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User Centered Design

Beauty and brains, pleasure and usability
They should go hand in hand.
­Donald Norman­Calendar 1
Comparative Study
iCal Google Calendar

• Three Calendar Views • Supports three views in 
iCal as well as allowing 
• Transition via  user to specify an arbitrary 
keyboard and mouse. amount of days in one 
• Dimension changes  view.  
when view mode  • Transition via the keyboard 
changes. and mouse.  ‘m’ for month, 
‘w’ for week, ‘d’ for day.  
• Cycle through dates  Intuitive controls.
with specified interval  • Cycle through specified 
(Month to month, day  default or custom intervals.
to day).­Calendar 2
Proposed Improvements
• Zooming View Transition
– Keep users’ focus.
– Constant feedback when switching between 
– Aesthetically Pleasing.
• Continuous Scrolling
– View portion of two months in one view.
– Increased flexibility.
– Elimination of artificial constraints found in 
competitor products.­Calendar 3
Continuous Scrolling­Calendar 4
Usability Metrics
• Time taken to complete each task.
– Measures level of difficulty.
• Number of commands used to execute a 
– Measures ‘gulf of execution.’ 
• Subjective analysis of user satisfaction.
– Uncovers usability problems.
• Number of fixations for each task.
– Measures ‘gulf of execution’ and ‘gulf of 
evaluation.’­Calendar 5
Within Groups Experimental 
Design (1)
Subjects Chosen
Three university students were chosen ranging from age
twenty-two to twenty-five.
Independent: iCal and prototype.
Dependent: Usability Metrics defined in previous slide.
•Zooming effect will decrease # of commands used to
complete a task.
•Continuous scrolling will increase user satisfaction.
•Continuous Scrolling will decrease time take to complete a
task.­Calendar 6
Within Groups Experimental 
Design (2)
Data Gathering
Participants were recorded with video cameras while
conducting an evaluation. Visual data used to count eye
fixations and auditory data was used to count mouse clicks
and ‘think aloud.’
Participant completed questionnaire after an evaluation.
Data Analysis (Averages to complete task)
•12 seconds longer.
•18 commands less.
•3 eye fixations less.­Calendar 7
Usability Evaluation Script 1

1. Select today and dictate today’s date.

2. Go to July 4, 2008.
3. Switch from Month View to Day View.
4. Go to June 1, 2007.
5. Switch to Week view.
6. Move back five weeks and dictate selected date.­Calendar 8
Sample Prototype Data
Step Time to complete # of commands # of Fixations

Step 1 1m14s 40 43
Step 2 12s 19 7
Step 3 2s 2 2
Step 4 5s 4 3
Step 5 2s 1 2
Step 6 2s 2 2
Step 7 8s 11 3­Calendar 9
Sample iCal Data

Step Time to # of commands # of

complete Fixations
Step 1 8s 2 3
Step 2 24s 6 12
Step 3 5s 1 3
Step 4 15s 8 10
Step 5 1s 1 1
Step 6 3s 1 2
Step 7 14s 11 11­Calendar 10
• Metrics gathered supported hypothesis
• Aesthetically pleasing designs are favored
• Flexibility increases user satisfaction
• Zooming effect helps keep user focus (Show 
example).­Calendar 11