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Chapter 15

Eye and Associated Structures
y 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eye y Most of the eye is protected by a cushion of fat and the

bony orbit y Accessory structures include eyebrows, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal apparatus, and extrinsic eye muscles

y Coarse hairs that overlie the supraorbital margins y Functions include; y Shading the eye y Preventing perspiration from reaching the eye y Orbicularis muscle depresses the eyebrows y Corrugator muscle

move the eyebrows medially

oily secretion (Sandman s eye sand) Tarsal plates of connective tissue support the eyelids internally Levator palpebrae superioris gives the upper eyelid mobility .Palpebrae (Eyelids) y Protect the eye anteriorly y Palpebral fissure y y y y separates eyelids Canthi medial and lateral angles (commissures) Lacrimal caruncle contains glands that secrete a whitish.

Palpebrae (Eyelids) y Eyelashes y Project from the free margin of each eyelid y Initiate reflex blinking y Lubricating glands associated with the eyelids y Meibomian glands and sebaceous glands y Ciliary glands lie between the hair follicles .

Palpebrae (Eyelids) .

Conjunctiva y Transparent membrane that: y Lines the eyelids as the palpebral conjunctiva y Covers the whites of the eyes as the ocular conjunctiva y Lubricates and protects the eye .

Lacrimal Apparatus y Consists of the lacrimal gland and associated ducts y Lacrimal glands secrete tears .

and lysozyme y Enter the eye via superolateral excretory ducts y Exit the eye medially via the lacrimal punctum y Drain into the nasolacrimal duct .Tears y Contain mucus. antibodies.

Lacrimal Apparatus .

Extrinsic Eye Muscles y Six straplike extrinsic eye muscles y Enable the eye to follow moving objects y Maintain the shape of the eyeball y Four rectus muscles originate from the annular ring y Two oblique muscles move the eye in the vertical plane y Superior downward laterally y Inferior upward laterally .

Extrinsic Eye Muscles .

Summary of Cranial Nerves and Muscle Actions y Names. actions. and cranial nerve innervation of the extrinsic eye muscles .

Structure of the Eyeball y A slightly irregular hollow sphere with anterior and posterior poles y The wall is composed of three tunics y Fibrous y Vascular y Sensory y The internal cavity is filled with fluids called humors y The lens separates the internal cavity into anterior and posterior segments .

Structure of the Eyeball .

Fibrous Tunic y Forms the outermost coat of the eye and is composed of: y Opaque sclera (posteriorly) y Clear cornea (anteriorly) y The sclera protects the eye and anchors extrinsic muscles y The cornea lets light enter the eye .

Vascular Tunic (Uvea): Choroid Region
y A dark brown membrane that forms the posterior

portion of the uvea y Supplies blood to all eye tunics

Vascular Tunic: Ciliary Body
y A thickened ring of tissue surrounding the lens y Composed of smooth muscle bundles (ciliary muscles) y Anchors the suspensory ligament that holds the lens

in place

Vascular Tunic: Iris
y The colored part of the eye y Pupil central opening of the iris y Regulates the amount of light entering the eye

Pupil y Close vision and bright light pupils constrict y Distant vision and dim light pupils dilate y Changes in emotional state pupils dilate when the subject matter is appealing or requires problemsolving skills .

Pupil Dilation and Constriction .

Sensory Tunic: Retina y A delicate 2-layered membrane y Pigmented layer the outer layer that absorbs light and prevents its scattering y Neural layer which contains: y Photoreceptors that transduce light energy y Bipolar cells and ganglion cells y Amacrine and horizontal cells .

Sensory Tunic: Retina .

The Retina: Ganglion Cells and the Optic Disc y Ganglion cell axons: y Run along the inner surface of the retina y Leave the eye as the optic nerve y The optic disc y Is the site where the optic nerve leaves the eye y Lacks photoreceptors (the blind spot) .

The Retina: Ganglion Cells and the Optic Disc .

The Retina: Photoreceptors y Rods: y Respond to dim light y Are used for peripheral vision y Cones: y Respond to bright light y Have high-acuity color vision y Are found in the macula lutea y Are concentrated in the fovea centralis .

Blood Supply to the Retina y The neural retinal receives its blood supply from two sources: y The outer third receives its blood from the choroid y The inner two-thirds is served by the central artery and vein y Small vessels radiate out from the optic disc and can be seen with an ophthalmoscope .

the lens becomes more compact and dense. and it loses its elasticity .Lens y A biconvex. flexible. transparent. avascular structure that: y Allows precise focusing of light onto the retina y Is composed of epithelium and lens fibers y Lens epithelium anterior cells that differentiate into lens fibers y Lens fibers cells filled with the transparent protein crystallin y With age.


Chemical Senses y Gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell) y Their chemoreceptors respond to chemicals in aqueous solution y Taste response to substances dissolved in saliva y Smell response to substances dissolved in fluids of the nasal membranes .

Sense of Smell y The organ of smell is the olfactory epithelium. which covers the superior nasal conchae y Olfactory receptor cells are bipolar neurons with radiating olfactory cilia y Olfactory receptors are surrounded and cushioned by supporting cells y Basal cells lie at the base of the epithelium .

Olfactory Receptors .

Taste Buds y Most of the 10. and circumvallate y Fungiform and circumvallate papillae contain taste buds .000 or so taste buds are found on the tongue y Taste buds are found in papillae of the tongue mucosa y Papillae come in three types: filiform. fungiform.

Taste Buds .

Structure of a Taste Bud y Gourd-shaped y Consists of 3 major cell types: y Supporting cells insulate the receptor y Basal cells dynamic stem cells y Gustatory cells taste cells .

Taste Sensations y Sweet y y y y sugars. and some amino acids Salt metal ions Sour hydrogen ions Bitter alkaloids such as quinine and nicotine Umami elicited by the amino acid glutamate . alcohol. saccharin.

Physiology of Taste y In order to be tasted. a chemical: y Must be dissolved in saliva y Must contact gustatory hairs .

mechanoreceptors.Influence of Other Sensations on Taste y Taste is 80% smell y Thermoreceptors. and nociceptors also influence tastes y Temperature and texture enhance or detract from taste .

Hearing and Balance .

The Ear y Three parts of the ear: y Inner ear y Outer ear y Middle ear y Outer and middle ear are involved with hearing y Inner ear functions in both hearing and equilibrium y Receptors for hearing and balance: y Respond to separate stimuli y Are activated independently .


Outer Ear y The auricle (pinna) is composed of: y The helix (rim) y The lobule (earlobe) y External auditory canal y Short. curved tube filled with ceruminous glands .

Outer Ear y Tympanic membrane (eardrum) y Thin connective tissue membrane that vibrates in response to sound y Transfers sound energy to the middle ear ossicles y Boundary between outer and middle ears .

mucosa-lined cavity y Flanked laterally by the eardrum y Flanked medially by the oval and round windows y Epitympanic recess superior portion of the middle ear y Pharyngotympanic tube the nasopharynx external ear pressure connects the middle ear to y Equalizes pressure in the middle ear cavity with the .Middle Ear (Tympanic Cavity) y A small. air-filled.


Ear Ossicles y The tympanic cavity contains three small bones: y Malleus y Incus y Stapes y These bones transmit vibratory motion of the eardrum to the oval window y Dampened by the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles .

Ear Ossicles .

the cochlea.Inner Ear y Bony labyrinth y Tortuous channels worming their way through the temporal bone y Contains the vestibule. and the semicircular canals y Filled with perilymph y Membranous labyrinth y Series of membranous sacs within the bony labyrinth y Filled with a potassium-rich fluid .

Inner Ear .

The Vestibule y The central egg-shaped cavity of the bony labyrinth y Suspended in its perilymph are two sacs: y The saccule y The utricle y The saccule extends into the cochlea y The utrichle extends into the semicircular canals y These sacs: y House equilibrium receptors called maculae y Respond to gravity and changes in the position of the head .

The Vestibule .

The Semicircular Canals y Three canals that each define two-thirds of a circle and lie in the three planes of space y Membranous semicircular ducts line each canal and communicate with the utricle y The ampulla is the swollen end of each canal and houses equilibrium receptors in a region called the crista ampullaris y These receptors respond to angular movements of the head .

The Semicircular Canals .

The Cochlea y A spiral. bony chamber that: y Extends from the anterior vestibule y Coils around a bony pillar called the modiolus y Contains the cochlear duct. conical. which ends at the cochlear apex y Contains the organ of Corti (hearing receptor) .

The Cochlea y The cochlea is divided into three chambers: y Scala vestibuli oval window y Scala media cochlear duct y Scala tympani round window .

The Cochlea .

which presses fluid in the inner ear against the oval and round windows y This movement sets up shearing forces that pull on hair cells y Moving hair cells stimulates the cochlear nerve that sends impulses to the brain .Sound and Mechanisms of Hearing y Sound vibrations beat against the eardrum y The eardrum pushes against the ossicles.

g. osteosclerosis of the ossicles y Sensorineural deafness results from damage to the neural structures at any point from the cochlear hair cells to the auditory cortical cells .Deafness y Conduction deafness something hampers sound conduction to the fluids of the inner ear y E. perforated eardrum.. impacted earwax.

and vomiting .Deafness y Tinnitus ringing or clicking sound in the ears in the absence of auditory stimuli y Meniere s syndrome labyrinth disorder that affects the cochlea and the semicircular canals y Causes vertigo. nausea.

dilator muscles are less efficient.Developmental Aspects y All special senses are functional at birth y Chemical senses few problems occur until the fourth decade when these senses begin to decline y Vision is not fully functional at birth y Babies are hyperopic. see only gray tones. and eye movements are uncoordinated y Depth perception and color vision is well developed by age five y With age the lens loses clarity. and visual acuity is drastically decreased by age 70 .