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# Handover analysis

Objectives 

Upon completion of this course,you will be able to: 

How to configure the handover parameters 

How

to

do

at

handover

optimization

Course Contents

Chapter 1Introduction Chapter 2 handover principle Chapter 3 SHO Optimization Chapter4 Inter-RAT Optimization

Introduction 

In WCDMA system, there are soft handover, Intra frequent hard handover, Inter frequent hard handover, Inter system handover. Handover is the most important part of mobile manage. system . It plays very important role in RNO of WCDMA

Chapter 2 Handover principle     2.1 Intra-frequency measurement Intra2.4 Handover parameters review .2 Hard handover measurement 2.3 Handover algorithms review 2.

10. log M best  ( R  H1a / 2) ­ i !1 ½ MNew is the measurement result of the cell that has entered the reporting range CIOnew is the cell individual offset which is configured for neighbor cells of servicing cell Mi is the measurement result of the cells in the active set NA is the number of cells in the current active set MBest is the measurement result of the best cell in the current active set W is the weight factor R is the reporting range.IntraIntra-frequency measurement Event 1A: A primary pilot channel enters the reporting range When the measurement values satisfy the following formulas.10.Log ¬§ M i ¼  (1  W ). With the signal strength as an example. R equals to the signal strength of the best cell in the current active set minus a value H1a is the hysteresis value of event 1A  . the UE deems that a primary pilot channel has entered the reporting range.the trig condition for Ec/Io:  10 log M new  CIOnew        « NA » u W .

IntraIntra-frequency measurement  Event 1B: A primary pilot channel leaves the reporting range When the following formulas are satisfied. og ¬§ i ¼  (1  W ).10.10.trig condition for Ec/Io: » « 10 log old  I old e W . log ½ ­ i !1 ¡  best (  1b / 2)         MOld is the measurement result of the cell that has left the reporting range CIOold is the cell individual offset which is configured for neighbor cells of servicing cell Mi is the measurement result of the cell in the active set NA is the number of cells in the current active set MBest is the measurement result of the best cell in the current active set W is the weighted factor R is the reporting range H1b is the hysteresis value of event 1B . the UE deems that a primary pilot channel has left the reporting range .

CIONew is the individual cell offset for the cell becoming better than the cell in the active set if an individual cell offset is stored for that cell. which is Hystfor1C. a non-active set cell replaces an old active set cell and becomes an active set cell.10. CIOInAS is the individual cell offset for the cell in the active set that is becoming worse than the new cell H1c is the hysteresis parameter for the event 1C.trig condition for Ec/Io: ne ne In S In S   MNew is the measurement result Ec/Io of the cell not included in the active set. Otherwise it is equal to 0. og  I  1c /2 . MInAS is the measurement result Ec/Io of the cell in the active set with the lowest measurement result.    ¢ ¢ £ £ 10 log  I In S e W .IntraIntra-frequency measurement  Event 1C: The primary pilot channel in a non active set is better than the primary pilot channel in an active set When the following formulas are satisfied.

trig condition for Ec/Io: 10 log otBest u 10. the best cell will be changed .IntraIntra-frequency measurement  Event 1D: The best cell changes When the following formulas are satisfied. log best  1D /2 MNotBest is the measurement result Ec/Io of a cell not stored in "best cell". MBest is the measurement result Ec/Io of the cell stored in "best cell". which is Hystfor1D . H1d is the hysteresis parameter for the event 1D.

4 Handover parameters review .Chapter 2 Handover principle     2.2 Hard handover measurement 2.1 Intra-frequency measurement Intra2.3 Handover algorithms review 2.

Qcarrierj is the logarithmic form of the estimated quality value of frequency j Mcarrier j is the estimated quality value of frequency j Mi j is the measurement result of cell i with the frequency of j in the virtual active set NA j is the number of cells with the frequency of j in the virtual active set MBest j is the measurement result of the best cell with the frequency of j in the virtual active set Wj is the weight factor H is the hysteresis value   . Event 2D can be used to enable the compressed mode to perform inter-frequency measurement. ¥¤ Qcarrier j ! 10 Log      carrier j ¨ j ! Wj 10 Log© § © i!1 ª ¸ ¹ i j ¹  (1  W j ) 10 Log º Best j  H / 2.Hard handover measurement  Event 2D: The estimated quality value of the used frequency is lower than a certain threshold.

. Qcarrier j ! 10 Log      carrier j ¨ j ! Wj 10 Log© § © i!1 ª Qcarrierj is the logarithmic form of the estimated quality value of frequency j Mcarrier j is the estimated quality value of frequency j Mi j is the measurement result of cell i with the frequency of j in the virtual active set NA j is the number of cells with the frequency of j in the virtual active set MBest j is the measurement result of the best cell with the frequency of j in the virtual active set Wj is the weight factor H is the hysteresis value   §¦ ¸ ¹ i j ¹  (1  W j ) 10 Log º Best j  H / 2. Event 2F can be used to disable the compressed mode to stop inter-frequency measurement .Hard handover measurement  Event 2F: The estimated quality value of the used frequency is higher than a certain threshold.

4 Handover parameters review .1 Intra-frequency measurement Intra2.3 Handover algorithms review 2.Chapter 2 Handover principle     2.2 Hard handover measurement 2.

Handover Algorithms review  Soft Handover Algorithms review Handover Algorithms review  Inter-RAT .

no processing will be made. until the active set is full.Handover algorithms review: SHO  When event 1A report is received. if there is only one in the active set. if the active set is already full. . then links are sequenced and added in the order of good quality to poor quality (CPICH Ec/No) (in case that multiple cells report event 1A). then the braches are sequenced and removed in the order of poor quality to good quality (CPICH Ec/No) (in case that multiple cells report event 1B).  When event 1B is received. if there are more than one links in the active set. until only one link is left. no processing will be made. if the active set is not full.

one of the non-best cell will be removed before this link is added) and marked as the best cell.  In case of event 1D. then this cell link will be removed. if the active set is already full at this moment and the replaced cell is not the best cell in the active set. if the triggered cell is an active set cell. If the active set is not full. the UE will report the replacing and replaced cells in the event trigger list. then it will be marked as the best cell and measurement control is updated. with measurement control updated. . if the triggered cell doe not belong to the active set. then this cell link will be added (if the active set is full.Handover algorithms review: SHO  In case of event 1C. then the triggered cell link will be added.

CPICH RSCP is used as the physical measurement quantity and events 2D and 2F are used to decide enabling or disabling the compressed mode. .  For inter-system handover. and the configuration of parameters is oriented to the cell type.  For inter-system handover.Handover algorithms review: Inter-RAT  Inter-system handover is enabled only in cells located at the verge of WCDMA FDD system coverage. three compressed mode style sequences are used for concurrent measurement of GSM RSSI. BASIC identification and BASIC reconfirm.

. the minimum signal Rxlev requirement for GSM cell as a handover target cell.  Handover Evaluation. Mother_RAT + CIO Tother_RAT + H/2   Mother_RAT is the estimated quality value RSSI of inter-system frequency Tother_RAT is the GSM RAT measurement init_threshold. the measurement signal Rxlev offset for GSM cell  H is the hysteresis for GSM RSSI threshold. and the RNC decides whether to implement hard handover according to the measurement reports. while the compressed mode is started and this following formulas is satisfied. Inter-system handover will be implemented.Handover algorithms review: Inter-RAT  Periodic measurement reports are used for inter-system handover. .  CIO is Cell individual offset .

1 Intra-frequency measurement Intra2.4 Handover parameters review .3 Handover algorithms review 2.2 Hard handover measurement 2.Chapter 2 Handover principle     2.

Handover parameters review-SHO  Report range (SHO relative threshold ) measurement filter coefficient  Intra-frequency  Time to Trigger  Hysteresis  CIO (cell individual offset) .

if the 1A and 1B report range is too small. and handover success rate may be low .  The parameters determine the size of the soft handover area and the soft handover subscriber proportion.Handover parameters review-SHO  Report  range (SHO relative threshold ) The relative threshold parameters for soft handover include IntraRelThdFor1A (relative threshold for event 1A) and IntraRelThdFor1B (relative threshold for event 1B) . If report range is too larger. monitor cell is difficult to join to active cell and SHO can¶t implement smoothly. soft handover area is too larger and the forward capacity will be waste serious. monitor cell adds to active set cell very easily.

This parameter used to smooth the influence of shadow fading and some fast fading burrs. . unnecessary soft handover and ping pong handover will influence the system. but the lower the signal tracing capacity will be. the stronger the smoothing capability of the burr will be. If if this parameter is too small. if the filter is too bigger.Handover parameters review-SHO  Intra-frequency  measurement filter coefficient configured at Layer 3 intra-frequency The filter is measurement report.  The bigger the filter coefficient is. soft handover can¶t implement in time and the call will always dropped in handover area .

while it is less sensitive when the mobile station is in low-speed movement.Handover parameters review-SHO  Time  to Trigger The effect of the time-to-trigger is that the report is triggered only after the conditions for the event have existed for the specified time-to-trigger  Mobile stations moving at different speeds respond differently to the time-to-trigger value. The call drop rate is more sensitive to the time-to-trigger value when the mobile station is in high-speed movement. and ping-pong handover and mis-handover are suppressed to a certain extent .

the response speed of the handover algorithm on signal changes will be decreased. however.Handover parameters review-SHO  Hysteresis   parameter related to SHO To limit the amount of event-triggered reports. the radio environment (slow fading characteristics). Therefore. and the better the ping pong effect will be suppressed. the actual handover distance and the user moving speed should be fully considered for the setting of this parameter. . The bigger the hysteresis is. the stronger the signal fluctuation resistance capability will be.

the more easily soft handover will occur. the smaller this parameter is. and the more UEs will be in the soft handover state. which will be likely to affect the receiving quality . the more difficultly soft handover will occur. but the more forward resources will be occupied. .Handover parameters review-SHO   CIO (Cell Individual Offset ) This offset mechanism provides the network with an efficient tool to change the reporting of an individual primary CPICH .  The bigger this parameter is.

Handover parameters review-HHO  compressed mode enable /disable threshold (2D/2F Event threshold )  GSM  filter RSSI threshold coefficient to Trigger  Time  Hysteresis  CIO (cell individual offset) .

set the 2D event threshold to a relatively big value.Handover parameters review-HHO  2D/2F Event threshold  UE will start compressed mode and measure GSM signal as a handover target cell when the value of RSCP is below the setting. . set it to a relatively small value. UE will stop compressed mode l when the value of WCDMA cell RSCP is higher than the setting. otherwise. increase appropriately the difference between the thresholds for 2D event and 2F .  if the compressed mode is expected to start as early as possible. To control the ping pong effect of the compressed mode start/stop.

.Handover parameters review-HHO  filter  coefficient The hysteresis for GSM RSSI threshold and the setting of which can reduce the probability of mis-decision caused by signal jitter .

this parameter can be set to 2000ms or lower for high-speed cells. as the shadow fading variance in a high-speed cell is small and signal jitter after filtered by mobile stations is relatively small.Handover parameters review-HHO  Time  to Trigger If the inter-RAT quality always satisfies the inter-RAT handover decision condition within the time specified by this parameter. In addition. as mobile stations usually move fast. the network will start the inter-RAT handover process  In high-speed cells. they pass through the handover area very quickly. .

Handover parameters review-HHO  Hysteresis  The hysteresis for GSM RSSI threshold and the setting of which can reduce the probability of mis-decision caused by signal jitter. .

.Handover parameters review-HHO  CIO   The measurement signal Rxlev offset for GSM cell . The bigger this parameter is. the higher the handover priority of the GSM cells will be .

Course Contents Chapter 1Introduction Chapter 2 handover principle Chapter 3 SHO Optimization Chapter4 Inter-RAT Optimization .

Soft Handover Optimization  SHO  Drive Optimization Target Routes Solution Analysis approach  Optimization  Optimization .

and the call drop rate should be smaller than 5%. from KPI target.Soft Handover Optimization  SHO Optimization Target In the early phase of the network. soft handover success rate for event 1A&1B&1C should be larger than 95%. .

.It is essential to use identical drive routes prior and post any optimization changes in order to accurately quantify the impact of such changes. GPS drive test is very important .Soft Handover Optimization  Drive Routes In the early phase of the network. because KPI result don¶t change in evidence prior and post optimization.

such as:      1A & 1B report range time to trigger intra-frequceny measurement filter coefficient CIO hysteresis .Soft Handover Optimization  Optimization Solution Many handover problems can be resolved through adjusting the soft handover parameters.

also can optimize the intra-frequency measurement coefficient. Enlarge 1A &1B&CIO report range to make the UE monitor cell easily add to active set. This issue may be RNP problem but sometime this can¶t be resolved at RF optimization stage and also could be due to soft handover configuration problem . .Soft Handover Optimization: Optimization Analysis approach  Small handover area The active set quality decreases quickly but the good quality monitor cell can¶t add to active set in time. Short 1A time to trig to make the measurement report in time.

Soft Handover Optimization  CIO Handover optimization example After setting 3dB CIO of 506 and 505 cell. we can see that the drop calls between 505 and 506 decreased. (Left picture is before optimization) .

This issue may be RF problem. This can enlarge intra-frequency measurement coefficient and time to trigger. Cells with many Ping-Pong handover may be causing call dropped and poorer cell capacity. and also cell soft handover configuration problem. .Soft Handover Optimization: Optimization Analysis approach  Ping-Pong handover The active set cell change frequently between the same cells.

.Soft Handover Optimization  Ping-Pong handover example The ping-pong handover of 505 cell and 506 cell can be seen.

Course Contents Chapter 1Introduction Chapter 2 handover principle Chapter 3 SHO Optimization Chapter4 Inter-RAT Optimization .

so that the UEs at the verge of WCDMA coverage can implement handover to the GSM system without communication interruption. intra-frequceny measurement filter coefficient. CIO and Hysteresis. the parameters optimization is very important. the main purpose of inter-RAT handover is to extend the signal coverage range.Inter-RAT Optimization Presently. GSM RSSI threshold. Inter-RAT handover trigger time. The configuration GSM neighbor list of WCDMA cells is very important and always make wrong. . The optimization solution is parameters configuration such as: 2D & 2F Event threshold. At the same time.