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In-stream Tidal Energy: NW National Marine Renewable Energy Center

University of Washington http://depts.washington.edu/nnmrec Jim Thomson
Applied Physics Lab and Civil & Environmental Eng.

CEE500 - October 22, 2009
Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

Approaches to Tidal Energy
Barrage Hydrokinetic

 Comparable to hydroelectric  Very high cost and environmental footprint

 Comparable to wind  Potentially lower cost and environmental footprint
001,04-23-09,TID

Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

~150 kW MCT Strangford.TID . UK 6 m. BC 3.Hydrokinetic Devices  No dominant design ― Hundreds of concepts ― Dozens of lab tests Verdant Power New York. 1200 kW Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 002. East River 5 m. UK 14x2 m.04-23-09.5 m. ~65 kW ― Several field tests  No commercial projects Open Hydro EMEC. 33 kW Clean Current Race Rocks.

~500 kW rated Marrowstone Island Proposed demonstration array Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 004. MW practically recoverable Race Rocks Demonstration turbine Admiralty Inlet Proposed pilot project 10m diamter.04-23-09.TID .Tidal Energy Projects in Puget Sound ~100-200 avg.

Motivation ■ I-937 obligations ■ Limited transmission capacity for new wind ■ Tidal energy advantages —Predictable resource — No CO2 emissions — No visual impact — Close to load centers Sun Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 005.TID .04-23-09.

shipping) ■ Potential environmental effects (noise production) ■ Cost (difficult environment) Power Cost Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 005.04-23-09.Considerations ■ Existing use (fishing.TID .

Sound & Sea Technology. Snohomish PUD.TID . PNWER Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 007.04-23-09. Oceanography.Northwest National Marine Energy Center • Oregon State University – Headquarters and Director (Bob Paasch) – Focus on Wave Energy – College of Engineering. Verdant Power. Hatfield Marine Sciences Center • University of Washington – Co-Director (Phil Malte) – Focus on Tidal Energy – Mechanical Engineering. BioSonics. Oceanography. EPRI. Applied Physics Lab • Partners – NREL.

Environmental Effects 2.Northwest National Marine Energy Center UW Focus areas (tidal): 1. Sam Gooch APL staff: Joe Talbert. Array Optimization 4. Materials (Survivability and Reliability) Faculty: Thomson (APL/CEE) & Polagye (ME) MS students: Chris Bassett. Jeff Epler. Alex deKlerk Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 007. Site Characterization and Instrumentation 3.04-23-09.TID .

April 2009 Power density is cube of velocity. P=½ρv3 Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .Velocity Time Series Admiralty Inlet.

2009 Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .Turbulence Gooch et al.

Directionality Gooch et al. 2009 Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .

2009 Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .Boundary Layer Effects Single profile Gooch et al.

in progress Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 003.Velocity Surveys Polagye.04-22-09.TID .

Underwater Noise: spectra Bassett. in progress Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .

Underwater Noise: sources Other ship traffic Ferry crossings Other ship traffic June 15th. 2009 Spectrogram Bassett. in progress Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .

2009 Spectrogram Bassett. in progress Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .Underwater Noise: sources Ferry crossings Other ship traffic June 15th.

in progress Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .Underwater noise – cummulative Bassett.

Underwater pseudo-noise: pressure fluctuations at hydrophone Bassett. in progress Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .

Water quality: salinity. temperature. fluorescence. oxygen. pH Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 003.04-22-09. turbidity.TID .

04-22-09.TID .Bottom characterization • • • • • Scoured seabed Relatively flat Cobbles and gravel Sponges Barnacles • Consistent with high currents and grab samples Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 005.

Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .

Kawase (UW-SO).04-23-09. Polagye (UW-ME). K.TID 1D Channel Model Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center .Area 1: Environmental Effects – tidal range M. B. Thyng (UW-ME) Tidal range impact of 145 MW plant M2 amplitude change (mm) 009.

04-23-09.TID . MS student Teymour Javaherchi Single reference frame (SRF) simulations R/V Jack Robertson Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 013. Aliseda (ME) & Riley (ME).Area 3: Array Optimization Profs.

Polagye (ME) Before After Clean Current turbine: 6 months deployment Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 015.Area 4: Survivability and Reliability M. Tuttle (ME).TID . B.04-23-09.

TID .Area 4: Preliminary Materials Testing Carbon fiber in epoxy (uncoated) Glass fiber in epoxy (uncoated) Low-copper coating (glass fiber in epoxy) High-copper coating (glass fiber in epoxy) Inert coating (rubber) Aluminum (uncoated) Stainless steel (uncoated) Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 016.04-23-09.

Questions? Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center nnmrec.washington.oregonstate.Wave) depts.edu (OSU .edu/nnmrec (UW .04-23-09.Tidal) Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 017.TID .

Area 2 Detail: Stationary Surveys Acoustic release (redundant recovery) Mini-CTD 300 kHz ADCP (velocity) (salinity and temperature) Sea Spider Hydrophone (background noise) (heavy duty fiberglass frame) Programmed for 4 month deployment Lead Weight (600 lbs) Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center 012.04-23-09.TID .