Wireless Data Networking Research: From Concept to

Practice
Songwu Lu
UCLA

Drivers for Wireless Networking Research
Top

New Services, Architectures, Requirements

Up

Transport Layer Network Layer

Down

Link Layer

Bottom

New Wireless Communications Technology

Key Driver: Wireless Communications
• Many examples of them:
– – – – – Sector Antenna, antenna arrays, Smart antennas Adaptive modulation, MIMO, OFDM, UWB, .. Cognitive radio, software radio, spectrum sharing, channel management Multiple radios, device heterogeneity …

• many orthogonal dimensions
– RF spectrum, antenna, data processing, …

• main goal: improve performance in terms of spectral efficiency • Challenge: How to exploit these new PHY communication capabilities in the protocols?

signals • probabilistic terms: – information theoretic bounds – confidence factor on symbol reception.Root Cause of Problems two largely disconnected communities • speak different terminologies – wireless communications: • Symbols. bits • deterministic terms – Correct/wrong binary reception . … – wireless networking • Packets.

interferences. etc. • Theory Design-->Analysis-->prototype in chips-->experiments – wireless networking • mostly on heuristics • network setting “ad hoc”: no agreed benchmarks/base settings • Heuristic Design-->Simulations--Network Prototype-->Experiments .Root Cause of Problems (2) Two largely disconnected communities • different methodologies – wireless communications • solid theoretic foundation on information theory • a set of well known assumptions: noises.

Perspective From Wireless Networking • We are not on the driver’s seat so far – communication has driven the technology so far – we are followers • No need to be sad – still plenty of space • the direct communication almost NEVER works in reality at the 1st place! – other brothers also facing similar situations sometime • Internet: PC/hardware industry • Cellular: mobile phones .

be the 1st to design networking solution to it 3. not so lucky? • • understand the problem better check other aspects/components in the system 1. to come to life 2. apply the set of tricks in your bag 2.Research Life Cycle in Traditional Wireless Networking Researcher 1. claim credit/declare failure • • • Experiments!!!! Positive success: insights learned Negative failure: lessons learned . wait for new radio communication tech.

Two Design Guidelines 2 most popular design principles used in the research community 1. Adaptation high-dimension dynamics 1. Coordination coherent system .

… • Opportunistic design approach – Make each perform under peak conditions – Exploit the system population – Leverage system diversity • Multiple receivers. static settings – Track the reference model under realistic conditions/scenarios • Mobility. error-free. multiple devices.Bag of Tricks in Adaptation • Model-referenced design – Ideal model to capture expected behaviors under idealized situation • e.. multiple applications/flows. wireless channel dynamics. … .g.

Bag of Tricks in Coordination • Cross-Layer design – not integrated design cross layers – information sharing. informed decision at other layers –… • Coordination via “indirection” – Adaptation-aware proxy provides indirection: act as converter/translator .

11g: 12 options (11a set + 11b set) .11 a/b/g/n standards allow for multiple rates based on adaptive modulation –802.2.11b: 4 rate options (1.9.5.18.24.5.12.54) –802.11Mbps) –802.11a: 8 options (6.48.Illustration Case: Rate Adaptation in Wi-Fi Problem: Adapt transmission rate to channel quality 54Mbps 12Mbps Signal is good becomes weaker Signal Sender Receiver •The 802.36.

As the Lucky. 1st Guy • • • • Driver: adaptive modulation Good news: SNR based feedback not there! Opportunity: packet-level information available Solution: – Hypothesis: packet loss indicates channel quality change – Tricks: • Decrease transmission rate upon severe packet loss • 10 consecutive successes → increase rate .

Rules For Not So Lucky? Understand the problem better – if a problem is not better understood. it is probably best not to provide a new solution at all – no rush for quick solutions • incremental improvement is #1 enemy in research! – do not improve on flawed design!! • adding gas into fire .

58 Fixed Rate 1.Experiments to Discover (No) Problems  Case: packet collision scenario? Hidden Station Receiver Sender ARF UDP Goodput (Mbps) AARF 0.56 SampleRate 0.65 The sender performs worse with Rate Adaptation! .46 0.

Find Root Cause • The sender should not decrease the rate upon collision losses – Decreasing rate increases collisions ! Decrease Tx rate Severe loss Fail to handle hidden-station! Increase collision Prob. Increase Tx time .

11 MAC RRAA Loss Estimation Rate Selection send RTS Option feedback Adaptive RTS Hardware • Performance: ~80% throughput gain PHY .Solution? • Straightforward idea: RTS/CTS • more thinking: make RTS/CTS adaptive – reduce overhead – infer collision levels Software 802.

11-pre-n MIMO • Good/Bad News: SNR feedback to some extent – more direct & timely information on channel quality? – Loss-based design obsolete? .Now MIMO Case? • Driver: 802.

SNR vs Rate vs Throughput •SNR vs rate vs thruput are non-monotonic in fine grain •main trend can still be correct •RF Chamber experiments .

• Loss-based best rate choice within the window – play old tricks using loss-based design .Solution in MiRA • using SNR pre-selects a range of rates – determine a rate window [minRate. maxRate].

Atheros RA .Experiments on Static Clients: UDP Gains in blue arrows refer to MiRA vs.

Atheros RA .Static Clients Scenario: TCP Gains in blue arrows refer to MiRA vs.

… – what can I do? .Broader View on Well-Known Areas • look at other systems component the design works with • illustrative example: Network Coding – hot topics – several papers on top conferences. from groups @ MIT. Microsoft Research.

Wi-Fi broadcast 54Mbps 24Mbps  NC is worse !  Xmit time w/o NC  2L/54 + 2L/24  Xmit time with NC  L/54 +L/24+L/6 Conclusion: NC works but loses without any RA! Alice Bob  a b Native NC (@ base rate) May NOT gain at all ! .Network Coding in Reality: Multicast/broadcast a XOR b Wi-Fi Nets (a XOR b) @ 6Mbps    Base rate without RA Used in COPE.

11b: 1/24 (11M&1M)  Root cause: NC cannot exploit rate diversity! a b NC gain (@ optimal rate) may reduce in rate diversity case! .NC Gain May Vanish  Simple multicast RA solution:  a XOR b multicast = min (rate_receiver) NC: 25% (4 tx ->3 tx)   NC gain reduces  54Mbps 6Mbps In the literature NC tx time: 2*L/6+L/54 No NC: 2*L/54+2*L/6 Alice Bob  Actual gain (11a): 5%    802.

My View on New Frontiers • no need to get squeezed in crowded traditional areas • bag of tricks grow much slower! • problem space is wild wide west! .

Wireless Networking on a Chip • 1000s of cores Systems on a Chip • wired interconnect: latency. physical wiring constraints • High-speed wireless shortcuts .

Composable Wireless Networking • composable & modular from radio to networking • Radios become dynamically loadable modules – no clear separation of multi-radios – Software Defined Radios platforms .

“Green” Wireless Infrastructure • infrastructure is power hungry – asymmetric design in cellular network • more complexity @ base stations – from radio communication. to higher layers • lots of energy-saving proposals @client side – no on the infrastructure . to signaling.

Resilience-Oriented Design • mostly performance driven for wireless networking so far • resilience as the 1st principle – not as patches – learn the success from the Internet • still early to have a nice try .

Still Unhappy? Looking Up • New requirements – Security. P2P image/video sharing. robustness/dependability. personalized. distributed management • New applications and services – MMS. IP TV streaming. context-aware. … – (Location-based. privacy. pervasive) services .

Anywhere.My View on Pervasive Cloud Computing • • • • Data stored in the “Cloud” Data follows you & your devices Data accessible anywhere Data can be shared with others messages preferences news contacts calendar investments maps photo mailing lists music e-mails phone numbers “Anytime. Any device” Data Service .

Improving Wi-Fi. 3G+. New Services For Mobile Devices – – – Security: Virus detection Location-based Service.Research Sub-areas 1.… 1. Opportunistic Client-Client Service . Better Access for the Client 1. social networking. … for user access 2. Data Center Networking: Improving the Cloud Infrastructure 2.

Final Words • Life can be good or bad in wireless networking research – It is more about your choice • You are part of inventing the artifact for wireless networking .

Mario Gerla. Haiyun Luo. Shugong Xu.Acknowledgments • most real work is done by the real heroes in projects: – Students: • Innaois Yannis. Starsky Wong. Hao Yang. Chuanxiong Guo. Jacky Shen.… – Colleagues: • Lixia Zhang. … . Suk-Bok Lee. Yongguang Zhang.

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