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Mehak sharma


Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules. One-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the characteristics being measured. The rules for assigning numbers should be standardized and applied uniformly. Rules must not change over objects or time.

Consider an attitude scale from 1 to 100. Scaling is the process of placing the respondents on a continuum with respect to their attitude toward department stores. .8-3 Scaling involves creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located. Measurement is the actual assignment of a number from 1 to 100 to each respondent. Each respondent is assigned a number from 1 to 100. and 100 = Extremely Favorable. with 1 = Extremely Unfavorable.

2 Ratio 15. in Seconds 8.4 .8-4 Scale Nominal Numbers Assigned to Runners Rank Order of Winners Third place Finish 7 8 3 Ordinal Finish Second place 9.2 14.6 Interval Performance Rating on a 0 to 10 Scale Time to Finish.1 13.1 First place 9.

. The only permissible operation on the numbers in a nominal scale is counting. When used for identification.. and mode.g. percentages. e.8-5 ` ` ` ` ` The numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. The numbers do not reflect the amount of the characteristic possessed by the objects. Only a limited number of statistics. there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects. are permissible. all of which are based on frequency counts.

C. J. Penney 6.Wal-Mart 2 1 25 35 1 1 . Kmart 4. Rich¶s 5. Macy¶s 3. Saks Fifth Avenue 9. Target 8. Store Ordinal Scale Preference Rankings 7 2 8 3 1 5 9 6 4 1 5 7 4 6 7 5 4 5 6 2 Interval Scale Preference Ratings 1-7 11-17 15 17 14 16 17 15 14 15 16 12 Ratio Scale $ spent last 3 months 1.8-6 Nominal Scale No. Lord & Taylor 2. Neiman Marcus 7. Sears 10.

8-7 ` A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which the objects possess some characteristic. Can determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object. ` ` . Any series of numbers can be assigned that preserves the ordered relationships between the objects. but not how much more or less.

Both the zero point and the units of measurement are arbitrary. standard deviation. and in addition the arithmetic mean. ` ` . Statistical techniques that may be used include all of those that can be applied to nominal and ordinal data. It permits comparison of the differences between objects. and other statistics commonly used in marketing research.8-8 ` ` ` Numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal values in the characteristic being measured. It is meaningful to take ratios of scale values. The location of the zero point is not fixed.

All statistical techniques can be applied to ratio data. It is meaningful to compute ratios of scale values. ordinal. It has an absolute zero point. where b is a positive constant. Only proportionate transformations of the form y = bx. and interval scales. are allowed.8-9 ` Possesses all the properties of the nominal. ` ` ` ` .

8-10 Scaling Techniques Comparative Scales Noncomparative Scales Paired Comparison Rank Order Constant Sum Q-Sort and Other Procedures Continuous Itemized Rating Scales Rating Scales Likert Semantic Differential Stapel .

Comparative scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties. .8-11 ` Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus objects.

Easily understood and can be applied. Involve fewer theoretical assumptions. Same known reference points for all respondents. Tend to reduce halo or carryover effects from one judgment to another. ` ` ` ` .8-12 ` Small differences between stimulus objects can be detected.

8-13 ` Ordinal nature of the data Inability to generalize beyond the stimulus objects scaled. ` .

8-14 ` A respondent is presented with two objects and asked to select one according to some criterion. ` ` ` . it is possible to convert paired comparison data to a rank order. The data obtained are ordinal in nature. Paired comparison scaling is the most widely used comparative scaling technique. Under the assumption of transitivity.

The consumer is asked to sample two different products and select the one with the most appealing taste. A blind taste test for a soft drink.8-15 The most common method of taste testing is paired comparison. may not be a good indicator of performance in the marketplace. but its introduction was less than successful. because image plays a major role in the purchase of Coke. A paired comparison taste test . where imagery. The introduction of New Coke illustrates this point. New Coke was heavily favored in blind paired comparison taste tests.000 responses is considered an adequate sample. self-perception and brand reputation are very important factors in the consumer s purchasing decision. The test is done in private and a minimum of 1.

rank order scaling also results in ordinal data. It is possible that the respondent may dislike the brand ranked 1 in an absolute sense. ` ` . Furthermore.8-16 ` Respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion.

The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. No two brands should receive the same rank number. Begin by picking out the one brand that you like most and assign it a number 1. The least preferred brand should be assigned a rank of 10.8-17 Instructions: Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of preference. Then find the second most preferred brand and assign it a number 2. . Continue this procedure until you have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in order of preference. There is no right or wrong answer. Just try to be consistent.

Plus White 10. Ultra Brite 7. Close Up 8. Macleans 6. Pepsodent 9. Aim 4. Stripe Rank Order _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ . Gleem 5. Crest 2. Colgate 3.8-18 Form Brand 1.

the name of the scale. such as 100 points to attributes of a product to reflect their importance. If an attribute is unimportant. Hence. it receives twice as many points.8-19 ` Respondents allocate a constant sum of units. ` ` ` . the respondent assigns it zero points. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute. The sum of all the points is 100.

Please allocate 100 points among the attributes so that your allocation reflects the relative importance you attach to each attribute.8-20 Instructions On the next slide. The more points an attribute receives. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute. there are eight attributes of bathing soaps. it should receive twice as many points. . If an attribute is not at all important. the more important the attribute is. assign it zero points.

Moisturizing 8.8-21 Form Average Responses of Three Segments Attribute 1. Lather 3. Fragrance 6. Shrinkage 4. Mildness 2. Cleaning Power Sum Segment I 8 2 3 53 9 7 5 13 100 Segment II 2 4 9 17 5 3 60 100 Segment III 4 17 7 9 19 9 20 15 100 . Packaging 7. Price 5.

` . of product . 0 to 1 0 then we categories the product and then rate the product rate wise.8-22 ` When the respondent are presented with large no. For e.g.

8-23 THANK YOU .