Prof. J M OVASDI
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What is a Disaster
A serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources. A disaster is the product of a hazard such as earthquake, flood or windstorm coinciding with a vulnerable situation which might include communities, cities, villages Two main components -- Hazard and Vulnerability
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Distinction between Hazard & Disaster
A hazard is a natural or man-made event, while the disaster is its consequence.
The term disaster usually refers to the natural event earthquake, floods in combination with its damaging effects loss of life /property Hazard refers to the natural event, and vulnerability to the susceptibility of a population or system to the effects of the hazard. The probability that a particular system or population will be affected by the hazards is known as RISK Risk = Vulnerability x Hazard
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Distinction between Hazard & Disaster
There is no such thing as natural disaster there are natural hazards Disaster is the large scale effect of the hazard on a community or environment The impact of disaster is determined by the extent of a community s capacity to cope, that is the extent of a community s vulnerability to the hazard Disaster is the whole range of human dimension ---economic, social, cultural, institutional, political lives
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The term disaster is of French origin combination of two words des meaning bad or evil and astre meaning star. The combined meaning is Bad or Evil Star . People all over the world have been considering natural calamities as God s punishment . Thus disaster may be defined as an event, concentrated in time and space, which threatens a society or a relatively self-sufficient subdivision of a society with major unwanted consequences as result of the collapse of precautions which had hitherto been culturally accepted as inadequate.
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Types of Disasters
1. Natural Disasters (i) Wind-related: Storm, cyclone, tornado, hurricane, tidal waves (ii) Water-related: floods, cloud burst, flash floods, excessive rains, drought, communicable diseases etc. (iii) Earth-related: earthquakes, tsunamis, avalanches, landslides, volcanic eruptions 2. Man-made Disasters (i) Wars, battles, hostile enemy actions (ii) Arson, sabotage, internal disturbances, riots (iii) Accidents of vehicles, trains, aircraft, ships, forest and urban fires etc. (iv) Ethnic conflicts, terrorism etc. (v) Biological disasters: epidemics, pest attacks, food poisoning etc.
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Sociological and psychological consequences
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. Crops -. local economies 8. loss of production 7. destruction of infrastructure. destruction of environment 5. Life-style --Disruption.Damage. Social & Psychological -.Damage. public service system 4. Property --Damage. Infrastructure. loss of community or lifestyle 9.Loss to national.Disruption.Impact of Disasters
1. Services --Damage. Environment -. Productivity -. Economy -. destruction of property 3. destruction of crops 6. People loss of life in large numbers 2.
Overview of Natural Disasters in India
Coastal States. particularly on the East coast and Gujarat are vulnerable to cyclones 4 crore hectare landmass is vulnerable to floods 68 % of net sown area is vulnerable to droughts 55 % of total area is in seismic zones III-V. hence vulnerable to earthquakes Sub-Himalayan sector and western ghats are vulnerable to landslides
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It is still having its effects. adulteration of drugs and food items are very common Poor implementation of safety norms in the factories Poor civic sense of the citizens at large . air accidents. bridges Road. women and children are more vulnerable to all kinds of natural or man-made disasters Communal riots Babri Masjid demolition was not a one time disaster. rail.Overview of Man-Made Disasters
Structural collapses buildings.
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. mines. food poisoning. deaths due to severe heat or cold Poor. old. fires. The event is being used for militant activities Naxal activities due to oppressions of the tribal population Hooch.
animal and resources must be maintained.Environmental Concerns
Nature is an abundant resource but indiscriminate and rampant exploitation creates threats of destruction. Oil spills. particularly water Air and water pollution due to increasing industrialization as well as irresponsible discharge of pollutants
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. Balance in nature between man. forest fires or nuclear leaks can cause widespread damage to the environment Global warming and Extreme Climate melting of Himalayan glaciers Agro-forestry deforestation to meet the needs of increasing population Rapid urbanization increasing population density increasing vulnerability and excessive strain on natural resources.
Development VS. particularly water. air.as in Jaipur Flooding of Mumbai due to water logging
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. noise pollution Large scale urbanization is beyond the nature s bearing capacity excessive use of natural resources. Environment
Development activities compound effects of natural calamities Industries close to habitation and without proper treatment of contamination affluence has increased health hazards through water.
increased land-slides.Development VS. and floods in the plains Destruction of mangroves and coral reefs has increased the vulnerability of coastal areas Commercialization of coastal areas. particularly for tourism. Environment
Deforestation to meet development needs have increased the vulnerability of the hill people reduced rain fall.
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. accidents have become the top cause of human casualties. With the increase in vehicular traffic. has increased disaster potential as witnessed during Tsunami in December 2004 and again in March 2011 in Japan.
Same is the story of all the water-bodies of the country
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. but the net result is disappointing. We have Ganga Action Plan to clean it. The factories and tanneries located on its banks are discharging their chemical waste directly into it.Ganga Maili
We have become so stupid in our use of natural resources that we are using the Holy Ganga to carry the whole lot of municipal waste of all the towns and cities located on its banks.
congested colonies Jaipur with walls around it.
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.Need for Action
The quality of life of an individual is determined largely by socio-economic and the physical environment How to minimize the vulnerability of the community Formerly city people. Then came slums. without individual motorized transport were happy to live in close-knit neighborhood. Number of vehicles has increased sharply since 1995. Famous wide roads of Jaipur have become death-traps Metro is planned to reduce the use of private vehicles and thus to take care of the increasing vulnerability of the citizens. and suburban areas and the industries close to the city.
Post-modernistic Approach to Urbanization
In the post-modernistic approach to urban development pluralistic and organic strategies are being applied New Urban development is a collage of highly differentiated spaces and attention is given to other worlds and other voices In simple words in the 21st century the new development has the following features: Diversity in the landscape. local context. renewal and regeneration and coping with conditions vastu purusha mandala think of colonies as living organisms that need breathing and growth facilities.
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mixed land uses Renewal and regeneration. as mass housing Continued emphasis on lower densities and sunlight. controlled expansion through suburbs. functional zoning. coping with conditions
Themes in Strategic Planning
Decision Making Style
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. mixed flats and housing Redevelopment of slums. either blueprint. containment Piecemeal.Differences in Approach to Planning
MODERNIST Concepts of the City Themes in Urban Design The city as an object. unitary (1940 s1960) or adaptive POST -MODERNIST The city as landscape. more emphasis on local context. as an expression of social diversity More diversity. new town and greenbelts Comprehensive.
Risk management cycle is more appropriate. Disaster cycle is development crisis disaster relief recovery development.
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. Sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. both in a positive and negative ways Rational choices in developmental planning can reduce the risk of negative effects.Development vs Environment
Disasters and development are interrelated.
Enhanced educational and health capacity increases resilience. migration. of key social actors leading to an erosion of social capital Development path generating cultural norms that promote social isolation or political exclusion Building community cohesion. communication. j m ovasdi
Development reduces disaster risk
.Disaster-. Investing in financial mechanism and social security can cushion against vulnerability.Development
Disaster limits Destruction of fixed assets development Damage to transport system. Death. Providing opportunities for greater involvement in decisionmaking. infrastructure. waste management and a secure dwelling increases people s resilience. food. Trade and technology can reduce poverty. 18
Development causes disaster risk
Unstable development practices that create wealth for some at the expense of unsafe working and living conditions of others or degrade the environment Access to adequate drinking water. Erosion of livelihood
Destruction of health or education infrastructure and personnel. Recognizing excluded individuals or social groups.
affecting all fauna and flora. like water that is already seriously affecting the lives of urban population.Global Warming & Climate Change
Global warming and climate change is a matter of great concern that is likely to have far reaching changes in the human existence. The speed of glacier melting in India and elsewhere is going to flood the island nations and coastal areas all over the world Large scale deforestation will also affect the climate on large scale Urbanization is leading to heavy concentration of population in limited areas increasing vulnerability of communities Urbanization is a sign of development but it is a strain on the natural resources.
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Disaster Management Cycle
The concept of Disaster Management Cycle has been developed since Yokohama Conference (1994). Other purposive activities undertaken in the pre or post-disaster stages by the CSOs and the Government towards mitigating the impact of disaster or tackling long-term vulnerabilities and dealing with newer threats in the wake/aftermath of a disaster were not included in disaster management activities. which lasted till some time after the disaster.
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. Before this disaster management was perceived as a short-term relief undertaking.
but only five people died due to near perfect disaster management plan in design and execution 700.000 people were evacuated from Havana and other threatened areas. intermediate. medical aid. highlighting procedural. In 2001 high velocity hurricane hit Cuba. systems flaws or failures in implementing the plan. restoration of communications. affected infrastructure. food. About 80 % of disasters are classified as natural
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. means of livelihood etc.Disaster Response
Disaster response rescue. and long range. defects in planning may be noticed during this period. shelter temporary.
Organization for Disaster Management
To take preventive and relief operations organizations have been set up at international. national and local levels IDNDR International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction: Secretariat in Geneva Scientific and Technical Committee Union Level Organization for Disaster Management Advisory committee and national executive committee National Disaster Management Authority and Sub-committee
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.State & District Level
State Executive Committee and its subcommittee State Disaster Management Committee and an advisory committee District Level Local authority and its subcommittee District Disaster Management authority and advisory committee.
as well as a contact group of Geneva-based diplomatic missions
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. the Special High Level Council promotes global awareness of disaster reduction A UN inter-agency group works regularly with the IDNDR secretariat. is part of the UN department of humanitarian affairs The IDNDR Scientific and Technical Committee is an advisory body with experts in economics. etc. social sciences. A group of well-known personalities. industry. meteorology.Role of IDNDR
IDNDR works through IDNDR National Committee and Focal Points which exist in 138 countries (1989) IDNDR. engineering. located in Geneva. geology. public health.
Union Level Organization
The National Disaster Management Authority Consists of the chairperson and nine members The Prime Minister is the Chairperson ex officio All the members. not exceeding nine are nominated by the chairperson A Vice-chairperson is also nominated by the chairperson from among the members
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.Powers & Functions of the National Authority
Lay down policies on disaster management Approve the National Plan Approve plans made by the Ministries or departments of the Government of India Guidelines for the State Governments Guidelines for the Union Departments for the purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy of plan for disaster management Recommend provision of funds Provide support to other countries as decided by the GoI Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of Disaster Management.
The National Plan shall include -1.National Plan
The national Plan shall be prepared by the National Executive committee having regard to the National Policy and in consultation with the State Governments and expert bodies or organizations in the field of disaster management to be approved by the National Authority. or the mitigation of their effects
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. Measures to be taken for the prevention of disasters.
Measures to be taken for preparedness and capacity building to effectively respond to any threatening disaster situations or disaster 4. Roles and responsibilities of different Ministries or departments of the Government of India in respect of the above The National Plan shall be reviewed and update annually Appropriate provisions shall be made by the Central Government for financing the measures to be carried out under the National Plan
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2. Measures to be taken for the integration of mitigation measures in the development plans 3.
food. Ex gratia assistance on account of loss of life as also assistance on account of damage to houses and for restoration of means of livelihood. drinking water. which shall include.Guidelines for Minimum Standards
The National Authority shall recommend guidelines for the minimum standards of relief to be provided to persons affected by disaster. - The minimum requirements to be provided in the relief camps in relation to shelter. medical cover and sanitation.
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. Such other relief as may be necessary. The special provisions to be made for widows and orphans.
ex officio. is also a member of the State Authority and he is the Vice-Chairperson of the State Authority. ex-officio. the SP/SSP. District Disaster Management Authority is headed by the DM/Collector/Deputy Commissioner with seven other members including the elected representative of the local authority (co-chairperson) / Chief Executive Officer of the District Authority in the Tribal Areas. is the chairperson and eight other member nominated by him. The Chairperson of the State Executive Committee. exofficio.
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. the Chief Medical Officer. ex-officio.State & District Level
At the state level Chief Minister . and two other district level officers to be nominated by the state government.
State & District Level
In a district where zila parishad exists.
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.The State Authority may constitute an advisory committee. Additional Collector of the district shall be the Chief Executive officer of the District Authority. consisting of experts in the field of disaster management and having practical experience of disaster management to make recommendations on different aspects of disaster management. Advisory Committee -. the chairperson thereof shall be the co-chairperson of the District Authority.
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.Powers & Functions of State Authority
Lay down the State disaster management policy Approve the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority Approve the disaster management plans prepared by the departments of the State Government Lay down guidelines to be followed by the departments of the State Government for the purpose of integration of measures for prevention of disasters and mitigation in their development plans and projects and provide necessary technical assistance thereof. Coordinate the implementation of the State Plan. Recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures.
Functions of the State Executive Committee
Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Policy. the National Plan and the State Plan Examine the vulnerability of different parts of the state to different forms of disasters and specify measures to be taken for their prevention or mitigation Lay down guidelines for preparation of disaster management plans by the departments of the State Government and District Authorities Evaluate preparedness at all governmental and nongovernmental levels to respond to any threatening disaster situation or disaster and give directions
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Functions of the State Executive Committee
Promote general education, awareness and community training in regard to the forms of disasters to which parts of the state are vulnerable and the measures that may be taken by such community to prevent the disaster, mitigate and respond to such disaster Provide technical assistance to District and local authorities for carrying out their functions effectively Advise the State Government regarding all financial matters relating to disaster management Examine the suitability of the infrastructure planned and executed for disaster prevention and mitigation Provide information to the National Authority relating to different aspects of disaster management.
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Role & Responsibility of District Authority
Prepare disaster management plan including district response Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National and State policy Identification of vulnerable areas of the district for taking preventive as well as relief arrangements Give directions to the various district authorities for prevention and mitigation of disasters Organize special training programs for different levels to officers, employees, volunteers Set-up, maintain, review, update early warnings system and district response mechanism .
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Role & Responsibility of District Authority
Establish stockpiles of relief and rescue materials Identify buildings and places which could be used in the event of a threat or actual disaster Involve the NGOs and other social-welfare institutions working at grass-roots level in the district for disaster management Ensure the efficient working of communication system and devise an alternative system of communication Carry out periodical drills involving authorities, NGOs and the general public.
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.Role & Responsibility of District Authority
Provide information to the State Authority relating to different aspects of disaster management Review the state of capabilities for responding to any disaster or threatening disaster situation in the district and give necessary directions to the relevant departments or authorities at the district level for their up gradation as may be necessary Perform such other functions as the State Government or State Authority may assign to it for disaster management in the district.
a vulnerable or affected area. from within. conduct search and carry out rescue operations. drinking water and essential provisions. Provide shelter. healthcare and services. his movement within and departure from. Control and restrict the vehicular traffic to. Remove debris. Control and restrict the entry of any person.
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. Establish emergency communication systems in the affected area. food. the vulnerable.In the Event of Threat or Disaster
The District Authority may
Give directions for the release and use of resources available with any department of the government and the local authority in the district. or affected area.
Procure exclusive or preferential use of amenities from any authority or person.
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. Take any other such step as may be necessary. Construct temporary bridges or other necessary structures and demolish structures which may be hazardous to public or aggravate the effects of the disaster. Ensure that the NGOs carry out their activities in an equitable and non-discriminatory manner.In the Event of Threat or Disaster
Make arrangements for the disposal of the unclaimed dead bodies. Consult experts in the relevant fields to advise and assist it may deem necessary.
Mitigation to reduce both the effect of hazard and vulnerable conditions through sustainable development 4. Rehabilitation returning to normal or better life through well laid out plans. Preparedness measures designed to organize and facilitate timely and effective rescue.Disaster Management
Four major Components
1. relief and rehabilitation measures at all levels international to national and local 2.
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. Prevention advance planning and environment protection 3.
the story is different
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. including India. Prevention. Mitigation and Rehabilitation
Prevention is better than cure Preparedness is the first initiative of prevention Preparedness for disasters done meticulously means half of the problem is solved In developed countries preparedness and prevention help them in minimizing loss to life and property In developing countries.Preparedness.
Disaster preparedness is a continuous process It involves the following steps: Identification of disaster prone areas and regions Establishing communication. 7.Disaster Preparedness
1. and warning system Designing coordination and response mechanism Planning for financial and other resources for increased readiness which can be mobilized in disaster situations Public education and involvement of civil society organizations Regular drills to check the responses of the various systems. 4. information. 3. 2. 5. 6. authorities and organizations Identification of existing and/ or building infrastructure required for sheltering the people at the time of threat or after the disaster has struck
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A culture of prevention is to be installed in all communities and among disaster managers. Principles of disaster prevention management are 1. Risk assessment is necessary for adoption of adequate and effective disaster reduction policies 2. Disaster prevention & preparedness are of primary importance in reducing the need for disaster relief 3. It should be apart of development policy and planning at the national, regional, bilateral, multilateral and international levels 4. Early warning system and effective communication system are a must 5. Participation of local communities and CSOs and NGOs 6. International community to share necessary technology to prevent, reduce and mitigate disasters.
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Mitigation is the measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard itself and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster Examples water management in drought prone areas, building of dams/ bunds and other such measures to reduce the chances of floods, early and correct warning systems for the people and fishermen on the coastal areas, regular inspection of infrastructure to avoid their collapse, building bunkers for citizens in case of war, adequate pre-storage of necessities required for use after a disaster.
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Principles of Mitigation
1. Integrating disaster mitigation with development plans 2. Effective communication systems 3. Use of latest IT technology 4. Insurance in all relevant sectors 5. Extensive public awareness and education campaigns in urban and rural areas 6. Legal and legislative support 7. Greater involvement of NGOs/private sector 8. Allocating separate funds for disaster relief in normal budget 9. Strict review of housing, drainage, pollution control measures.
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Relief and Rehabilitation
Relief and rehabilitation are the most important steps needed to be taken immediately after a disaster Indians are very sympathetic to the people in distress. doctors rush to the site of a calamity and after a couple of days they leave for the safety of their own homes. volunteers. Whenever there are floods.
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. serious accidents or any other calamity people contribute old clothes and food necessary for the immediate help needed by the victims of the calamities NGOs.
Prepare Disaster plans area-wise 2. Permanent rehabilitation measures should be taken to minimize possibilities of similar disasters in future
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. shortterm. honest and hardworking personnel in administration 7.Ingredients of Effective Rehabilitation
1. Good governance through dedicated. Effective coordination to avoid delays and provide timely helps 3. and long term 8. Effective coordination in assessment of the damages and the priorities of relief arrangements 5. NGOs. Harmony and goodwill among all sections of the society avoiding political and community discrimination 6. Involvement of CSOs. Psychological counseling to kindle will power among the disaster affected people 4. and general public in different levels of relief and rehabilitation measures immediate.
and is of such nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.Disaster Management Act 2005
Definition: Disaster means a catastrophe. calamity or grave occurrence in any area. mishap. or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to. arising from natural or man-made cause. or damage to or degradation of environment.
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. and destruction of property.
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. Evacuation. 2.Disaster Management Act 2005
Disaster Management means a continuous and integrated process of planning. 7. Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster. Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences. 5. organizing. Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster. and 8. Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster. coordinating and implementation measures which are necessary or expedient for 1. Capacity-building. 4. 3. 6. Preparedness to deal with any disaster. Rehabilitation and reconstruction. rescue and relief.
The role of the NGOs.Basic Features of NDMA
Coordination and monitoring The role of elders. Self-Help Groups and other Community Based Organizations (CBOs). mitigation. and locally respected leaders. The role of women as active participants in DM including risk reduction. The role of urban and Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)
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. senior citizens. preparedness and awareness generation.
running of mock drills and the process of central assistance to the states
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.Sections of the Frame Work
Operational Administrative Financial Legal The process
Seven battalions of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) have been positioned at nine different locations to cover the entire country and their role is To help the states in capacity building.
Floods.Vulnerability of India
India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its geo-climate conditions. draught. earthquakes and landslides have been a recurrent phenomena About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities Over 40 million (4 crore) hectares is prone to floods About 8% of the area is prone to cyclones 68% of the area is susceptible to drought Between 1990 and 2000 an average of 4344 people lost their lives and about 30 million (3 crore) people were affected by disasters every year
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Natural and man-made disasters are a global phenomena In 1989 UN General Assembly declared the decade 1990-2000 as the International decade for Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of loves and property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted international action. specially in developing countries
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regional.It should be an integral part of the development policy and planning at the local. national. multilateral and international levels Development and deployment of early warning systems to avoid the magnitude of the effects of a hazard
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.Principles of Disaster Management
Risk assessment proper assessment of the probability and risk involved of a hazard is the first step for preparing an adequate and successful disaster reduction policies Disaster prevention and preparedness are of primary importance in reducing the need for disaster relief Integration -.
from the local community.Principles of Disaster Management
Involvement of communities preventive measures are most effective when it involve participation at all levels. international organizations Design --Vulnerability can be reduced by the application of proper design and patterns of development focused on target groups through appropriate education & training Collaboration -. corporate sector.International understanding of sharing technology and resources to mitigate disasters Primary Responsibility -. national. infrastructure and other national assets from the impact of natural and manmade disasters
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.Each nation has the primary responsibility of protecting its people. civil society organizations(CSO).
Two Approaches to mitigation 1. and 2. Engineered Structures.Mitigation
Mitigation embraces all measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard itself and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster. Non-engineered Structures
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including buildings. all building are designed and constructed to withstand high magnitude earth quakes.Mitigation
Engineered structures involve architects and
engineers during the planning. Japan is a classic example. dams. designing. etc. roads. embankments. For example the trains stop automatically when there is seismic activity. The country is prone to earth-quakes on almost daily basis.
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. bridges. but the effects are minimal. Many countries have laid rules and laws that are strictly followed for engineered construction. and construction of structures.
drought prone or coastal areas prone to tsunami and cyclones.
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.Latur & Los Angeles
Vulnerability is linked with the level of socio-economic ability to cope with the resulting event in order to resist major disruption or loss In 1993 the earth-quake in Latur.000 dead and destroyed houses and other properties of 20. Maharashtra.000 households. left over 10. the earth-quake of higher magnitude in Los Angeles resulted in the deaths of 55 only. Physical and socio-economic vulnerabilty is high in India. living in densely populated areas. closely located to flood prone. In 1971. Disasters are more disastrous where the victims happen to be poor.
towards vulnerability reduction or disaster mitigation. as phases occurring in different time periods in disaster management continuum. government and nongovernment.Disaster Management Cycle
The concept of disaster management cycle integrates isolated attempts on the part of different actors. Planned Approach this concept has facilitated a planned approach to disaster management.
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and After disasters This documentation is a learning process to reduce the vulnerability and to increase the effectives of preparedness and relief. comprising relief. It is a holistic approach. recovery and rehabilitation are post-disaster management activities The complete cycle of disaster management.Disaster Management Cycle
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. mitigation and preparedness form predisaster activities in the disaster management cycle Response. therefore is the complete realm of activities and situations that occur Before During.
Stages in Disaster Management
Disaster management is disaster risk management systematic process of using administrative decisions. operation skills. strategies and coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impact of natural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. mitigation. 2001 Within two years the affected area emerged as a more vibrant and capable of effectively coping with future calamities. recovery. Phases disaster event. response. development.
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. and capacities to implement policies. organization. Case Study of Gujarat Earthquake of 26 Jan. and preparedness.
handicapped. women. The suffering of lives and property may differ in similar events Economically weaker sections of society. old people suffer more because they have lesser capability to fight the natural & man-made hazards. children. floods a few days and drought a couple of months. like an earthquake. Each event may require different response
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. cloud burst a few hours.Disaster Event
Real-time event of a hazard occurring and affecting the elements at risk The duration may be a few seconds. tsunami a few minutes.
Investing in mitigation issues like building long-term resilience of vulnerable communities would better serve the purpose of disaster management.
. Business interests press on projects planning and execution to suit their personal gains rather than j m ovasdi 63 public good.Flaws in Disaster Response
The World Disaster Report of 2002 states that thousands of lives are lost and millions of people left weakened each year because of donor reluctance to invest in measures that reduce the impact of disasters. There is widespread corruption/ leakage in disaster relief disbursements.
multidisciplinary coordination and collaboration among stakeholders in disaster reduction and response. organized by the Asian Disaster reduction centre (ADRC) and OCHA. held in Kathmandu.Risk Reduction: Mitigation and Preparedness
TDRM approach as explained in the Regional Workshop (2001). and the CONTEXTUAL FACTORS in disaster risks and its management Enhancement of local capability Promote multilevel.
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. Kobe are as follows: Comprehensively define the various concerns and gaps in the different phases of disaster management cycle underlying the CAUSES of DISASTER.
or community to disaster reduction and response 2. Resources identification and provision of resource requirements. 4. 3. especially for vulnerable sectors and communities. Structures and systems -.Implementation of TDRM
1. Capacity-building enhancement of national and local capacity to establish and implement disaster reduction and response measures. Policy-. organization. including funds and trained human resources 5.clear & comprehensive policy that defines the objectives and commitment of the government.
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.establishment of strengthening of focal points and coordination bodies. Implementation implement the risk management process from national to the community level in continuation.
relief and rehabilitation measures is that of the state governments The central government supplements the efforts of the state governments by way of physical and financial resources. if need arises
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.Response Mechanism in India
In India there is integrated administrative machinery for management of disasters at the national. district and sub-district levels The primary responsibility of undertaking rescue. state.
Response of the Central Government
Two types 1. Policy Response 2. Administrative Response The Central response is 1. Policy Response. broadly relates to i) Operational requirements ii) Provision of central assistance as per existing policy
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. keeping in view the short and long term policy objectives of the government 2. Administrative response.
Visits of the calamity affected areas by President. and Secondary relief functions. PM and other dignitaries Activating the administrative machinery for assisting in relief measures Setting up machinery for implementing.
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. reviewing and monitoring of relief measures The operational aspects of the administrative response could be further classified into Primary relief functions.
Forecasting and operation of warning system 2.Primary Relief Functions
1. Wide publicity to warnings of impending calamity. Maintenance of uninterrupted communication 3. Transport for evacuation and movement of essential commodities 5. Check on prices of essential goods and services use of PDS for distribution
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. disaster preparedness and relief measures through multimedia 4.
Primary Relief Functions
6. Preservation and restoration of physical communication links 8.
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. Mobilization of financial resources. Investments in infrastructure 9.
vaccines and drugs 7. Ensuring availability of medicines.
nutrition. Contingency plans for crops. Relief. and coordination of the activities of the state agencies and voluntary agencies. cattle preservation.
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. Technical assistance in the water budgeting and water management for various uses. Flood/inflow forecasts from Central Water Commission 2. health and hygiene 4.Secondary Relief Functions
1. Technical and technological inputs for provision of drinking water 5. rehabilitation and restoration through military aid to civil authorities 3.
and NGOs At the central level. training.Energizing Local Government
Since the immediate and greatest sufferers of a disaster are the local community. monitoring etc. sensitizing.
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. efforts controlling disasters are concentrated at the local level Much depends on the initiative at that level the local people. local volunteer groups (CSOs). Lal Bahadur National Academy of Administration. PRIs. Mussoorie and similar institutions in all the states have been given a mandate to involve all the stake holders in Disaster policy planning.
It functions as the state Centre for Disaster Management
Its objectives are
Training of different stakeholders in Disaster Management IEC activities to generate community awareness towards disaster management Research and documentation of different disasters in the state
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. Jaipur is the state nodal agency for disaster management studies and training.Role of Public Administration Training Institutions
In Rajasthan HCM RIPA (Rajasthan Institute of Public Administration).
The centre distributes the various booklets published by it on Earthquake. Drought. specific groups like Civil Defence Wardens. NCC. Scouts & Guides. Fire. PRI members. Email id of nodal officer kartikeya_misra@yahoo. Faculty members of the centre also deliver lectures in schools & colleges on invitation to sensitize the youth towards Disaster Management.Role of RIPA
On continuous basis trainings are conducted for government officials.in
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. NGOs etc. Flood. NYK. First Aid etc. NSS.
Strengthen the Nodal Planning Agency with experts from Different Areas. present plans. future design for DM must be systematically compiled to have easy assess and availability (d) Positive interest by politicians and bureaucrats (e) Constant monitoring and evaluation even after the disaster to ensure long-term rehabilitation
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. At present the existing nodal agency is acting like a post office devoid of expertise in different areas of DM.Suggestions for Improving NDM
1. It should be strengthened with: (a) Part time experts for different areas (b) Furnish Control room of nodal agency with latest technology and manned by technical experts (c) Documentation historical.
Genuine NGO s participation in Disaster Preparedness Plan according to their specialization and track record 4.Permanent establishment of State Disaster Planning Preparedness Management Machinery and not ad-hoc arrangements as and when disasters occur 3. Permanent Machinery -. accountable and like a learning organization
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. Participation of the people.Suggestions for Improving NDM
2. 5. Government administration should be transparent. responsive. They are the real architects of a nation.
systematic rescue and relief operations.
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. This will help in providing pre and post-disaster relating information which will further help in matters such as risk assessment. Disaster Mapping mapping is made to assess the impact of disaster on population. Need to create effective preparedness at local level conduct regular exercises 7. property and natural resources.Suggestions for Improving NDM
iii) Develop special negotiation & communication skills required to reduce conflict or ensure cooperation in a crisis situation iv) Develop social knowledge and expertise in the field.
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. and managing crisis. Leadership for Disaster Preparedness bureaucrats with proven leadership dynamism should be in-charge of nodal agencies 9. Leadership & Crisis Preparedness Management important features of crisis management are i) Identify the problems that could lead to a crisis and learn when and how to intervene most effectively ii) Know how to carry out the difficult planning and coordination activities associated with preparing for.Suggestions for Improving NDM
DROUGHT MANAGEMENT A CASE STUDY 2002
Prepared by Prof. J M OVASDI
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anticipated weak monsoon in early July 2002. In July 2002 the monsoon was actually 51% lower than normal By mid-July itself the Central Government initiated drought management related initiatives On 24th July the agriculture and relief ministers of all the states likely to be affected by severe drought was held by the Union Agriculture Minister
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.DROUGHT MANAGEMENT -.A Case Study
The Crop Weather Watch Group (CWWG). an InterMinisterial body set-up in the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.
The worst affected states were Rajasthan. Rajasthan was worst affected. Food and Public Distribution Minister and Deputy Chairman. Planning Commission as members to continuously monitor the situation and to provide assistance to the affected states well in time.
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. MP. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Finance Minister. Rural Development Minister. Chattisgarh.DROUGHT MANAGEMENT --A Case Study
Immediately a Task Force on Drought Management was set up in July 2002 under the chairmanship of Deputy Prime Minister with Agriculture Minister. Andhra Pradesh.
The total resources mobilized in advance of the actual drought was.000 crore to finance relief programs.Drought Case Study
As desired by the Task Force. `20. the Central Government took a number of initiatives like: Advance release of funds from Calamity Relief Fund. Expenditure for relief works was given precedence by the central and state financial departments
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. under relaxed norms Release of food grains free of cost for relief work and employment Deferment /waiver of agricultural loans or interest Free transportation of fodder and water.
Most of the affected states adopted the unusual method of declaring draught on eye-estimation States were asked to submit their need for funds and relief much before the draught actually took place
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. 50 % of such area was in Rajasthan.Case Study contd
Drought of 2002 was so severe that huge areas remained unsown 180 lakh hectares Under normal rules agriculture input subsidy is payable to Small and Marginal Farmers when their crops suffer damage of 50 % or more as a result of natural calamity. In this case no crop could be sown and farmers were not eligible for relief in the form of subsidy.
Expenditure ` 7000 crore 2.Drought Case Study
Special Measures to combat impact of Drought 1. 10 million (1 crore) farmers got this benefit. Improving flow of credit in drought affected areas by NABARD 3. Agriculture input subsidy was extended to farmers owning more than two hectares of land. Power supply for minimum 8-10 hours to agriculture sector
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fodder. The Chief-Minister personally wrote to the municipal and PRI officials to building the desired infrastructure by 30 September 2003 and it was actually accomplished. Rainwater-harvesting program was the outcome of the drought of 2002.
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. then agriculture. next. WATER HARVESTING INITIATIVE Tamil Nadu was the first state to promote rainwater-harvesting through an ordinance in 2003.Drought Case Study
Water resources sector Departments of the State Governments advocated water budgeting first priority to drinking water.
Allocation of Food grains the affected states were put in three categories A: UP. Karnataka. and Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra.Drought Case Study
Employment Generation with 180 lakh hectares unsown due to monsoon failure in early July the Task Force. AP. C: Rajasthan
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. Jharkhand and Kerala. Haryana. in its very first meeting understood the need to initiate employment generation works at an early date instead of waiting for the people to suffer and then ask for relief measures. HP. Orissa. BMP. Gujarat. Uttranchal. Chattisgarh. Punjab.
each willing rural BPL family were employed for at least 10 days with 8 kg foodgrains per day for worst affected 74 blocks and for the remaining blocks 6 kg per day. C
A category states -.Relief as per Category A.allocation of food grains was made for 20 % of BPL families B category states up to 50 % of willing rural BPL families For both A and B categories of affected states the quantum of food grains was 5 kg for ten days a month Rajasthan 74 worst affected blocks covering all BVPL and vast majority of APL For the remaining 163 blocks.
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. the employment days per month were increased to 12 for all blocks. later on increased to 8 kg. B.
It was one of the longest ever employment generation program as a relief measure. Started in August 2002 and continued till July 2003. field visits of area officers and involvement of peoples representatives and voluntary agencies functioned as watch dogs against mal practices on drought relief program. vigilance squads.
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Monitoring teams. Longest Employment Generation the duration of the employment generation prog.
000 crore. It was one of the largest ever transportation management in the world. 32 million people were employed on 3 lakh relief projects.
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At the peak drought period. including 9 million tonnes of foodgrains.40 million tonnes of foodgrains were transported by rail within 5 months. 1400 million man-days were generated at a cost of `9. Both income security and food security objectives were achieved World Record of Logistics -.
000 habitations and 500 cities and small towns were provided with potable water by the Indian Railways through 75.Fodder for the Cattle & Drinking Water
Fodder scarcity was noticed in September 2002 and mostly in Rajasthan. 3.
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.75. and 5000 trucks daily Drinking Water 1. 15.000 cattle camps were set up in different states where 110 million cattle were provided fodder from December 2002 to June 2003.19 million tonnes of fodder was transported by rail from Punjab and Haryana to Rajasthan.000 tankers @ 75 million liters per day.
J M OVASDI
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.DISASTER MANAGEMENT EARTH QUAKE
A CASE STUDY OF KUTCH (GUJARAT) 2001 From the book Management of NonGovernmental Organisations Towards a Developed Civil Society by
According to official figures released by the central Government as of 6 February 2001. Within these districts more than 37.615 houses/huts were damaged.26 January 2001
Kutch district: Population 1.
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. Nature s Fury: The severe earthquake that struck Gujarat on 26 January 2001 flattened much of the state.000: 620.263. Out of the 21 affected districts. 228.8 million people were affected. the earthquake killed 16.906 houses/huts were destroyed and 397.000 and 50. According to preliminary assessments. Ahmedabad.652 sq.000 deaths. Unofficial sources estimated any thing between 20. Men: women 643.250 cattle died.478. The Natural Disaster Management Control Room located at the Ministry of Agriculture in Delhi reported on 6 February 2001 that 12. Talukas 9. Jamnagar and Rajkot. Area 45.000 (1991 census).000. those most affected were Kutch-Bhuj.. the damage to buildings and infrastructure amounted close `6 billion. Villages 949.459 people and injured 68. km.
the State Government of Gujarat. which worked closely together with the State Government of Gujarat.
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. National/Government Response: The central Government immediately launched a massive rescue and relief operation by mobilizing available resources and personnel to mitigate the suffering of the victims. The initial relief effort was centrally coordinated by the Natural Disaster Management Control Room. the UN System and bilateral donors responded with a variety of initiatives. national and international NGOs.Response to the Disaster
The Government of India.
Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra had provided food.Response to the Disaster
As of 5 February 2001. the Central Government had announced financial assistance of IRS 500. medical supplies and personnel and a wide variety of other relief items. the Central Government made available close to 95.
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. Other relief items dispatched through the Central Government included clothing and tents. blankets. Several states including the neighboring States of Rajasthan.00 Crore equaling USD 1 billion.000 MT of food. medical supplies and personnel. In addition. fuel and communication equipment.
Later several Subcentres were established. moral and emotional strength.
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. going directly to the people affected in order to ascertain their needs. trying to get an accurate assessment of the damage amid the confusion and rumors. The Kutch Navnirman Abhiyan network was started to undertake a monumental relief operation. Over 200 NGOs of Gujarat state had come together under the aegis of Janpath Citizen's Initiative to support the Abhiyan network.NGOs Involvement
The Relief Commissioner of Bhuj established an NGO coordination centre with 300 NGOs. probably the greatest ever trial of their physical. Experienced Self-Employed Womens Association (SEWA) teams were in the field since the day of the earthquake.
Poland. Mexico. Hungary. and the United Kingdom were involved in the Search and Rescue operation. most SAR teams left. Italy/Spain. South Africa. many international NGOs have been responding and are active in the area.
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. Medical and SAR teams from Denmark. Switzerland. After the rescue phase was over. USA. Israel. Japan. Turkey.Rescue Initiatives
In addition. Germany. the Russian Federation. 22 Search and Rescue (SAR) teams made up of 399 rescuers and 26 rescue dogs equipped with technical and rescue equipment assisted in the search and rescue operation. France.
The UNDMT together with Ericsson and Ham Radio set up communications systems in the affected area. The team established an On-Site Operations Coordination Centre (OSOCC). in close collaboration with the Indian authorities and the relevant UN agencies.
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. a Reception Centre for registering incoming teams and relief items was established at the airport during the rescue operation. immediately mobilized and deployed a fivemember United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) Team on 27 January. In Ahmedabad.United Nations Response
The in-country UN System through the UN Disaster Management Team (UNDMT) led by the UN Resident Coordinator. However even after ten days of the earthquake the UN teams could not quantify the full extent of aid required.
The Gujarat earthquake had resulted in a collapse of the local health command and control structure. whose role was to supplement civil services had to serve as a first responder and was left as the only functional hospital in the city. The military hospital at Bhuj. The civil hospitals were completely destroyed due to structural damages.
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. the surgeries had to take place under tent cover. A massive effort was mounted by the Armed Forces to manage the disaster. Since the military hospital had structural damages as well.
Logistics: The structural damage to the hospital led to a collapse of the local health command and control structure. One of the areas of concern. was a major management problem due to inappropriate donations and absence of a supply management system.
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. Inflow of medical supplies. in many cases not need based. These problems ranged from administrative domain to media management and other related aspects.Practical Problems Assessed by UN Team
The armed forces. was of logistics management. The water and electricity supply had been completely ripped off initially which led to associated problems like absence of laundry services etc. which led to delaying of organizing the medical teams and medical camps. faced a number of practical problems. in the management of casualties and injuries of such great extent. which needed proper attention and lacked strength in the field. There was also a lack of communication.
instruments and disinfectants which was basically due to the unpreparedness of the medical team to address such a situation. operating rooms. linen. A field hospital was established out in the open and operated thousands of patient in spite of many problems such as shortage of hospital beds.Practical Problems
Un-preparedness: Numerous difficulties were faced in the realm of patient care and casualty of such great extents.
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. equipment. Such situations could be suitable avoided with proper planning and preparedness in the medical sector. The issue of casualty evacuation also needed to be properly dealt.
which were faced in the Gujarat earthquake.
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. which poses another major task for effective post disaster planning. Since no prior plan was made for post disaster management of the area. There existed no alternative arrangement to deal with the human refuse generation in the aftermath of the disaster even beyond the initial period.Practical Problems
Bio-medical Waste Disposal: One of the major issues of the health sector during a disaster situation. was of biomedical waste disposal and disposal of dead bodies. the authorities and the concerned departments were at a total loss to deal with such disposal.
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. 3. 2. The health authorities and the health professionals need to ensure that mitigation methodologies are applied during the reconstruction of health facilities. There exists a need to create an information cell. which should be entrusted with the job of information collection and information dissemination. Proper information management can bring about a lot of difference in the disaster management scenario. Coordination and health disaster management is essential and there should be special equipped space and personnel for this purpose.
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. The health professionals need training in dealing with the media in disasters. Proper media management can act as an effective tool for the same. 5.Lessons learned
4. Circulation and dissemination of proper information can be a great aid in controlling panic and unfounded stories about the disaster.
some of which are:
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. there existed many drawbacks in the post earthquake management scenario. The positive points of this response were continuous supply of food.Lessons learned as per NGOs Assessment
The Gujarat earthquake witnessed tremendous. unprepared. transport and care of patients & their relatives. water and medicine and provision of first aid. However. and spontaneous response of citizens.
Drawbacks in Relief
Lack of coordination & direction The various agencies (government.
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. The net result being that there was total lack of coordination. direction and information exchange between the various agencies. NGOs and international agencies). Irrationalities in the medical sector The injured patients were treated without any analysis of the kind of injuries being faced by them. which had come for the aid of the earthquake victims failed to collaborate with each other and supplement each other s task. There also existed a lack of systematic follow-up of the injured patients. An ad-hoc approach of treatment existed creating more complications for future.
Short-term involvement In the aftermath of the earthquake. there was a massive involvement of voluntary agencies. this involvement was short termed and failed to provide assistance to the victims on a continuous basis till the rehabilitation phase was complete. However. in most cases the items received in these charities were sent without any respect for human dignity. Charity of torn and unusable clothes highlights the point.
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.Drawbacks in Relief
Charity without respect for human dignity The Gujarat earthquake saw immense charity being poured into the state. individuals etc. mainly in relief activities. however.
the community was not prepared to face a disaster of this scale. coordination & control. rescue operation & medical relief. it can be concluded that a lack of planning for post disaster management was manifested in almost all the sectors and activities. Lack of preparedness for dealing with disasters was evident in almost all realms and particularly in communication. Ignorance: It would be worth mentioning that there existed a total lack of information and awareness about the affected parts of Gujarat being in the high seismic zone (zone 5) and its implications among all sections of the society.
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Drawbacks in Relief
. There also existed a lack of information on local & international resources for disaster relief. Thus. Consequently.
Mapping of resources can act as an effective tool for disaster management. the community is the first responder and should be made an integral part of the disaster information system.Suggestions for future preparedness
Community First -. population. It would be advisable to evolve a system for prediction and continuous information to the community for capacitating it to face disasters. binding the departments who are involved in mapping activities to keep the information a secret and not share it with other authorities and the public.
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. medical facilities and communication should be made readily available. A Data bank on relief facilities like the fire brigade. Maps of road. earth-moving equipment etc. The law of secrecy. should be removed. and their source should be created to ease their procurement in times of disaster.In any disaster.
state transport and railways should have emergency hospitals to cater to the medical needs of a disaster situation.It would also be advisable to have a single web site for disaster information to avoid confusion and duplicity of information on the Internet.Suggestions
Centralized Information System -.
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. The medical colleges. civil defense. Emergency medical response system -. district health & medical services.An emergency medical response system should be evolved to facilitate the work of medical sector in times of disaster.A manual for voluntary and charitable agencies working in the field of disaster management should be developed to act as a guide for these agencies. Manual -.
This group was functional for nearly two years after the disaster. An edited version is reproduced here which gives us the perspective of a foreign aid agency of our disaster management system in action.
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. On their behalf one of the officials of Save the Children (SC) prepared a brief of his observations on disaster management.Well Done Bill Gates!
We would like to conclude with the role performed by the richest Voluntary Organization in the world "Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation" through Save the Children Alliance.
technical areas. being experienced in rescuing operations or managing/organizing in crisis situations. However they added to the chaos. etc. Otherwise. discourage the others who just want to be there and support the people to go to the area. survival exercise etc. but especially for some young volunteers this could happen to be an adventure like mountain climbing. Be careful with the volunteers. fixing the infrastructural services. something. as very well oriented before. and do real work in medical care. of course there was no doubt about their good intentions.
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. Other than those who are professional in medical.Some of the experiences during the first ten days or early weeks: 1) Flood of Volunteers: Thousands of volunteers reached the earthquake area and they were keen to help people. After two weeks only they were deployed to the region to do some real work around organized programs fitting to their any kind of expertise (even cooking).Disaster Management. sanitation. and willing to do anything.
In the disaster area authority demolishes and a process can be hardly established for decision-making. Once the hierarchy collapses it is very difficult (more than NGOs or people themselves) to re-establish it where all the decision making process based on.
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. Groups or even individuals (some Heroes) suddenly emerge and claim leadership. Each one described the situation.Experiences during the first ten days
2) Coordination is a must and it was a very difficult exercise. and this might take such a time. you should not expect too much from them. This is true for the central ones too. Coordination needs leadership. enough to make people crazy. the needs differently (from their individual perspective) and was directing the emergency aids and operations. usually the local officials undergo the same shock and trauma. Sometimes nobody knows even who are these groups /individuals and where they come from. In this type of devastating and large disasters.
Even if their reasons are right.
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. They might join the whole process and claim space for their own agendas using the chaos and the frustration of the people and also clash with each other. and they might see this as an opportunity.Experiences during the first ten days
3) Beware of Opportunists: Such critical situations create gaps for any type of groups with agendas different than humanitarian purposes from where they might get in. they do add to the chaos.
then food. is wasted because of panic and lack of coordination. disinfection. lime.Experiences during the first ten days
4) Changing Needs: The list of the needs change day by day. send one people in each settlement for realistic needs assessment. There is a possibility that main part of the resources/money might be spent in the first two weeks. together with medical equipment/medicine. In early days both helpers and victims can be hardly realistic in terms of identification of real needs. burying/funeral material) clothing and then sheltering. what is needed in terms of emergency and humanitarian needs. then body (corps plastics.
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. So you have to be ready in estimating the needs before really needed. First days the focus was on rescue equipment and excavators/machines. Besides the people who can do real work and support. Realistic needs assessment is very important.
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. in a coordinated way. assign one to each settlement/neighborhood for realistic needs assessment and inform before what is crucial. etc involved in this process) tend to describe the situation in the small area where they are located as if it is something general and valid for the whole area This tendency might have crucial results especially in terms of assessing humanitarian and emergency needs. NGOs. Misleading information might be created by different type of psychologies. So. misperception etc.Experiences during the first ten days
Usually people (officials. urgent and indispensable for health etc.
who are most knowledgeable about survival things. We saw in most places huge piles of bread and milk boxes just thrown away on the edge of roads.. and what is really needed. Food has special place. and especially in these situations. In our case.
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.Work through Local Women
Ensure them to work with local women. people (both the helpers and victims) think that (since they do not think about any other things) food is very important.. and same as for the clothes. and they will never find it and they will die because of hunger. women were later saying that they were not involved in this process and lots of resources were just wasted and spoilt.
it is a fact that in individual contacts disaster victims too tend to mislead foreigners.Monitoring Relief Agencies
5) Monitor the international Emergency relief agencies: Though they might be experienced and work in different counties. Usually they have lots of monies and they want to spend it immediately. It is advisable to ensure that the foreign NGOs work though local NGOs or organized groups and not directly work with victims. On the other hand. and community work. each context has its own peculiarities and they might easily fail to determine the needs realistically in a context that they work through translators who have no experience with these situations. exaggerating their immediate needs or get something extra. Direct them to use their money in an efficient way determined by the locals.
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we could hardly get one tenth of them who were very keen to be useful in some ways" recalled an official of Save the Children. when we turned to the volunteers list a month later.The Fizz is Gone
6) Diminishing Enthusiasm: Remember that all the foreign aids.
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. local aids. "I remember. volunteers come with great enthusiasm but within a few days or weeks they loose their motivation.
and don't let them distribute here and there as they like.
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. No democracy here. and ensure those charity people and organizations to leave their goods at these centers where they could be distributed in an organized way. NGOs and volunteers. Officials. especially charity people tend to pour the aid unconsciously like a rain and they prefer to do it by themselves. Distribution (window) should be in a centralized way. At each settlement set up an aid distribution center managed by the officials and monitored by the NGOs and local peoples representatives.Aid Distribution
7) Aid Distribution Problems: The distribution of aids
is another important one.
8) Lack of Monitoring -. Children are very important.e. 9) Start with Women and Children: Right on the first day. in terms of governmental works and policies. homely places for women and children. create safe.NGOs were heavily involved in emergency /humanitarian aids activities but they are reported to have not bothered about their monitoring role. Women were found to be best in monitoring distribution of aids.
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. i. As soon as you go there just erect something. Tent etc. When the children are taken care of their mothers become willing volunteers to help the needy in the neighborhood.