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Analysis and Simulation of Electric Circuits (EME 208

)
Spring 2011

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Syllabus
Mutual Inductance  RC & RL Circuits (Revision)  RLC Circuits  Laplace Transform Application  The Frequency Response  Non-sinusoidal Periodic Inputs  The Two Port Networks 

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Assumed Knowledge  AC Circuits. and C Circuits  (EME 207)    Differential Equations The Laplace Transform The Fourier Series 3 .L. R.

³Fundamentals of Electric Circuits´ Exercise Sheets 4 .Resourses     These Notes Nilsson and Riedel. ³Electric Circuits´ Alexander and Sadiku.

(50 Points) 5 .Course Evaluation     Laboratory Attendance and Reports. (20 Points) Two Mid-Term Exams. (20 Points) Assignments. (10 Points) Final Exam.

Chapter 1 The Mutual Inductance Magnetically Coupled Circuits 6 .

Capacitance and Inductance 2. Mutual Inductance 4. Energy in a Coupled Circuit 7 .Contents: 1. What is a transformer? 3.

Capacitors (1)  A capacitor is a passive element designed to store energy in its electric field. 8 .  A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator (or dielectric).

Capacitors (2)  If i is flowing into the +ve terminal of C   Charging => i is +ve Discharging => i is ±ve  The current-voltage relationship of capacitor according to above convention is dv i!C dt and 1 v! C ´ t t0 i d t  v (t 0 ) 9 .

w. stored in the capacitor is 1 w! 2  v 2 A capacitor is  an open circuit to dc (dv/dt = 0).Capacitors (3)  The energy.  its voltage cannot change abruptly. (i=Cdv/dt). 10 .

Inductors (1)  An inductor is a passive element designed to store energy in its magnetic field.  An inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire. 11 .

measured in henrys (H). di v!L dt  The unit of inductors is Henry (H).Inductors (2)  Inductance is the property whereby an inductor exhibits opposition to the change of current flowing through it. 12 . mH (10±3) and QH (10±6).

Inductors (3)  The current-voltage relationship of an inductor: v!  di dt i! 1 ´ t t0 v(t) d t  i(t0 ) The energy stored by an inductor: 1 w ! L i2 2  An inductor acts like a short circuit to dc (di/dt = 0) and its current cannot change abruptly. 13 .

Current and Voltage Relations + + + 14 .

etc.What is a transformer?    It is an electric device designed on the basis of the concept of magnetic coupling It uses magnetically coupled coils to transfer energy from one circuit to another It is the key circuit elements for stepping up or stepping down ac voltages or currents. 15 . impedance matching. isolation.

V2 N 2 ! !n V1 N1 Ideal Transformer Circuit symbol (a) (b) I 2 N1 1 ! ! I1 N 2 n V2>V1 V2<V1 step-up transformer step-down transformer 16 .Ideal Transformer  An ideal transformer consists of two coils wound on the same core.

di1 v2 ! M 21 dt The open-circuit mutual voltage across coil 2 di2 v1 ! M 12 dt The open-circuit mutual voltage across coil 1 17 .Mutual Inductance (1)  It is the ability of one inductor to induce a voltage across a neighboring inductor. measured in henrys (H).

Illustration of the dot convention.Mutual Inductance (2) THE ¶DOT· CONVENTION   The mutual voltage is positive if both currents enter (or leave) the dotted terminal of the corresponding coils. The mutual voltage is negative if one current enters while the other leaves the dotted terminal of the corresponding coils. 18 .

The Mutual voltage 19 .

= = = = 20 .

Coils in Series and Dot Markings Dot convention for coils in series. the sign indicates the polarity of the mutual voltage. (a) series-aiding connection. (b) series-opposing connection.aiding connection ) L ! L1  L2  2 M (series-opposing connection) 21 . L ! L1  L2  2 M (series .

Frequency-domain analysis of a circuit containing coupled coils 22 .Time and Frequency Domains Time-domain analysis of a circuit containing coupled coils.

Example (1) Calculate the phasor currents I1 and I2 in the circuit shown below. 23 .

01’  49.39r 24 .04 rA 4 j I1 ! 13. KVL gives ( j 4 + j 5) I1 j 3 I2 = 12 or j I1 j 3I2 = 12 For coil 2.91’14.Example (1) For coil 1. KVL gives íj 3 I1 + (12 + j 6) I2 = 0 or I1 = (12 + j6)I2 / j3 = (2 í j4) I2 12 I2 ! ! 2.

is a measure of the magnetic coupling between two coils. 0 k 1. M ! k L1 L2  The instantaneous energy stored in the circuit is given by 1 2 1 2 w ! L1i1  L2i2 s Mi1i2 2 2 25 .Coupling Coefficient & Energy  The coupling coefficient. k.

Calculate the energy stored in the coupled inductors at time t = 1s if v=60cos(4t +30°) V.Example (2) Consider the circuit below. 26 . Determine the coupling coefficient.

254’160.6 27 .Example (2) I 2 ! 3.

Example (2) i2 ! 3.6 ) o 28 .254 cos(4t  160.