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NAME:SYED.M.ABBAS ZAIDI. ENROLLMENT NO:01-133102-090 Submitted to:Sir IMTIAZ ALI KHAN

REFERNCE BOOKS

1)Physics for engineering and science (page no131-134). by DR MICHEAL BROWN. 2)University physics (11th edition) page 347-350. By YOUNG AND FREDNAN.

4)Physics for scientist and engineers. . 3)Physics(4th Edition) (page no 262-265) By Paul A Tripler. By Weith Gibbs. (page no 301-305) By Serway Beiunner.REFERENCE BOOKS. 5)Advanced physics(2nd edition).

REFERENCE BOOKS. 6)Fundamentals of physics . By Halliday and Resnick. .

2)Physics (4th edition). 1)University pysics.COMMON POINTS : REFERENCE BOOKS. 4)Fundamentals of physics. . 3)Physics for scientist and engineers.

CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA Consider a point P on a rotating object that is a distance r away from the axis of rotation. When differentiating the right hand side. As the object turns through an angle U the point covers a distance given by s = rU In the above expression the angle U must be in radians If this expression is differentiated with respect to time then the left hand side will become the linear speed of particle This speed corresponds to the velocity of the point P which is tangential to the circular arc traced out by the point. This gives: ds dU !r dt dt v ! r[ Relation between linear and angular speed . we notice that r is constant and the rate of change of angular position is the angular velocity.

If we replace v=r[ we have: arad v2 ! ! [ 2r r Centripetal acceleration of a point on a rotating body . recall that any object that is undergoing circular motion experiences an inwardly directed radial acceleration given by the speed squared divided by the radius.CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA Differentiating once again gives a relationship between the tangential acceleration of the point. atan. and the angular acceleration of the rotation object: atan d[ dv ! !r ! rE dt dt Tangential acceleration of a point on a rotating body Finally.

pulleys. « o o . belts. its speed and acceleration at any instant are equal to the speed and tangential acceleration of the point at which it is tangent to the cylinder Bicycle chains and sprockets.CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA s ! rU v ! r[ dv d[ atan ! ! r ! rE dt dt These equations apply to any particle that has the same tangential velocity as a point in a rotating rigid body Rope wound around a circular cylinder unwraps without stretching or slipping.

The rotational inertia of some common shapes about some of their symmetry axes is given in Table 9.2 of your textbook ..CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA The rotational inertia of an object is a measure of the resistance of the object to changes in its rotational motion For a system of particles of masses mi at distances ri from an axis passing through a point P the rotational inertia of the system about the axis is given by: I ! m1r12 m2 r22 .. and I is independent of how the body is rotating around a given axis. ! § mi ri 2 i Definition of moment of inertia SI unit of moment of inertia is the kgm2 For a solid object the rotational inertia is found by evaluating an integral as we will see later In a rigid body the distances ri are constant.

Rotational Inertia (Moment of Inertia) .

the greater the kinetic energy of a rigid body rotating with a given angular speed .CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA The rotational kinetic energy of a solid object rotating about an axis for which its rotational inertia is I with angular velocity [ is expressed as 1 2 K ! I[ 2 Rotational kinetic energy of a rigid body Notice the similarity between this formula and the formula for the kinetic energy of a point mass m moving with speed v This kinetic energy is the sum of kinetic energies of the individual particles that make up the rigid body [ is in rad/s (NOT in rev or degrees per second ! K will be in Joules) The greater is the moment of inertia.

CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA 1 2 ! I[ 2 Greater a body¶s moment of inertia. the harder it is to start the body rotating if it¶s at rest and the harder it is to stop its rotation if it¶s already rotating .

. What is the moment of inertia of this body about an axis through point A. B to the plane of the slide? What is the moment of inertia of this body about an axis coinciding the rod BC? If the body rotates about an axis through A B to the plane of the slide with angular speed 4.CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA Moments of inertia for different rotation axes One-piece machine part consists of three heavy connectors linked by light molded struts. what is its kinetic energy? A. B.0 rad/s. C.

If some of the quantities you need are unknown.CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA. 3. SET UP the problem using the following steps: First decide what the initial and final states (the positions and velocities) of the system are. . use this choice consistently. 2. You will use it to compute gravitational potential energies. the energy method is usually not helpful for problems that involve elapsed time. Use the subscript 1 for the initial state and the subscript 2 for the final state. Identify all non-gravitational forces that do work. represent them by algebraic symbols. 1. particularly the level at which y=0. Equations assume that the positive direction for y is upward. Later we will see how to approach rotational problems of this kind. A free-body diagram is always helpful. Problems Problem-Solving Strategy IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: You can use work±energy relations and conservation of energy to find relations involving position and motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis. Define your coordinate system. It helps to draw sketches showing the initial and final states. As we saw before.

.Rotational Energy. EVALUATE your answer: As always. It¶s helpful to draw bar graphs showing the initial and final values of K. Problems Problem-Solving Strategy EXECUTE the solution: Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic and potential energies (K1. and E=K+U. which is expressed in terms of the body¶s moment of inertia I for the given axis and its angular speed [ instead of its mass m and speed v. check whether your answer makes physical sense. The new feature is rotational kinetic energy. U1 and U2) and the non-conservative work Wother (if any). Substitute these expressions into K1+ U1+Wother =K2+U2 (if nonconservative work is done) or K1+ U1=K2+U2 (if only conservative work is done) and solve for the target variable(s). K2. U.

.COMMON FEATURES.

slender rod: use coordinate x along the length and relate dm to an increment dx.Inertia Calculations For a continuous distribution of mass the sum of the masses times the square of the distances to the axis of rotation which defines the moment of inertia become an integral. If the object is divided into small mass elements dm in such a manner that all of the points in a particular mass element are the same perpendicular distance r from the axis of rotation then the moment of inertia is given by 2 . I ! ´ r dm To evaluate the integral. I ! ´ r V (V )dV dV dV ! dx dy dz Limits of integral are determined by the shape and dimensions of the body . you need to represent r and dm in terms of the same integration variable. 3-D object: express dm in terms of element of volume dV and density V. 1-D object. dm 2 V ! const I ! V ´ r 2 dV V! .

The ratio of the mass dm of this element to the total mass M is equal to the ratio of its length dx to the total length L: dm dx ! M L dm ! L dx « ¨x ´ x dm ! L ´h x dx ! ¬ L © 3 © ª L h 2 2 3 ¸» 1 ¹¼ ! ¹ 3 º½ h Lh ( L2 3Lh 3h 2 ) Evaluate this general expression about an axis through the left end. through the center. .2. the right end. axis B to length Slender uniform rod with mass M and length L. Compare with Table 9. at an arbitrary distance h from the end. Choose as an element of mass a short section of rod with length dx at a distance x from O. Compute its moment of inertia about an axis through O.Inertia Calculations Uniform thin rod.

Compute its moment of inertia about the axis of symmetry. Choose as a volume element a thin cylindrical shell of radius r. The volume of this element: dm ! VdV ! V (2TrLdr ) 2TVL 4 r dm ! ´ r V (2TrLdr ) ! 2TVL ´ r dr ! ( R2 R14 ) ! ´ 4 R1 R1 1 TVL 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 V ! TL( R2 R1 ) I ! M ( R2 R12 ) ! ( R2 R1 )( R2 R1 ) 2 2 2 2 3 R2 R2 . and length L. thickness dr. rotating about axis of symmetry Hollow. All parts of this element are at very nearly the same distance from the axis. outer radius R2. inner radius R1. uniform cylinder with length L.Inertia Calculations Hollow or solid cylinder.

but not on its length! . R2=R: 1 I ! MR 2 2 If cylinder has a very thin wall.Inertia Calculations Hollow or solid cylinder. R1 and R2 are very nearly equal: I ! MR 2 Note: moment of inertia of a cylinder about an axis of symmetry depends on its mass and radii. rotating about axis of symmetry 1 2 I ! M ( R2 R12 ) 2 If cylinder is solid. R1=0.

Parallel Axis Theorem .

Different Features: PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS: .

I p ! I cm Md 2 Parallel-Axis Theorem . that is parallel to and a distance d away from an axis that passes through the object's center of mass. This theorem gives the rotational inertia of an object of mass M about an axis. P.2 in your textbook you may be able to use the parallel axis theorem.Parallel-Axis Theorem To find the rotational inertia of an object about an axis that is different from one listed in Table 9.

Let¶s take origin at the CM of the body: xcm= ycm= zcm=0 The axis through the CM passes through this thin slice at point O. yi-b) with respect to the parallel axis through point P. both parallel to z-axis. one through the center of mass and the other through a point P. and parallel axis passes through point P with coordinates (a. yi) with respect to an axis of rotation through the center of mass and B to the plane of the slide. The mass element has coordinates (xi-a. Mass element mi has coordinates (xi.Parallel-Axis Theorem Consider two axes. Then the distance of this axis from axis through CM is d: d2=a2+b2 Moment of inertia Icm about axis through O: I cm ! § mi ( xi2 yi2 ) i . b).

Parallel-Axis Theorem Moment of inertia Icm about axis through P: I P ! § mi [( xi a ) 2 ( yi b) 2 )] i These expressions don¶t involve the coordinates zi measured B to the slices. Let¶s extend the sums to include all particles in all slices. Ip then becomes the moment of inertia of the entire body for an axis through P: I P ! § mi ( xi2 yi2 ) 2 a § mi xi 2b § mi yi ( a 2 b 2 ) i i i §m i i I cm xcm ! 0 ycm ! 0 d2 M I P ! I cm Md 2 .

6 kg. We measure its moment of inertia about an axis 0.051 kg m 2 Result show that Icm is less than Ip. Example A part of a mechanical linkage has a mass of 3. This is as it should be: the moment of inertia for an axis through the center of mass is lower than for any other parallel axis.132 kg·m2. .6kg )(0.15 m from its center of mass to be Ip=0.Parallel-Axis Theorem.15m) 2 ! 0. What is the moment of inertia Icm about a parallel axis through the center of mass? I cm ! I p Md 2 ! ! 0.132 kg m 2 (3.

.UNIQUE FEATURES: UNIVERSITY PHYSICS BY YOUNG AND FREEDNAN.

whose moment of inertia we already know. Divide sphere into thin disks of thickness dx.Inertia Calculations Uniform sphere. the axis is through its center. Find the moment of inertia about the axis is through the center of this sphere. axis through center Uniform sphere with radius R. The radius r of the disk is r ! R2 x2 The volume is The mass is dV ! Tr 2 dx ! T ( R 2 x 2 ) dx dm ! VdV ! Tr 2 dx ! TV ( R 2 x 2 ) dx The moment of inertia for the disk of radius r and mass dm is 1 2 1 dI ! r dm ! 2 2 .

R 2 x 2 2 TV 2 [TV ( R x ) dx ] ! ( R x 2 ) 2 dx 2 2 2 .

axis through center Integrating from x=0 to x=R gives the moment of inertia of the right hemisphere.Inertia Calculations Uniform sphere. From symmetry. the total I for the entire sphere is just twice this: TV I ! (2) ( R 2 x 2 ) 2 dx 2 ´ 0 R 8TV 5 I! R 15 2 I ! MR 2 5 Volume of the sphere 4T R 3 V! 3 4TV 3 M ! VV ! R 3 The mass M of the sphere Note: moment of inertia of a solid sphere is less than the moment of inertia of a solid cylinder of the same mass and radius! (Reason is that more of the sphere¶s mass is located close to the axis) .

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