fraction defective is called p. Since a “no show” is a defective appointment.39333*.Control ~ Attribute data Understanding Six Sigma Example : A local dental group wanted to know why a lot of their patients fail to keep their appointments.539 LCL = .

three sigma stable process variation region. . • If nonrandom patterns of data appear on the control chart. or when a point is beyond the control limits. then this is a strong signal that assignable-source (special-cause) variation is present in your process. Stability also means all subgroup averages and ranges are between their respective control limits and display no evidence of assignable-source (special -cause) variation. A stable process will rarely produce an output that lies outside of the +/.Control Definition of Stability • • Understanding Six Sigma A process output is considered stable when it consists of only commoncause variation.

it is a pretty rare event. Process stability is defined in terms of these three sigma limits. α /2 α /2 • Ho: µ Ha: µ ι ι = µ ≠ µ α /2 α /2 The hypothesis test provides the criteria for determining if a difference exists between the subgroup mean and the process average The control limits are variation limits. not acceptance limits! Specification limits do Not appear on SPC charts! .Control Determination control limit of control chart • Understanding Six Sigma The Empirical Rules emphasized that when a subgroup average falls outside of the 3σ limits. Another way of visualizing how control charts work: Think about a sequential or time-ordered hypothesis test for each new subgroup.

Solution : Step 1 ) Copy the data in Minitab Worksheet. .Control Example : The following samples were taken: S1 22 28 15 17 16 S2 26 22 21 22 27 S3 20 21 20 24 19 S4 18 16 20 19 20 S5 19 22 21 24 22 Understanding Six Sigma Calculate the LCL & UCL for the X-R chart using Minitab. Find out whether process is in control or not. Comment on the results.

Control 2 ) Stack the data into one column and subscript into other. Go to data>stack> columns 3) Select columns from S1-S5. Understanding Six Sigma . Stack columns values into c7 and their subscript in c6.

Control 4) As the sample size is less than 10 so Xbar-R would be used Go to stat > control charts >variable charts for sub groups > X bar .R Understanding Six Sigma 5) Select the Option all observations in one column and select c7 in which all the data is stacked. Go to Xbar-Options .

Control 6 ) Go to Estimate and choose Rbar 7 ) Go to S Limits and enter 1 2 3 in the dialog box Understanding Six Sigma 8 ) Go to Tests and select all the eight standard tests for special causes. .

The occurrence of the pattern suggests a special cause for the variation. alternating up and down •2 out of 3 points > 2 standard deviations from center line (same side) • 4 out of 5 points > 1 standard deviation from center line (same side) • 15 points in a row within 1 standard deviation of center line (either side) • 8 points in a row > 1 standard deviation from center line (either side) The Tests for special causes detects a special pattern in the data plotted on the Chart. . all increasing or all decreasing •14 points in a row.Control Understanding Six Sigma Test for Special Causes • 1 point more than 3 standard deviations from center line • 9 points in a row on same side of center line • 6 points in a row.

03 Understanding Six Sigma 20 10 -12SL=5.84 -3SL=17. . so the process is within the control limits.02 Sam ple R ange 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 Sample 4 5 +3SL=13.3σ Limits.65 _ _ X=20. Xbar-R Chart of C7 40 +12SL=36.Control 9 ) Click OK.96 _ R=6.6 -3SL=0 -12SL=0 10 ) All the Points are lying within +/.07 Sample M ean 30 +3SL=24.61 1 2 3 Sample 4 5 40 +12SL=36.

For each lot. you do a 100% inspection on that lot.Control Understanding Six Sigma Example :Suppose you work in a plant that manufactures picture tubes for televisions. you pull some of the tubes and do a visual inspection. enter Sampled. 3) In Variables. you reject it. enter Rejects. If a lot has too many rejects. If a tube has scratches on the inside. 4) In Subgroup sizes. Solution: 1) Open the worksheet and enter data. Click OK. A P chart can define when you need to inspect the Rejects Sampled whole lot. 20 18 14 16 13 29 21 14 6 6 7 7 9 5 8 9 9 10 9 10 98 104 97 99 97 102 104 101 55 48 50 53 56 49 56 53 52 51 52 47 . 2) Choose Stat > Control Charts >Attributes Charts > P.

Consider inspecting the lot.00 2 4 _ P=0.35 Understanding Six Sigma P Chart of Rejects UCL=0.20 0.3324 1 Proportion Sample 6 is outside the upper control limit.15 0.1685 LCL=0.05 0.30 0.10 0.Control Minitab Output : 0.0047 6 8 10 12 Sam ple 14 16 18 20 Tests performed with unequal sample sizes . 0.25 0.

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