Wireless Data Networking Research: From Concept to

Songwu Lu

Drivers for Wireless Networking Research

New Services, Architectures, Requirements


Transport Layer Network Layer


Link Layer


New Wireless Communications Technology

Key Driver: Wireless Communications
• Many examples of them:
– – – – – Sector Antenna, antenna arrays, Smart antennas Adaptive modulation, MIMO, OFDM, UWB, .. Cognitive radio, software radio, spectrum sharing, channel management Multiple radios, device heterogeneity …

• many orthogonal dimensions
– RF spectrum, antenna, data processing, …

• main goal: improve performance in terms of spectral efficiency • Challenge: How to exploit these new PHY communication capabilities in the protocols?

signals • probabilistic terms: – information theoretic bounds – confidence factor on symbol reception.Root Cause of Problems two largely disconnected communities • speak different terminologies – wireless communications: • Symbols. bits • deterministic terms – Correct/wrong binary reception . … – wireless networking • Packets.

interferences. etc. • Theory Design-->Analysis-->prototype in chips-->experiments – wireless networking • mostly on heuristics • network setting “ad hoc”: no agreed benchmarks/base settings • Heuristic Design-->Simulations--Network Prototype-->Experiments .Root Cause of Problems (2) Two largely disconnected communities • different methodologies – wireless communications • solid theoretic foundation on information theory • a set of well known assumptions: noises.

Perspective From Wireless Networking • We are not on the driver’s seat so far – communication has driven the technology so far – we are followers • No need to be sad – still plenty of space • the direct communication almost NEVER works in reality at the 1st place! – other brothers also facing similar situations sometime • Internet: PC/hardware industry • Cellular: mobile phones .

be the 1st to design networking solution to it 3. not so lucky? • • understand the problem better check other aspects/components in the system 1. to come to life 2. apply the set of tricks in your bag 2.Research Life Cycle in Traditional Wireless Networking Researcher 1. claim credit/declare failure • • • Experiments!!!! Positive success: insights learned Negative failure: lessons learned . wait for new radio communication tech.

Two Design Guidelines 2 most popular design principles used in the research community 1. Adaptation high-dimension dynamics 1. Coordination coherent system .

… • Opportunistic design approach – Make each perform under peak conditions – Exploit the system population – Leverage system diversity • Multiple receivers. static settings – Track the reference model under realistic conditions/scenarios • Mobility. error-free. multiple devices.Bag of Tricks in Adaptation • Model-referenced design – Ideal model to capture expected behaviors under idealized situation • e.. multiple applications/flows. wireless channel dynamics. … .g.

Bag of Tricks in Coordination • Cross-Layer design – not integrated design cross layers – information sharing. informed decision at other layers –… • Coordination via “indirection” – Adaptation-aware proxy provides indirection: act as converter/translator .

11g: 12 options (11a set + 11b set) .11 a/b/g/n standards allow for multiple rates based on adaptive modulation –802.2.11b: 4 rate options ( –802.11Mbps) –802.11a: 8 options (6.48.Illustration Case: Rate Adaptation in Wi-Fi Problem: Adapt transmission rate to channel quality 54Mbps 12Mbps Signal is good becomes weaker Signal Sender Receiver •The 802.36.

As the Lucky. 1st Guy • • • • Driver: adaptive modulation Good news: SNR based feedback not there! Opportunity: packet-level information available Solution: – Hypothesis: packet loss indicates channel quality change – Tricks: • Decrease transmission rate upon severe packet loss • 10 consecutive successes → increase rate .

Rules For Not So Lucky? Understand the problem better – if a problem is not better understood. it is probably best not to provide a new solution at all – no rush for quick solutions • incremental improvement is #1 enemy in research! – do not improve on flawed design!! • adding gas into fire .

58 Fixed Rate 1.Experiments to Discover (No) Problems  Case: packet collision scenario? Hidden Station Receiver Sender ARF UDP Goodput (Mbps) AARF 0.56 SampleRate 0.65 The sender performs worse with Rate Adaptation! .46 0.

Find Root Cause • The sender should not decrease the rate upon collision losses – Decreasing rate increases collisions ! Decrease Tx rate Severe loss Fail to handle hidden-station! Increase collision Prob. Increase Tx time .

11 MAC RRAA Loss Estimation Rate Selection send RTS Option feedback Adaptive RTS Hardware • Performance: ~80% throughput gain PHY .Solution? • Straightforward idea: RTS/CTS • more thinking: make RTS/CTS adaptive – reduce overhead – infer collision levels Software 802.

11-pre-n MIMO • Good/Bad News: SNR feedback to some extent – more direct & timely information on channel quality? – Loss-based design obsolete? .Now MIMO Case? • Driver: 802.

SNR vs Rate vs Throughput •SNR vs rate vs thruput are non-monotonic in fine grain •main trend can still be correct •RF Chamber experiments .

• Loss-based best rate choice within the window – play old tricks using loss-based design .Solution in MiRA • using SNR pre-selects a range of rates – determine a rate window [minRate. maxRate].

Atheros RA .Experiments on Static Clients: UDP Gains in blue arrows refer to MiRA vs.

Atheros RA .Static Clients Scenario: TCP Gains in blue arrows refer to MiRA vs.

… – what can I do? .Broader View on Well-Known Areas • look at other systems component the design works with • illustrative example: Network Coding – hot topics – several papers on top conferences. from groups @ MIT. Microsoft Research.

Wi-Fi broadcast 54Mbps 24Mbps  NC is worse !  Xmit time w/o NC  2L/54 + 2L/24  Xmit time with NC  L/54 +L/24+L/6 Conclusion: NC works but loses without any RA! Alice Bob  a b Native NC (@ base rate) May NOT gain at all ! .Network Coding in Reality: Multicast/broadcast a XOR b Wi-Fi Nets (a XOR b) @ 6Mbps    Base rate without RA Used in COPE.

11b: 1/24 (11M&1M)  Root cause: NC cannot exploit rate diversity! a b NC gain (@ optimal rate) may reduce in rate diversity case! .NC Gain May Vanish  Simple multicast RA solution:  a XOR b multicast = min (rate_receiver) NC: 25% (4 tx ->3 tx)   NC gain reduces  54Mbps 6Mbps In the literature NC tx time: 2*L/6+L/54 No NC: 2*L/54+2*L/6 Alice Bob  Actual gain (11a): 5%    802.

My View on New Frontiers • no need to get squeezed in crowded traditional areas • bag of tricks grow much slower! • problem space is wild wide west! .

Wireless Networking on a Chip • 1000s of cores Systems on a Chip • wired interconnect: latency. physical wiring constraints • High-speed wireless shortcuts .

Composable Wireless Networking • composable & modular from radio to networking • Radios become dynamically loadable modules – no clear separation of multi-radios – Software Defined Radios platforms .

“Green” Wireless Infrastructure • infrastructure is power hungry – asymmetric design in cellular network • more complexity @ base stations – from radio communication. to higher layers • lots of energy-saving proposals @client side – no on the infrastructure . to signaling.

Resilience-Oriented Design • mostly performance driven for wireless networking so far • resilience as the 1st principle – not as patches – learn the success from the Internet • still early to have a nice try .

Still Unhappy? Looking Up • New requirements – Security. P2P image/video sharing. robustness/dependability. personalized. distributed management • New applications and services – MMS. IP TV streaming. context-aware. … – (Location-based. privacy. pervasive) services .

Anywhere.My View on Pervasive Cloud Computing • • • • Data stored in the “Cloud” Data follows you & your devices Data accessible anywhere Data can be shared with others messages preferences news contacts calendar investments maps photo mailing lists music e-mails phone numbers “Anytime. Any device” Data Service .

Improving Wi-Fi. 3G+. New Services For Mobile Devices – – – Security: Virus detection Location-based Service.Research Sub-areas 1.… 1. Opportunistic Client-Client Service . Better Access for the Client 1. social networking. … for user access 2. Data Center Networking: Improving the Cloud Infrastructure 2.

Final Words • Life can be good or bad in wireless networking research – It is more about your choice • You are part of inventing the artifact for wireless networking .

Mario Gerla. Haiyun Luo. Shugong Xu.Acknowledgments • most real work is done by the real heroes in projects: – Students: • Innaois Yannis. Starsky Wong. Hao Yang. Chuanxiong Guo. Jacky Shen.… – Colleagues: • Lixia Zhang. … . Suk-Bok Lee. Yongguang Zhang.

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