# CONTENTS

 ORIGIN OF PDCA CYCLE WHAT IS PDCA? STEPS OF PDCA CYCLE PDSA TECHNIQUES TO USE PDCA ADVANTAGES PRACTICAL EXAMPLES

ORIGIN OF THE PDCA CYCLE
Walter Shewhart 1924
control. control 

Was an American physicist, engineer, and statistician.  Sometimes known as the Father of Statistical Quality  Created PDCA cycle while working at Western Electric / Bell
Laboratories

Edwards Deming 1924 
Deming was Walter Shewhart s boss at Western Electric / Bell
Laboratories 

Made PDCA popular through his work as a Leader in Quality  Deming preferred Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) while teaching
quality in Japan in the 1950 s

Deming was tasked with helping Japan rebuild its economy in the 1950 s.

His purpose was to use PDCA with a Continuous Improvement process to help rebuild Japanese industries so that they could compete in the world market in the future.

What is the Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) Method?
PDCA: is a Scientific Method to solving problems requires facts, measurement, objective analysis and critical thinking surrounding the problem requires data and numerical evidence of the problem is designed to be applied over and over again, not just one time, referred to as Closed Loop Thinking

Steps Of PDCA

PLAN
Purpose:- To INVESTIGATE the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem being solved
When faced with a problem, we naturally begin to ask questions

What is the problem? Why is the problem occurring? How does the problem start? What are the causes of the problem? Can we measure the problem?

DO

Purpose:- To ENLIGHTEN the Team as to the Real Problem by analyzing the Data and IMPLEMENTING a solution plan.

Let s go test our corrective action to the problem

Run a Trial and measure the results Implement the Plan Monitor the change during implementation

CHECK

Purpose:- To monitor effect of implementation of project plan & find Countermeasures to further improve the solution.

Were the results what we expected?

Compare results of test to baseline data If a change occurred, ask Why did it change? Did the problem: get better, get worse, or stay the same?

ACT
Purpose:- To Review Continuously the Performance Measure & make adjustments as required.Start PDCA Cycle again.
Implement the New and Improved Standard

Stabilize new Standard Train others to new method Update process improvement methods where and when required Share new standard ReRe-Apply the PDCA Method over again.

PDSA 
Deming slightly modified Shewhart s PDCA

cycle into PDSA cycle (PLAN DO STUDY ACT).  The PDSA cycle is popularly known as Deming s Wheel.

PDSA cycle

STUDY
Analyze the problem which is responsible for your actual results which are irrespective of expected results. Suggest solutions to the problems.

ACT
Rectify the problem by using the optimal solution that meets up the expected result.

PDCA as Problem solving technique
1. Identify the problem 7. Plan for the future 2. Analyse the problem

PLAN ACT DO CHECK
5. compare the results

3. Develop the optimal solution

6. Standardize the solution

4. Implement

TECHNIQUES TO USE PDCA
TECHINQUE
BRAINSTORMING
CAUSE AND EFFECT IMPACT DIAGRAMS SOLUTION EFFECT DIAGRAM 5WHY S & 5W1H PARETO ANALYSIS PROCESS FLOW CHARTS . . . . . .

P
. . .

D
.

C
.

A
. .

. .

BRAINSTROMING
Find a quite room .Decide a Team Scribe.Write down the problem or situation. Individually write down ideas on flip chart.discuss each point and prioritise them using impact diagrams. Applied in all four steps.

CAUSE AND EFFECT
MAN
Operator not trained

MACHINES Machine not capabe OVER SIZE BORE

Coolant mix wrong MATERIAL

Wrong master issued METHODS

PARETO ANALYSIS
Method of showing a table of data in graphical format to aid understanding

5WHY S & 5W1H
5 why s 1).WHY will TV not come on? 2).WHY is there no power? 3).WHY has fuse blown? 4).WHY was the fuse amp rating too low? 5).WHY was it incorrectly selected? 5w1h WHAT? WHY? WHERE? WHEN? WHO? HOW?

SOLUTION EFFECT DIAGRAMS
MONEY
Increased water use Improved JIT supply to customer

MATERIALS

IMPLEMENT SHIFT WORKING

Improved setting

Improved morale

METHODS

MANPOWER

Used in DO step of the PDCA cycle.

IMPACT DIAGRAMS
Each team member should rank the ideas against 2 criteria: 1).The EASE of achieving(1=very difficult,10=very easy). 2).The IMPACT of the result(1=very low to 10= very high)on the problem.

1.Minimum possibility of an ERROR . 2.On - time CORRECTIVE action. 3.Optimum utilization of TIME. 4.Improved PRODUCTIVITY. 5.Continuous IMPROVEMENT.

COMPANIES
TOYOTA

Dabur
Crompton Greaves

TISCO

DABUR

DABUR

RESULTS
Continuous improvement New products Increase market share High reputation

Example 1:-Industrial application Star Bathrooms
 He studied some figures and realizes that projects get bogged down during bathtub installation.  TEAM . He assembles two of his installers, his secretary, and his bookkeeper and assigns them to meet on a biweekly basis. Bathtub installation averages three days and thirty-two manpower hours. Then he rewrites his statement so that it reflects how many days he believes it should take: Within six weeks, installing a bathtub will take one day and ten manpower hours. In this example, the manager has not said It takes too long to install a bathtub. Instead, he has stated when he wants to see an improvement, exactly what that improvement will be, and how it will be measured.

Possible reasons for the lengthy installation time: Does the customer choose the bathtub early enough in the remodeling process? Are there delays in ordering the bathtub from the manufacturer? Are the hardware, sealants, and other materials necessary for installation always on hand? Over the next few weeks, team members are assigned to track these various factors. But now that everybody is paying attention to improving the process, it is discovered that some bathtubs are shipped by one method that is much quicker than another.  The Plan is acted upon or revised and the process continues including this new parameter. With the revised plan the customer chooses the bathtub at the onset of remodeling, which is then ordered in a timely fashion and shipped by the preferred shipper.  Adequate installation materials are kept on hand. This is how the goal is met.

PLAN:- bathtub installation in 1 day & 10 manpower hrs DO:- reduction in installation time CHECK/STUDY:- one shipping option faster than the other ACT:1. Faster shipping adopted 2. Customer choice taken in time 3. Order placed in time 4. Hardware requirements kept at hand

The five EMS principles are: Environmental Policy Top management develop a formal written statement outlining the organization's commitment to the environment, pollution prevention, and continual improvement of the EMS. Planning To meet the objectives stated in the policy above. How operations and practices impact the environment, setting goals and targets to reduce these impacts. Implementation and Operation This principle involves tasks as defining roles and authorities for establishing the EMS requirements and ensuring that they are implemented and maintained.

Checking and Corrective Action This principle establishes ways the facility is going to monitor, identify, and correct environmental problems. Management Review Senior leadership to periodically review the management system and make recommendations for continual improvement.

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