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R Meaning of leadership
R History of leadership

R Importance of leadership

R Management & leadership

R Skills of leadership

R Importance keys of leadership

R Leadership styles

R Leadership theories

R conclusion
LEADERSHIP

R  


„oday globalization has changed the
traditional view of organizational leader ´the
heroic individual, often charismatic, whose
positional power ,intellectual strength and
persuasive gifts motivate followers. But this is
not necessarily ideal in Asia, nordus it match the
requirements in large global corporations where
forms of distributed and shared leadership are
needed to address complex interlocking
problems.µ
„here are also problems with the ways
leaders have been tradionally developed, multi
billion dollars efforts.
LEADERSHIP IN NEW BUSINESS
ENVIRONMEN„

„here is no question that leadership roles are


changing in the new environment & the
organizational contexts. „here is general
agreement among all analyses of leadership that
it is much more difficult to lead in difficult times
than in good times. One analysis that five key
leadership roles can help shape managerial
successes & failure in next decade.
1) A strategic vision to motivate& inspire
2) Empowering employees
3) Accumulating and sharing internal knowledge
4) Gathering& integrating external information
5) challenging the status quo and creativity
Even the small business leader faces a shifting role,
moving from a local to a global focus, following the
market, seeking innovation, being open, staying intent
on the quality of the execution rather than the idea,
remaining inquisitive & innovative, & being a
networker rather than the long ranger.
 

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IN „HE RECEN„ EARS, MAN „HEORIES & PRAC„I„IONERS
HAVE EMPHASIZED „HE DIFFERENCE BE„WEEN MANAGERS
AND LEADERS. FOR EXAMPLE, AS ¶BENNIE· HAS NO„ED: ´
„O SURVIVE IN „HE „WEN„ FIRS„ CEN„UR ,WE ARE
GOING „O NEED A NEW GENERA„ION OF LEADERS- LEADERS
NO„ MANAGERS. „HE DIS„INC„ION IS AN IMPOR„AN„ ONE.
LEADERS CONQUER „HE CON„EX„- „HE VOLA„ILE,
„URBULEN„, AMBIGUOUS SURROUNDINGS „HA„ SEEMS „O
CONSPIRE AGAINS„ US AND SUREL SUFFOCA„E US IF WE
LE„ „HEM- WHILE MANAGERS SURRENDER „O I„.µ HE „HEN
GOES ON „O POIN„ OU„ HIS „HOUGH„S ON SOME SPECIFIC
DIFFERENCES BE„WEEN LEADERS AND MANAGEMEN„.
OBVIOUSL , „HESE ARE NO„ SCIEN„IFICALL DERIVED
DIFFERENCES, BU„ I„S PROBABL „RUE „HA„ AN
INDIVIDUAL CAN BE A LEADER WI„HOU„ BEING A MANAGER
AND BE A MANAGER WI„HOU„ BEING A LEADER.
LEADERSHIP IS PAR„ICULARL DEFINED ON „HE „ERMS OF
GROUP PROCESSES, PERSONALI„ , COMPLIANCE,
PAR„ICULAR BEHAVIORS, PERSUASIONS, POWER, GOAL
ACHIEVEMEN„, IN„ERAC„ION, ROLE DIFFEREN„IA„ION,
INI„IA„ION OF S„RUC„URE,& COMBINA„ION OF „WO OR
MORE OF „HESE.
MANAGEMEN„ AND LEADERSHIP


 
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R Administers R Innovates
R A copy R An original
R Develops
R Maintains
R Focuses on people
R Focuses on system and
structure R Inspires trust
R Long range perspectives
R Relies on control
R Asks what and why
R Short range view
R Eye on the horizon
R Asks how and when
R Originates and many
R Eye on the bottom line more
and many more
LEADERSHIP S„ LES
„he total pattern of leader·s actions as perceived by their
employees, is called leadership style. It denotes the leaders
philosophy, skills and attitudes in practice.
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„here are different ways in which leaders approach to
motivate. If the approaches emphasis reward the leader
uses positive leadership if the approaches emphasis
penalties the leader is applying negative leadership.
Negative leaders are called bosses rather then leader.
„hey are three classes of supervisory techniques-
autocratic , participative or consultative and free rein and
corresponding to these three techniques, there are three
management styles- autocratic, democratic & laisses-faire.
„o these one more may be added- paternalistic style.
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1)Issue of orders to the subordinates.

2)Leader, the decision maker.

3)One way communication.

4)Implicit obedience.

5)Emphasis on negative incentive, fear, punishment etc.

6)´Iµ style.
#-'!3)( !'3.)3( ! .)( 4#$#)/#3" .

Participative or democratic leaders decentralise


authority. It is characterised by consultation with the
subordinates & their participation in the formulation
of plans & policies. He encourages participation in
decision making. He leads the subordinates mainly
through persuasion & example rather than the fear or
force. Sometimes the leaders serves as a moderator of
the ideas & suggestions from his group.
#)(+3#"

1)Interchange of ideas & two way communication.

2)Participation of subordinates in decision making.

3)Emphasis on satisfaction of egoistic needs.

4)Scope for use of human creativity & initiative.

5)Recognition of human values.

6)´ Weµ style all sink or swim.


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„he autocratic leader centralises power & decision
making in himself. He gives orders, assigns tasks &
duties without consulting the employees. „he leader
takes full authority & assumes full responsibility.
Autocratic leadership is negative based on threats &
punishments. Subordinates act as he directs. He
neither cares for their opinions nor permits them to
influence the decision. He believes that because of his
authority he alone can decide what is the best to do in
a given situation.
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1)Complete freedom for group or individual decision.

2)Leader furnishes leadership when asked.

3)Leader supplies information when asked.

4)Complete non participation by leader in determining


tasks & companions.

5)No appraisal, control etc.

6)´ ouµ style.


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Free- rein leaders avoid powers & responsibilities.
„he free- rein leadership type passes on the
responsibilities for a decision making to his
subordinates & takes himself minimum of initiative in
administration. He gives no direction & allows the
group to establish its own goals & work out its own
problems. „he leader plays only a minor role. His idea
is that each member of the group when left to himself
will put forth his best effort & the maximum results
can be achieved in this way. „he leader acts as an
umpire. But as no direction or control is exercised over
the people, the organisation is likely to flounder.
#3"'&)$5 -.#3"'&)$5*'3-)$ *+&!( '&)$
$#)/#3" .
Personal leadership is exercise through the
influence of personality.
Impersonal leadership is exercised from a distance
through subordinates of leaders & through written
orders, plans & programmes.
Formal leadership refers to all managerial
positions which are officially recognised.
Functional leadership exercises control because of
his expert knowledge.
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„he relationship between the leader & his group
is the same as the relationship between the head of the
family with the members of the family. „he leader
guides & protects his subordinates as members of his
family. „his leadership style was admirably successful
in Japan with her peculiar social background. But
main disadvantage in this style of leadership is that,
instead of gratitude it might generate antagonism &
resentment in the subordinates.
mm 6  m    7  

1)Cultural flexibility:
„his skill refers to cultural awareness and
sensitivity. Leaders must have the skills not only to
manage but also to recognize & celebrate the value of
diversity in their organizations.
2) Communication skills:
Effective leaders must be able to communicate- in
written form , orally & nonverbally.
3) HRD skills[ human resources]:
Because human resource are so much a part of
leadership effectiveness, ,must have human resource
development skills for developing a learning climate ,
designing and
Conducting training programs, transmitting
information and experience, assessing results,
providing career counseling, creating organizational
change, and adapting learning materials.
4) Creativity:
Problem solving, innovation and creativity provide
the competitive advantage in today's global market
place. Leaders must posses the skill to not only be
creative themselves but also provide a climate that
encourages creativity and assists their people to be
creative.
5) Self management of learning:
„his skill refers to the needs for continuous learning
of knowledge and skills. In this time of dramatic
change and global competitiveness, leaders must
undergo continuous change themselves. „hey must be
self learners.

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2)
Managing
stress

1) 3)
Developing Solving
Self- Problems
Awareness creativity
5)
Gaining
&
influence

4)
Communicat 6)
ing- Motivating
supportively others

7)
Managing
conflict
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1) X & theory:-
a) X theory:
b) theory:
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„his theory believes in situational behaviour of
the leaders & holds that the leadership is strongly
affected by the situation in which it works. „he theory
believes that is the situation which develops a
leadership & form which a leader emerges. According
to this theory, leadership pattern is the product of
situation in a particular group & the nature of
leadership differs in different situations. „he great
leaders like Hitler in Germany, Mussolini in Italy,
Mao „se „ung in China & Shivaji Maharaj of our
Maharashtra, emerged as a result of particular
situation in their respective countries.
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„his theory tells that, leadership is developed on
the basis of acceptance from followers. Leadership
cannot exist without group. A study of the
characteristics of the follower·s group is also necessary
to understand the nature of leadership. If leader is
successful in leading his group, satisfying them &
motivating them, he will be assumed to be a goal
leader. According to this theory, people tend, to follow
those persons who, according to them will satisfy their
personal wants & desires. „he followers should feel
that the leader is a source of information & satisfies
their needs. „hus according to this theory, an
individual can become the leader, if the group
members accept him so.
 '&( &1#&!2(#'32
Fred Fielder & his associates conducted a
comprehensive research at University of Illinois, U.S.A
over the leadership styles & effective group performance.
„his theory is not particularly associated with the
emergence or development of leadership as in case of
earlier three theories.
According to this theory, a leader may take into
account two extreme approaches to accomplish the group
goals. „his includes task oriented approach & people
oriented approach.
„ask oriented leader or manager gives utmost
importance to accomplishment of task, without
considering the reactions & expectations of his
subordinates. People oriented leader or manager,
however gives maximum attention to the expectations,
reactions & responses of his subordinates. Which
leadership style, task-oriented or people oriented is
better, is contigent upon the nature of situation,
rather than ability of the leader.
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$#)/#3" .:-
Hersey & Blanchard believed that
relationship between leader & subordinates moves
through phases- a kind of life cycle ² as subordinates
develop & mature & the managers need to vary their
leadership styles with each phase, like Directiveness,
Supportiveness, Participativeness, Achievement-
orientedness. In the initial stage, subordinates are to
be instructed in their job & rules & procedures etc.
As subordinates start learning their tasks, they are not
able to accept full responsibility, the manager shall
initiate employee-oriented behaviour. In the third
phase the employees ability & achievement of
motivation are increased & seek greater responsibility.
In the final stage manager can reduce the amount of
support & encouragement as subordinates gradually
become more confident & hence manager gives only
directive relationship
A few examples of four stages are as follows:
a) Providing specific guidance as to what should be
done.
b) Showing concern for well being of subordinates &
being friendly & approachable.
c) Soliciting subordinate suggestions.
d) Showing a high degree of confidence in subordinate.
·)(')$#'32'*m#)/#3" .
„his theory states that the leader lays the path
towards goals & he provide rewards for achieving
them. A leader should understand the needs of people
& their desire to work or behave in a way that
accomplishes goals that satisfy those needs. If the
leader knows the need of the person & his desire to
work & he is able to accomplish the work, the leader
can reward him to make him feel happy & satisfied. In
this process:
1) „he leader is motivating the members of the group by
clarifying the path to personal rewards that result
from attaining work goals.
2) „he member is made aware of the path goal & what
the job requires.
3) „he leader must offer the reward to the member of
the group who actually accomplishes the task. „he
leaders judgement about the desirability of the
member·s effort & the goal helps him to decide
whether a reward can be given.
CONCLUSION

R Different situations require different styles of


leadership
R ´Good leaders delegate and keep calm in times of
stress.
R ou can combine intelligence & humanity with
enthusiasm you are likely to be a good leader
R „o become a leader - be a leader.
R „he key to leadership is to accept responsibility.
R Leaders need a clear vision they should know
where they are going .
R „o be leader you have to be at one with people
you lead.