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V Introduction

V Internal & External Goals


V The Native Speaker as the Target of Language
Teaching
V L2 User Concept
V The Nature of L2 Users
V Conclusion & Summary
V `hy do you learn a second language?

for my future career,


because I like the language,
to travel in different countries,
to have a better understanding of the way of life in
the country where it is spoken, etc.
V `hy do you learn a second language?
According to SLA research, the target of second
language learning is À   

  
 
  
  îEllis, 1996)

aocus is on ´ whether the very best learners actually


have native-like competenceµ îLong, 1990)
V Internal goals relate to the student·s mental
development as individuals
being a better citizen, high cultural awareness etc.

V External goals relate to students· use of


language outside the classroom
traveling, using language in shops and trains etc.
V External goals· domination on Language
Teaching Methodology
The Communicative Language Teaching
Task-Based Language Approach

´The goal of language teaching is communicationµ


ë but; where? with whom? for what purpose?
ë Communication is too vague a term to bear the
weight given to it in language teaching
V External goals· domination on Language
Teaching Methodology

Communication is only one role of language in


human life îas proclaimed in Chomsky·s pragmatic
competence )

´Enabling students to use an L2 does not just give


them a tool for talking to people through a different
language, but change their lives and minds in all sort
of ways.µ îCook, 2002)
V ´After all, the ultimate goal-perhaps
unattainable for some-is, nonetheless, to sound
like a native speaker in all aspects of the
languageµ îGonzales-Nueno, 1997)

V It is acceptable for a speaker of English to


sound as if he/she comes from London,
Chicago or Auckland but not from Paris,
Beijing or Santiago.
V In the literal sense, it is impossible for an L2
user to become a native speaker.

V English is a useful lingua franca


A German Businessman negotiating contracts with a
Dane
The Chinese air-line pilot talking to the control tower
in Singapore
V an alternative to the native speaker goal

V There are one billion learners of English in the


world. îThe British Council, 1999)

V L2 users are different kinds of people from


monolingual native speakers.

V Multi-competence concept
1. L2 Users Have Different Uses Of Language
arom Monolinguals
ë translation
ë code switching

2. L2 Users Have a Different Command of the


Second and airst Languages
ë an L2 user should be compared with another
successful L2 user, not with a native speaker
ë L2 users have a different command of the L1 from a
monolingual native speaker
£ L2 users have to be credited with being what they
are,
£ They should be judged by how successful they are
as L2 users, not by their failure compared to native
speakers,
£ L2 users have the right to become L2 users, not
imitation native speakers,
£ If there is constant pressure to be like native
speakers, students are likely to accept this as their
role, rather than understanding the advantages of
L2 users
£ Language teaching should emphasize internal, not
just external, educational goals for the individual L2
user.

´Through the study of a foreign language, pupils .... begin


to think of themselves as citizens of the world as well as of
the United Kingdomµ îUK)

´Language teaching does not take on the goal of


producing near-native speakers of English, but rather
speakers of Hebrew, Arabic or other languages who can
function comfortably in English whenever it is
appropriateµ îThe Israeli National Curriculum)
V Introduction
V Internal & External Goals
V The Native Speaker as the Target of Language
Teaching
V L2 User Concept
V The Nature of L2 Users
V Conclusion & Summary
for the article:
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/`ritings/Pa
pers/EaLGoals.htm