User Centered Design

Beauty and brains, pleasure and usability They should go hand in hand. ­Donald Norman­Calendar


Comparative Study
iCal • Three Calendar Views • Transition via  keyboard and mouse. • Dimension changes  when view mode  changes. • Cycle through dates  with specified interval  (Month to month, day  to day). Google Calendar
• Supports three views in  iCal as well as allowing  user to specify an arbitrary  amount of days in one  view.   Transition via the keyboard  and mouse.  ‘m’ for month,  ‘w’ for week, ‘d’ for day.   Intuitive controls. Cycle through specified  default or custom intervals.

Proposed Improvements
• Zooming View Transition
– Keep users’ focus. – Constant feedback when switching between  views. – Aesthetically Pleasing. – View portion of two months in one view. – Increased flexibility. – Elimination of artificial constraints found in  competitor products.­Calendar 3

• Continuous Scrolling

Continuous Scrolling­Calendar


Usability Metrics
• Time taken to complete each task. • Number of commands used to execute a  task. • Subjective analysis of user satisfaction. • Number of fixations for each task.
– Uncovers usability problems. – Measures ‘gulf of execution’ and ‘gulf of  evaluation.’  – Measures ‘gulf of execution.’  – Measures level of difficulty.­Calendar


Within Groups Experimental  Design (1)
Subjects Chosen Three university students were chosen ranging from age twenty-two to twenty-five. Variables Independent: iCal and prototype. Dependent: Usability Metrics defined in previous slide. Hypothesis •Zooming effect will decrease # of commands used to complete a task. •Continuous scrolling will increase user satisfaction. •Continuous Scrolling will decrease time take to complete a task.­Calendar 6

Within Groups Experimental  Design (2)
Data Gathering Participants were recorded with video cameras while conducting an evaluation. Visual data used to count eye fixations and auditory data was used to count mouse clicks and ‘think aloud.’ Participant completed questionnaire after an evaluation. Data Analysis (Averages to complete task) •12 seconds longer. •18 commands less. •3 eye fixations less.­Calendar 7

Usability Evaluation Script 1
1. Select today and dictate today’s date. 2. Go to July 4, 2008. 3. Switch from Month View to Day View. 4. Go to June 1, 2007. 5. Switch to Week view. 6. Move back five weeks and dictate selected date.­Calendar 8

Sample Prototype Data
Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Time to complete 1m14s 12s 2s 5s 2s 2s 8s # of commands 40 19 2 4 1 2 11 # of Fixations 43 7 2 3 2 2 3­Calendar


Sample iCal Data
Step Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 8s 24s 5s 15s 1s 3s 14s Time to complete # of commands 2 6 1 8 1 1 11 3 12 3 10 1 2 11 # of Fixations­Calendar


• • • • Metrics gathered supported hypothesis Aesthetically pleasing designs are favored Flexibility increases user satisfaction Zooming effect helps keep user focus (Show  example).­Calendar


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