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NAME:SYED.M.ABBAS ZAIDI. ENROLLMENT NO:01-133102-090 Submitted to:Sir IMTIAZ ALI KHAN

REFERNCE BOOKS

1)Physics for engineering and science (page no131-134). by DR MICHEAL BROWN. 2)University physics (11th edition) page 347-350. By YOUNG AND FREDNAN.

. (page no 301-305) By Serway Beiunner.REFERENCE BOOKS. 5)Advanced physics(2nd edition). 3)Physics(4th Edition) (page no 262-265) By Paul A Tripler. 4)Physics for scientist and engineers. By Weith Gibbs.

6)Fundamentals of physics . By Halliday and Resnick.REFERENCE BOOKS. .

2)Physics (4th edition). 4)Fundamentals of physics.COMMON POINTS : REFERENCE BOOKS. 3)Physics for scientist and engineers. . 1)University pysics.

As the object turns through an angle U the point covers a distance given by s = rU In the above expression the angle U must be in radians If this expression is differentiated with respect to time then the left hand side will become the linear speed of particle This speed corresponds to the velocity of the point P which is tangential to the circular arc traced out by the point. This gives: ds dU !r dt dt v ! r[ Relation between linear and angular speed . When differentiating the right hand side.CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA Consider a point P on a rotating object that is a distance r away from the axis of rotation. we notice that r is constant and the rate of change of angular position is the angular velocity.

atan. and the angular acceleration of the rotation object: atan d[ dv ! !r ! rE dt dt Tangential acceleration of a point on a rotating body Finally. If we replace v=r[ we have: arad v2 ! ! [ 2r r Centripetal acceleration of a point on a rotating body .CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA Differentiating once again gives a relationship between the tangential acceleration of the point. recall that any object that is undergoing circular motion experiences an inwardly directed radial acceleration given by the speed squared divided by the radius.

« o o . belts. its speed and acceleration at any instant are equal to the speed and tangential acceleration of the point at which it is tangent to the cylinder Bicycle chains and sprockets.CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA s ! rU v ! r[ dv d[ atan ! ! r ! rE dt dt These equations apply to any particle that has the same tangential velocity as a point in a rotating rigid body Rope wound around a circular cylinder unwraps without stretching or slipping. pulleys.

! § mi ri 2 i Definition of moment of inertia SI unit of moment of inertia is the kgm2 For a solid object the rotational inertia is found by evaluating an integral as we will see later In a rigid body the distances ri are constant.. and I is independent of how the body is rotating around a given axis. The rotational inertia of some common shapes about some of their symmetry axes is given in Table 9.2 of your textbook ..CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA The rotational inertia of an object is a measure of the resistance of the object to changes in its rotational motion For a system of particles of masses mi at distances ri from an axis passing through a point P the rotational inertia of the system about the axis is given by: I ! m1r12 m2 r22 .

Rotational Inertia (Moment of Inertia) .

the greater the kinetic energy of a rigid body rotating with a given angular speed .CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA The rotational kinetic energy of a solid object rotating about an axis for which its rotational inertia is I with angular velocity [ is expressed as 1 2 K ! I[ 2 Rotational kinetic energy of a rigid body Notice the similarity between this formula and the formula for the kinetic energy of a point mass m moving with speed v This kinetic energy is the sum of kinetic energies of the individual particles that make up the rigid body [ is in rad/s (NOT in rev or degrees per second ! K will be in Joules) The greater is the moment of inertia.

the harder it is to start the body rotating if it¶s at rest and the harder it is to stop its rotation if it¶s already rotating .CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA 1 2 ! I[ 2 Greater a body¶s moment of inertia.

0 rad/s. . B. What is the moment of inertia of this body about an axis through point A. what is its kinetic energy? A. C. B to the plane of the slide? What is the moment of inertia of this body about an axis coinciding the rod BC? If the body rotates about an axis through A B to the plane of the slide with angular speed 4.CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA Moments of inertia for different rotation axes One-piece machine part consists of three heavy connectors linked by light molded struts.

CALCULATIONS OF MOMENT OF INERTIA. Later we will see how to approach rotational problems of this kind. You will use it to compute gravitational potential energies. Identify all non-gravitational forces that do work. Use the subscript 1 for the initial state and the subscript 2 for the final state. . It helps to draw sketches showing the initial and final states. 2. 3. Problems Problem-Solving Strategy IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: You can use work±energy relations and conservation of energy to find relations involving position and motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis. use this choice consistently. the energy method is usually not helpful for problems that involve elapsed time. As we saw before. Equations assume that the positive direction for y is upward. represent them by algebraic symbols. Define your coordinate system. If some of the quantities you need are unknown. particularly the level at which y=0. A free-body diagram is always helpful. 1. SET UP the problem using the following steps: First decide what the initial and final states (the positions and velocities) of the system are.

. which is expressed in terms of the body¶s moment of inertia I for the given axis and its angular speed [ instead of its mass m and speed v. check whether your answer makes physical sense. The new feature is rotational kinetic energy.Rotational Energy. It¶s helpful to draw bar graphs showing the initial and final values of K. and E=K+U. K2. Substitute these expressions into K1+ U1+Wother =K2+U2 (if nonconservative work is done) or K1+ U1=K2+U2 (if only conservative work is done) and solve for the target variable(s). EVALUATE your answer: As always. Problems Problem-Solving Strategy EXECUTE the solution: Write expressions for the initial and final kinetic and potential energies (K1. U. U1 and U2) and the non-conservative work Wother (if any).

COMMON FEATURES. .

slender rod: use coordinate x along the length and relate dm to an increment dx. If the object is divided into small mass elements dm in such a manner that all of the points in a particular mass element are the same perpendicular distance r from the axis of rotation then the moment of inertia is given by 2 . you need to represent r and dm in terms of the same integration variable. 1-D object. dm 2 V ! const I ! V ´ r 2 dV V! .Inertia Calculations For a continuous distribution of mass the sum of the masses times the square of the distances to the axis of rotation which defines the moment of inertia become an integral. I ! ´ r dm To evaluate the integral. 3-D object: express dm in terms of element of volume dV and density V. I ! ´ r V (V )dV dV dV ! dx dy dz Limits of integral are determined by the shape and dimensions of the body .

Compare with Table 9. through the center. Compute its moment of inertia about an axis through O. The ratio of the mass dm of this element to the total mass M is equal to the ratio of its length dx to the total length L: dm dx ! M L dm ! L dx « ¨x ´ x dm ! L ´h x dx ! ¬ L © 3 © ª L h 2 2 3 ¸» 1 ¹¼ ! ¹ 3 º½ h Lh ( L2 3Lh 3h 2 ) Evaluate this general expression about an axis through the left end. axis B to length Slender uniform rod with mass M and length L.Inertia Calculations Uniform thin rod.2. . at an arbitrary distance h from the end. the right end. Choose as an element of mass a short section of rod with length dx at a distance x from O.

and length L. Choose as a volume element a thin cylindrical shell of radius r. uniform cylinder with length L. Compute its moment of inertia about the axis of symmetry. thickness dr. The volume of this element: dm ! VdV ! V (2TrLdr ) 2TVL 4 r dm ! ´ r V (2TrLdr ) ! 2TVL ´ r dr ! ( R2 R14 ) ! ´ 4 R1 R1 1 TVL 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 V ! TL( R2 R1 ) I ! M ( R2 R12 ) ! ( R2 R1 )( R2 R1 ) 2 2 2 2 3 R2 R2 . outer radius R2.Inertia Calculations Hollow or solid cylinder. inner radius R1. All parts of this element are at very nearly the same distance from the axis. rotating about axis of symmetry Hollow.

R2=R: 1 I ! MR 2 2 If cylinder has a very thin wall. R1=0. but not on its length! .Inertia Calculations Hollow or solid cylinder. rotating about axis of symmetry 1 2 I ! M ( R2 R12 ) 2 If cylinder is solid. R1 and R2 are very nearly equal: I ! MR 2 Note: moment of inertia of a cylinder about an axis of symmetry depends on its mass and radii.

Parallel Axis Theorem .

Different Features: PHYSICS FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES: FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS: .

P. I p ! I cm Md 2 Parallel-Axis Theorem .2 in your textbook you may be able to use the parallel axis theorem. that is parallel to and a distance d away from an axis that passes through the object's center of mass. This theorem gives the rotational inertia of an object of mass M about an axis.Parallel-Axis Theorem To find the rotational inertia of an object about an axis that is different from one listed in Table 9.

Then the distance of this axis from axis through CM is d: d2=a2+b2 Moment of inertia Icm about axis through O: I cm ! § mi ( xi2 yi2 ) i . yi-b) with respect to the parallel axis through point P. b). one through the center of mass and the other through a point P. The mass element has coordinates (xi-a. Let¶s take origin at the CM of the body: xcm= ycm= zcm=0 The axis through the CM passes through this thin slice at point O. both parallel to z-axis.Parallel-Axis Theorem Consider two axes. and parallel axis passes through point P with coordinates (a. Mass element mi has coordinates (xi. yi) with respect to an axis of rotation through the center of mass and B to the plane of the slide.

Let¶s extend the sums to include all particles in all slices.Parallel-Axis Theorem Moment of inertia Icm about axis through P: I P ! § mi [( xi a ) 2 ( yi b) 2 )] i These expressions don¶t involve the coordinates zi measured B to the slices. Ip then becomes the moment of inertia of the entire body for an axis through P: I P ! § mi ( xi2 yi2 ) 2 a § mi xi 2b § mi yi ( a 2 b 2 ) i i i §m i i I cm xcm ! 0 ycm ! 0 d2 M I P ! I cm Md 2 .

What is the moment of inertia Icm about a parallel axis through the center of mass? I cm ! I p Md 2 ! ! 0.Parallel-Axis Theorem. We measure its moment of inertia about an axis 0. This is as it should be: the moment of inertia for an axis through the center of mass is lower than for any other parallel axis. Example A part of a mechanical linkage has a mass of 3.15m) 2 ! 0.6kg )(0.132 kg m 2 (3.6 kg. .15 m from its center of mass to be Ip=0.051 kg m 2 Result show that Icm is less than Ip.132 kg·m2.

UNIQUE FEATURES: UNIVERSITY PHYSICS BY YOUNG AND FREEDNAN. .

whose moment of inertia we already know.Inertia Calculations Uniform sphere. axis through center Uniform sphere with radius R. the axis is through its center. Find the moment of inertia about the axis is through the center of this sphere. The radius r of the disk is r ! R2 x2 The volume is The mass is dV ! Tr 2 dx ! T ( R 2 x 2 ) dx dm ! VdV ! Tr 2 dx ! TV ( R 2 x 2 ) dx The moment of inertia for the disk of radius r and mass dm is 1 2 1 dI ! r dm ! 2 2 . Divide sphere into thin disks of thickness dx.

R 2 x 2 2 TV 2 [TV ( R x ) dx ] ! ( R x 2 ) 2 dx 2 2 2 .

the total I for the entire sphere is just twice this: TV I ! (2) ( R 2 x 2 ) 2 dx 2 ´ 0 R 8TV 5 I! R 15 2 I ! MR 2 5 Volume of the sphere 4T R 3 V! 3 4TV 3 M ! VV ! R 3 The mass M of the sphere Note: moment of inertia of a solid sphere is less than the moment of inertia of a solid cylinder of the same mass and radius! (Reason is that more of the sphere¶s mass is located close to the axis) .Inertia Calculations Uniform sphere. axis through center Integrating from x=0 to x=R gives the moment of inertia of the right hemisphere. From symmetry.

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