II. Broad Schools of Thought
Barelvi Deobandi ¶Aligarh Modernist·


µ or schools) Barelvism: embracing ritualism and Sufi practice Deobandism: promoting conservative revivalism Ahl-e-Hadith: spreading Saudi/Wahhabi salafism ¶Aligarh Modernism·: reconciling faith and science 2 .UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought ` Four common ¶schools· ` ` ` ` ` Often referred to as maslaks (lit. ´tacks.

particularly prominent in Punjab and Sindh In Afghanistan. who hailed from Bareilly. Ahle Sunnat Believed to represent the majority of Muslims in India and Pakistan. 1856).UNCLASSIFIED JW1 Schools of Thought: Barelvi ` Background ` ` ` ` ` Founded as a movement by Ahmed Raza Khan (b. historically influential in the south 3 .. or simply. at least 200m strong In Pakistan. India (hence ´Barelvismµ) Formally known as Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat (people of the way of Muhammad and the community). U.P.

Ref NBR article by Tom Johnson Joshua White. 9/1/2010 .Slide 3 JW1 JW add notes about presence and role of Barelvism/Sufism in Afgh.

pirs Performing zikr (devotional repetition of the names of God) Follows the Hanafi school of jurisprudence Believes Muhammad to be noor (light). including: ` ` ` ` Celebrating the birthday of Muhammad. and the death anniversaries (urs) of Sufi pirs and other holy men Visiting shrines Seeking counsel or healing from. more than man.UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Barelvi ` Beliefs ` ` Widely seen as the most ´moderateµ school Accepting of popular devotion. or praying to. and possessing special powers of knowledge and presence ` Theology ` ` 4 .

UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Barelvi 5 .

often led by Sufi pirs. economic. are weak. but not precisely the same (Sufi orders.g. or tariqahs. and political institutions Barelvi parties (e. but Barelvis themselves are active in politics 6 .UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Barelvi ` Affiliations ` ` ` ` ` Often equated with Sufism. don·t correspond with schools) Representative body: Sunni Ittehad Council Madaris board: Tanzeem-ul-Madaris Barelvi shrines. are often important social. Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan).

S. or can. Barelvis resist growing radicalization in Punjab by Ahl-e-Hadith or sectarian groups? 7 Photo: U. how can they be supported in a way that is constructive? U.S. Embassy Islamabad . Consulate in Lahore funded restoration of Barelvi Sufi shrines in Punjab.UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Barelvi ` Policy questions ` ` ` Are Barelvis the ´answerµ to extremism? If so. Is this wise? Will.

. U. and intertwined with politics 8 .P.UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Deobandi ` Background ` ` ` ` Revivalist movement that sprung up. in the wake of the 1857 ´Mutinyµ Dar-ul-Uloom madrassa founded in Deoband. like many others. grew to be large and well-organized Spawned affiliated madaris throughout India and Afghanistan Eventually came to be more influential in Pakistan than present-day India.

instills intense hatred for British / foreign influence 3-8 yr programs in fiqh. advocates political activism & Salafi view 1947-96: 2.. India). serve as ´Incubatorµ for Taliban ` ` ` .Dar ul-Uloom & Deobandism ` Founded in 1865 (U.P.512 madrassa along Pak/Afg border (w/ student body of 200 + talibs) Many funded by Wahhabis / Saudi Arabia.

µ Maulana Syed Abul Ala'a Mawdudi (1903-1979) .Schools of Thought: Deobandi ` ` ` ` ` Mawdudi. Father of Political Islam Deobandi alumnus 20th century figure in Islamic revival in India Founded Jamaat-e-Islami party in 1941 ´Everything in the universe is Muslim for it obeys God by submission to His laws.

UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Deobandi 11 .

UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Deobandi ` Beliefs ` ` ` ` ` ` Early founders belonged to Sufi tariqahs Movement sought to purify Islam of syncretism and popular devotional practices. seen as being ´Hinduµ Over time. became more strict. etc. Follows Hanafi jurisprudence Most prominent in northwest Pakistan. austere. and Afghanistan 12 . dance. Karachi. and anti-Barelvi Rejects popular mysticism ` Frequently suspicious of music. poetry.

HuA Many anti-Shia sectarian organizations Taliban groups and ´Talibanismµ 13 . represented by the Wafaq-ulMadaris al-Arabia Pashtun-majority JUI political parties (discussed later) Militant groups. including HuJI.UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Deobandi ` Affiliations ` ` ` ` ` Strong madaris network.

UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Deobandi 14 .

UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Deobandi ` Policy questions ` ` ` What can be done to broaden the curriculum at Deobandi madaris. and the worldviews of the graduates? How to deal with a movement that is so fragmented? Do ´moderateµ Deobandis have a voice to rein in the militants? 15 .

UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Aligarh Modernist ` Background ` ` ` Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan founded the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875. but representative of a modern vision of Islam and Islamic education 16 . modeled on Oxbridge Later became the famous Aligarh Muslim University Not a maktab as such.

Secular Modernism: 19th-20th CE Aligarh Muslim University. India Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Shibli Nomani .

Why? And can anything be done to change this pattern? Can a modernist vision of Islam succeed in a region where religion functions as a basis for identity politics? Does supporting modern education actually reduce extremism? What about introducing scientific and technical subjects into madaris curriculum? ` Policy questions ` ` ` 18 . especially in education The Aligarh vision had a profound impact on Indian Islam.UNCLASSIFIED Schools of Thought: Aligarh Modernist ` Beliefs ` ` Compatibility of faith with modern science and technology Social reform. but gained less traction in Pakistan.

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