Student development

‡ Development refers to long-term personal changes that have multiple sources and multiple effects. ‡ We call the change ³learning´ instead of development. The difference between learning and development is a matter of degree.
‡ When a child learns to name the planets of the solar system, for example, the child may not need a lot of time, nor does the learning involve a multitude of experiences.

‡ Students¶ development matters for teachers, but the way it matters depends partly on how schooling is organized. ‡ If you teach multiple grade levels, then your need for developmental knowledge will be more obvious because you will confront wide age differences on a daily basis.

Physical development during the school years
‡ Although it may be tempting to think that physical development is the concern of physical education teachers only, it is actually a foundation for many academic tasks. ‡ In all grades, it is important to have a sense of students¶ health needs related to their age or maturity, if only to know who may become ill, and with what illness, and to know what physical activities are reasonable and needed.

Trends in height and weight
‡ Typical height and weight for well-nourished, healthy students are shown in table.

Age 2 6 10 14 18

Height (cm) 85 115 135 162 169

Weight (kg) 7.0 20.0 31.0 52.0 60.5

Puberty and its effects on students
‡ A universal physical development in students is puberty, which is the set of changes in early adolescence that bring about sexual maturity. ‡ At about the same time that puberty accentuates gender, role differences also accentuate for at least some teenagers.
‡ Some girls who excelled at math or science in elementary school may curb their enthusiasm and displays of success at these subjects for fear of limiting their popularity or attractiveness as girls. Some boys who were not especially interested in sports previously may begin dedicating themselves to athletics to affirm their masculinity in the eyes of others.

Health and illness
‡ By world standards, children and youth in economically developed societies tend, on average, to be remarkably healthy. Even so, much depends on precisely how welloff families are and on how much health care is available to them. ‡ Children from higher-income families experience far fewer serious or life-threatening illnesses than children from lower-income families. ‡ Whatever their income level, parents and teachers often rightly note that children²especially the youngest ones² get far more illnesses than do adults.

Cognitive development: the theory of Jean Piaget
‡ Cognition refers to thinking and memory processes, and cognitive development refers to long-term changes in these processes. ‡ One of the most widely known perspectives about cognitive development is the cognitive stage theory of a Swiss psychologist named Jean Piaget. ‡ Piaget created and studied an account of how children and youth gradually become able to think logically and scientifically.

The sensorimotor stage: birth to age 2
‡ The sensorimotor stage is first, and is defined as the period when infants ³think´ by means of their senses and motor actions. ‡ The infant¶s actions allow the child to represent (or construct simple concepts of) objects and events. The representation acquires a permanence lacking in the individual experiences of the object, which are constantly changing. Because the representation is stable, the child ³knows´, or at least believes, that toy animal exists even if the actual toy animal is temporarily out of sight. Piaget called this sense of stability object permanence, a belief that objects exist whether or not they are actually present. It is a major achievement of sensorimotor development, and marks a qualitative transformation in how older infants (24 months) think about experience compared to younger infants (6months).


uring much of infancy, of course, a child can only barely talk, so sensorimotor development initially happens without the support of language.

‡ It might therefore seem hard to know what infants are thinking, but Piaget devised several simple, but clever experiments to get around their lack of language, and that suggest that infants do indeed represent objects even without being able to talk (Piaget, 1952).

The preoperational stage: age 2 to 7
‡ In the preoperational stage, children use their new ability to represent objects in a wide variety of activities,but they do not yet do it in ways that are organized or fully logical. One of the most obvious examples of this kind of cognition is dramatic play, the improvised make-believe of preschool children. If you have ever had responsibility for children of this age, you have likely witnessed such play.
Ashley holds a plastic banana to her ear and says: ³Hello, Mom? Can you be sure to bring me my baby doll? OK!´ Then she hangs up the banana and pours tea for Jeremy into an invisible cup. Jeremy giggles at the sight of all of this and exclaims: ³Rinnng! Oh Ashley, the phone is ringing again! You better answer it.´ And on it goes.

‡ They are thinking on two levels at once²one imaginative and the other realistic. ‡ This dual processing of experience makes dramatic play an early example of metacognition, or reflecting on and monitoring of thinking itself.

The concrete operational stage: age 7 to 11
‡ In this stage, for example, a child may unconsciously follow the rule: ³If nothing is added or taken away, then the amount of something stays the same.´ This simple principle helps children to understand certain arithmetic tasks, such as in adding or subtracting zero from a number, as well as to do certain classroom science experiments, such as ones involving judgments of the amounts of liquids when mixed. Piaget called this period the concrete operational stage because children mentally ³operate´ on concrete objects and events. They are not yet able, however, to operate (or think) systematically about representations of objects or events. Manipulating representations is a more abstract skill that develops later, during adolescence.

‡ Concrete operational thinking differs from preoperational thinking in two ways, each of which renders children more skilled as students. ‡ One difference is reversibility, or the ability to think about the steps of a process in any order. ‡ The other new feature of thinking during the concrete operational stage is the child¶s ability to decenter, or focus on more than one feature of a problem at a time.

The formal operational stage: age 11 and beyond
‡ In the last stages, the child becomes able to reason not only about tangible objects and events, but also about hypothetical or abstract ones. The individual can ³operate´ on ³forms´ or representations.
With students at this level, the teacher can pose hypothetical (or contrary-tofact) problems: ³What if the world had never discovered oil?´

‡ To answer such questions, students must use hypothetical reasoning, meaning that they must manipulate ideas that vary in several ways at once, and do so entirely in their minds.

Social development: relationships, personal motives, and morality
‡ Social development refers to the long-term changes in relationships and interactions involving self, peers, and family. It includes both positive changes, such as how friendships develop, and negative changes, such as aggression or bullying. ‡ The social developments that are the most obviously relevant to classroom life fall into three main areas: 1. changes in self-concept and in relationships among students and teachers, 2. changes in basic needs or personal motives, and 3. changes in sense of rights and responsibilities.

Erik Erikson: eight psychosocial crises of development
Psychosocial crisis Approximate Description age Trust and mistrust Birth to one year Development of trust between caregiver and child Autonomy and shame Age 1-3 Development of control over bodily functions and activities Initiative and guilt Age 3-6 Testing limits of self-assertion and purposefulness Industry and inferiority Age 6-12 Development of sense of mastery and competence Identity and role Age 12-19 Development of identity and confusion acknowledge of identity by others Intimacy and isolation Age 19-25+ Formation of intimate relationships and commitments Generativity and Age 25-50+ Development of creative or productive stagnation activities that contribute to future generations Integrity and despair Age 50+ Acceptance of personal life history and

Abraham Maslow: a hierarchy of motives and needs
‡ Abraham Maslow's theory frames personal needs or motives as a hierarchy, meaning that basic or ³lowerlevel´ needs have to be satisfied before higher-level needs become important or motivating. ‡ In its original version, Maslow¶s theory distinguishes two types of needs, called deficit needs and being needs (or sometimes deficiency needs and growth needs).

Physiological needs Deficit Needs Safety and security needs Love and belonging needs Cognitive needs Aesthetic needs Self-actualization needs

Being Needs

Deficit needs: getting the basic necessities of life
‡ Deficit needs are the basic requirements of physical and emotional well-being. First are physiological needs²food, sleep, clothing, and the like.
A student who is not getting enough to eat is not going to feel much interest in learning!

‡ Once physiological needs are met, however, safety and security needs become important.
A child from an abusive family, for example, may be getting enough to eat, but may worry chronically about personal safety.

Being needs: becoming the best that you can be
‡ Being needs are desires to become fulfilled as a person, or to be the best person that you can possibly be. ‡ They include cognitive needs (a desire for knowledge and understanding), aesthetic needs (an appreciation of beauty and order), and most importantly, selfactualization needs (a desire for fulfillment of one¶s potential).

Moral development: forming a sense of rights and responsibilities
‡ Morality is a system of beliefs about what is right and good compared to what is wrong or bad. Moral development refers to changes in moral beliefs as a person grows older and gains maturity. ‡ Moral beliefs are related to, but not identical with, moral behavior: it is possible to know the right thing to do, but not actually do it. ‡ It is also not the same as knowledge of social conventions, which are arbitrary customs needed for the smooth operation of society. Social conventions may have a moral element, but they have a primarily practical purpose.

Kohlberg¶s morality of justice
Moral stage Preconventional Level: Stage 1: Obedience punishment Stage 2: Market exchange Conventional Level: Stage 3: Peer opinion Stage 4: Law and order Definition of what is ³good´ Action that is rewarded and not and punished Action that is agreeable to the child and child's partner Action that wins approval from friends or peers Action that conforms to community customs or laws Postconventional Level: Action that follows social accepted Stage 5: Social contract ways of making decisions Stage 6: Universal principles Action that is consistent with selfchosen, general principles

Preconventional justice: obedience and mutual advantage
‡ The preconventional level of moral development coincides approximately with the preschool period of life and with Piaget¶s preoperational period of thinking. At this age the child is still relatively self-centered and insensitive to the moral effects of actions on others. The result is a somewhat shortsighted orientation to morality. ‡ Initially, the child adopts an ethics of obedience and punishment²a sort of ³morality of keeping out of trouble´. The rightness and wrongness of actions is determined by whether actions are rewarded or punished by authorities such as parents or teachers.

‡ Eventually the child learns not only to respond to positive consequences, but also learns how to produce them by exchanging favors with others. ‡ The new ability creates Stage 2, an ethics of market exchange. At this stage the morally ³good´ action is one that favors not only the child, but another person directly involved.

Conventional justice: conformity to peers and society
‡ As children move into the school years, their lives expand to include a larger number and range of peers and(eventually) of the community as a whole. ‡ The change leads to conventional morality, which are beliefs based on what this larger array of people agree on²hence Kohlberg¶s use of the term ³conventional´. ‡ At first, in Stage 3, the child¶s reference group are immediate peers, so Stage 3 is sometimes called the ethics of peer opinion.

‡ Eventually, as the child becomes a youth and the social world expands even more, he or she acquires even larger numbers of peers and friends. ‡ He or she is therefore more likely to encounter disagreements about ethical issues and beliefs. Resolving the complexities lead to Stage 4, the ethics of law and order, in which the young person increasingly frames moral beliefs in terms of what the majority of society believes. ‡ Now, an action is morally good if it is legal or at least customarily approved by most people, including people whom the youth does not know personally.

Postconventional justice: social contract and universal principles
‡ As a person becomes able to think abstractly (or ³formally´, in Piaget¶s sense), ethical beliefs shift from acceptance of what the community does believe to the process by which community beliefs are formed. ‡ The new focus constitutes Stage 5, the ethics of social contract. Now an action, belief, or practice is morally good if it has been created through fair, democratic processes that respect the rights of the people affected.

‡ In principle (and occasionally in practice), a society could decide democratically to kill off every member of a racial minority, for example, but would deciding this by due process make it ethical? ‡ The realization that ethical means can sometimes serve unethical ends leads some individuals toward Stage 6, the ethics of self-chosen, universal principles. ‡ At this final stage, the morally good action is based on personally held principles that apply both to the person¶s immediate life as well as to the larger community and society.

Gilligan¶s morality of care
‡ Morality of care, or system of beliefs about human responsibilities, care, and consideration for others. Gilligan proposed three moral positions that represent different extents or breadth of ethical care. ‡ Unlike Kohlberg, Piaget, or Erikson, she does not claim that the positions form a strictly developmental sequence, but only that they can be ranked hierarchically according to their depth or subtlety.

Moral position

Definition of what is morally good Action that considers one's personal needs only Action that considers others' needs or preferences, but not one's own Action that attempts to coordinate one's own personal needs with those of others

Position 1: Survival orientation Position 2: Conventional care

Position 3: Integrated care

‡ The most basic kind of caring is a survival orientation, in which a person is concerned primarily with his or her own welfare. ‡ A more subtle moral position is caring for others, in which a person is concerned about others¶ happiness and welfare, and about reconciling or integrating others¶ needs where they conflict with each other. ‡ The most developed form of moral caring in Gilligan¶s model is integrated caring, the coordination of personal needs and values with those of others. Now the morally good choice takes account of everyone including yourself, not everyone except yourself.

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