# Introduction to Digital Electronics

Suplementary Reading
 Digital Design by - John F. Wakerly
± www.ddpp.com - you will find some solutions at this site. ± www.xilinx.com - Xlinix Web site

 Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals by - M. Morris Mano & Charles R. Kime  Digital Design by - M. Morris Mano  Digital Logic Circuit Analysis and Design
by - Victor P. Nelson, H. Troy Nagle, J. David Irwin & Bill D. Carrol

Digital Electronics
 Digital Electronics represents information (0, 1) with only two discrete values.  Ideally ³no voltage´ (e.g., 0v) represents a 0 and ³full source voltage´ (e.g., 5v) represents a 1  Realistically ³low voltage´ (e.g., <1v) represents a 0 and ³high voltage´ (e.g., >4v) represents a 1  We achieve these discrete values by using switches.  We use transistor switches, which operates at high speed, electronically, a small in size.

Analog versus Digital
 Analog systems process time-varying signals that can take on any value across a continuous range of voltages (in electrical/electronics systems).  Digital systems process time-varying signals that can take on only one of two discrete values of voltages (in electrical/electronics systems).
± Discrete values are called 1 and 0 (ON and OFF, HIGH and LOW, TRUE and FALSE, etc.)

Representing Information Electronically  A light bulb has to represent 4 different information: Bulb off Bulb 1/3 lit Bulb 2/3 lit Bulb Full lit no student inside 1 student inside 2 student inside 3 student inside  A light bulb has to represent 10 different information: ± Is it possible to differentiate the ten different light intensity? .

Representing Information Electronically  A light bulb has to represent 2 different information: Bulb off Bulb Full lit no student inside 1 student inside  A light bulb has to represent 4 different information: ± How? With one bulb? ± Use two bulbs  A light bulb has to represent 10 different information: ± Use four bulbs .

Representing Information Electronically  ³Analog electronics´ deals with non-discrete values  ³Digital electronics´ deals with discrete values .

Benefits of Digital over Analog        Reproducibility Not effected by noise means quality Ease of design Data protection Programmable Speed Economy .

Digital Revolution  Digital systems started back in 1940s.  Digital systems cover all areas of life: ± still pictures ± digital video ± digital audio ± telephone ± traffic lights ± Animation .

Digital Devices Gates Flip-Flops PLDs FPGAs .

NOT .  Gates got their name from their function of allowing or blocking (gating) the flow of digital information.Gates  The most basic digital devices are called gates.  A gate is called a combinational circuit. OR.  Three most important gates are: AND.  A gate has one or more inputs and produces an output depending on the input(s).

 Basic building blocks -.Digital Logic  Binary system -. NOT . LOW & HIGH.0 & 1. OR. negated and asserted.AND.

NOT Gates .AND. OR.

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.Electronic Aspects of Digital Design  How we represent digital information in electronic devices?  By discrete voltages.

What is the Basic Digital Element in Electronics ? a Switch .

Using Switch to represent digital information .

.  So.  Digital abstraction allows us to associate a noise margin with each logic values (0 and 1). so circuits can be modeled as if they really did process 0s and 1s. known as digital abstraction. we impose some rules that allow analog behavior to be ignored in most cases.Digital Abstraction  It is difficult to make ideal switches means a switch is completely ON or completely OFF.

Real Switches to represent digital information 5v 5v 1k. . Output 5v Output 4.5v 10k.

8 V . temp need ³noise margin´  Logic voltage levels decreasing with new processors. 3.5 . not analog  Switching threshold varies with voltage. 2.Logic levels  Undefined region is inherent digital. 1.3 . 5 .

MOS Transistors Voltage-controlled resistance PMOS NMOS .

CMOS Inverter .

Switch model .

 Stored value can be changed only at certain times determined by a clock input.  New value depend on the current state and it¶s control inputs  A digital circuit that contains filp-flops is called a sequential circuit .Flip-flops  A device that stores either a 0 or 1.

Flip-flops S-R latch symbols D flip-flop J-K flip-flops .

large scale integration .small scale integration .Integrated Circuits  A collection of one or more gates fabricated on a single silicon chip is called an integrated circuit (IC).1~20 gates ± MSI .very large scale integration .000 gates ± VLSI .20~200 gates ± LSI .40 million transistors .  ICs were classified by size: ± SSI .200~200.over 1M transistors  Pentium-III .medium scale integration .

DIP Packages .

Gates in ICs .

 Complex PLDs (CPLD) are a collection of PLDs on the same chip.Programmable Logic Devices  PLDs allow the function to be programmed into them after they are manufactured.  Another programmable logic chip is FPGA field-programmable gate arrays. .

CPLDs and FPGAs CPLD FPGA .

and power consumption. . physical size.  But costly if not produced in bulk.Application Specific ICs (ASICs)  Chips designed for a particular application are called semicustom ICs or application-specific ICs (ASICs). and they often provide higher performance.  ASICs generally reduce the total component and manufacturing cost of a product by reducing chip count.

Printed-Circuit Boards  An IC is normally mounted on a printed-circuit board (PCB) that connects it to other ICs in a system.  Individual wire connection or traces can be as narrow as 4 mils with 4 mils spacing (onethousandth of an inch)  Now a days. most of the components use surface mount technology. .  They are normally layered.

Software Aspects of Digital Design  Today software tools are an essential part of digital design.circuit design ± Timing analyzers and verifiers . correctness and quality of designs  Software tools are: ± Schematic entry ± HDL (Hardware Description Language) Editors ± Simulators .  Software tools improve productivity.to verify the behaviour of the design ± Synthesis tools .

 design at the transistor level  level of functional building blocks  level of logic design using HDLs  computer design and overall system design. .Digital Design Levels  the lowest level of design is device physics and IC manufacturing processes.

Different Design Levels Consider a simple design example: Build a multiplexer with two data inputs A and B. Switch model for the example multiplexer . and an output Z. a control input S.

Designing at the transistor level  Transistor-level circuit diagrams  Gate symbols (for simple elements) .

 Logic design using Truth tables .

 Logic design using boolean algebra Equations: Z = Sd A + S  B  Logic diagrams .

e.g. multiplexer . Prepackaged building blocks.

 Various hardware description languages ± ABEL ± VHDL  We¶ll start with gates and work our way up .

 Name of the program module  the type of PLD  pin numbers  ABEL statement to achieve the multiplexer  Standard library  and a set of definitions  Inputs and outputs  functions behaviour .

Structural VHDL program for the multiplexer .

Design to solve real life problems. Unless mass production avoid ASIC design. Though PLDs costs more but uses less PCB area.Summery      Design to minimize cost. . Rule of thumb is to minimize the number of ICs.