Switching.. Definition 

The equipment and techniques for enabling any station in a communications system to be connected with any other station. Switching is an essential component of telephone, telegraph, data-processing, and other technologies in which it is necessary to deal rapidly with large amounts of information.

Switching.. Definition 

Connecting the calling party with the called party. This may involve the use of one or more switches. The controlling or routing of signals in circuits to execute logical or arithmetic operations or to transmit data between specific points in a network Note: Switching may be performed by electronic,optical, or electromechanical devices.

Telecom Components   Subscriber  Devices attached to network Subscriber loop Connection to network Switching centers End office .supports subscribers Branches between exchanges Multiplexed 4 Local Loop    Exchange    Trunks   .

The ³Switching Fabric´ must allow for these connections to be established and removed.Switching   Any subscriber line can request a connection to any other line or trunk. 5 .

General Principles of Switching 6 .

Point to point lines If we could have point to point lines between all senders and all receivers. then we would not need switching. 7 .

040. for n people. # of lines = n(n-1) 2 8 . Hosts # of lines 1 3 45 4950 0.5 million 6.Switching Imagine point to point lines between all pairs of people: # of people 2 3 10 100 1000 110 mill.000 Billion In general.

Need for Switching 9 .

Karachi Islamabad 10 .

11 Umar Abid . the switch creates a temporary link between these lines.Switch Amir Mubashir Asif Zia Khalid ‡ Lines or wires from everybody's house go into the switch ‡ When a call is placed.

Stages   Manual switching: all telephone lines terminate in a jack. patch cord used to connect parties Automatic switching:   Electromechanical Computer-controlled switching 12 .

no standard outside-plant color) Tip (green positive wire) 13 .Switching History  Manual exchanges (inserting a brass peg to set up a connection between line 1 and line 2) (1878/79) Insulators Sleeve (only in Ring (red electronegative mechanical wire) switches.

³supervision´ describes only the aspects of signaling which relate to busy/idle status Historical method to get attention of the operator was a small hand-cranked AC generator or ³magneto´ at subscriber end  Produced about 90 V ac.Supervision Methods   In traditional telephone jargon. at 20 Hz frequency.  Still standard ringing waveform for North America today 14 .

connecting his/her headset to the subscriber via a voice-frequency transformer  Operator then asked ³Number Please?´ 15 .Supervision Methods  Then the common-battery circuit was introduced  Subscriber ³switch-hook´ closed a current loop and operated a light and/or buzzer near that subscriber¶s socket on the switchboard panel  Operator lifted a retractable cord from the desk-top.

Call Connection  Operator plugged other end of cord circuit into callèd subscriber socket 16 .

Switching History     First automatic exchange (Strowger. 1891) Designed by undertaker in Kansas City Needed to take operator out of the loop Electromechanical device    introduced the dialing system dial tone electro-mechanical exchange (Strowger exchange) 17 .

18 .Strowger Switch   A step by step (SXS) system performing switching in two dimensions (horizontal and vertical) Switching action is a direct result of the dial pulses generated by the rotary telephone set.

Step-By-Step Switch 19 .

Origins of switching ‡ Stored Program Control Switches (1970+) i.e. 20 . Digital Switches Utilize a CPU for controlling most switching operations ± Few moving parts ± More maintenance free and efficient ± Allow significant flexibility of service (programs can be stored and executed for each subscriber) : » Call blocking » Call diversion etc«.

Circuit Switch Elements 21 .

Components of a digital switch (SPC Switch)  CPU      controls all call processing activities assigns time slots administers features such as call forwarding Switch Matrix handles actual connection of calls to their destinations 22 .

Components of a digital switch  Peripheral Modules     Analog to digital conversion interfacing with trunks Input/Output Controller handles billing. 23 . software loading etc. administration.

) Trunk Interface Line/Loop Interface Trunk Interface More not shown Line/Loop Interface Internal Internal Switching Switching Matrix or Matrix or Network Network More not shown Trunk Interface optional remote line concentrator 24 .Digital Switch Block Diagram Multiple station loops Multiple T-1 trunk groups Line/Loop Interface Control Processor (CPU. RAM etc.

Control Signaling in Voice Networks  Control Signals ± Signals by which the network is managed. calls are established. maintained and terminated. Two kinds:  Control signaling between subscriber and the network  Control signaling within the network 25 .

) Smaller size allows more capacity growth in same building Less electric power consumption. increases income of public telephone company by selling optional ³vertical´ features Inter-works with digital trunks (T1/E1 etc. reduces operating costs somewhat 26 .Digital Switch Advantages      Automatic test reduces staff costs significantly  Predominant cost saving in many cases!! Feature-rich.

 Connection is maintained until one of end nodes terminates.  Connection is dedicated to the communication between two nodes.Switching Technology  Circuit Switching (CS) Need a connection establishment between end nodes.  Reduces the number and the total length of the links  Example : Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN)  27 .

Circuit Switch  A device with n inputs and m outputs that creates a temporary connection between an input link and an output link 28 .

Frame Relay.Switching Technology  Packet Switching (Virtual Circuit and Datagram)     Data are transmitted in short messages called packets. A connection between the two end-nodes is not maintained.   Message Switching (MS) Cell Switching (ATM) 29 . Example : Public Data Network (PDN) likes X. A node-to-node link can be dynamically shared by many packets.25.

Key Differences Keys data message node status connection utilization data rate Prioritization Circuit switching dedicated single route by pass both must be ready dedicated poor fixed not support Packet switching different routes temporary store at each node sender ready to send is enough shared good vary support 30 .

Circuit versus Packet Switching Circuit Switching Packet Switching 31 .

Public Switching Telephone Network end office subscriber loop Long-distance office Intercity trunk subscriber loop (local loop) link between subscriber and network connecting trunk (exchanges) switching center. carry multiple voice circuits 32 . localized support subscriber Intercity trunk (trunks) connecting trunk branches between exchanges.

Communication is shared between many companies. PSDN= Public Switched Data Network LAN LAN PSDN LAN 33 . PSDN is designed specifically for the transmission of data rather than voice. The cost of this service is normally lower than a leased line.PSDN     Telephone companies normally provide a public data service.

34 .Circuit-Switching Networks  The three phases of a circuit switched connection are  Circuit establishment  Data transfer  Circuit disconnect.

Procedures Switching       Ascertain when subscriber goes off-hook Receive the telephone number dialed Test to see if the called number is busy Inform the caller if it is busy or make a connection Ring the called party Disconnect when subscriber goes on-hook 35 .

 Time-division switches: Same path is shared by multiple streams (division in time) Modern switches are combination switches  36 .Circuit switching Space division switches: Signal paths are physically separate from one another (i. divided in space).e.

37 .Circuit-Switching Concepts  Time-Division Switching  Definition: A circuit-switching technique in which time slots in a time-multiplexed stream of data are manipulated to pass data from an input to an output.

Time-Division Switches  time-division multiplexing (TDM) + timeslot interchange (TSI) 38 .

Time Slot Interchanger 39 .


The amplitude of the signal is representation of its loudness while the frequency represents its tone or pitch. 41   . An analog connection is one which continuously varies in amplitude and frequency.Analog Signal  A continuous representation of a continuous event.

Digital Signal  A digital signal is defined at discrete times only represented by fixed states ³digits´. Most usually it is represented by a binary signals with µ1s¶ or µ0s¶ represented by a positive voltage or zero voltage. In optical fiber system µ1s¶ or µ0s¶ may be represented by µlight on¶ or µlight off¶. 42  .

43 . Amplifiers used in analog systems amplify the noise along with the original signal. With digital systems only one of certain number of possible states exist (1 or 0) which if identified can be used to recreate the original signal from an degraded input.Why Digital instead of Analog?    Quality of signals with analog systems varies as overall distance of the circuit varies since noise increases as the circuit becomes longer.

 44 . By adopting digital systems the noise performance of a long distance telephone channel is as good as that of a short distance channel.Why Digital instead of Analog?  REGENARATION is the key benefit of digital transmission systems.

digital lines can transfer data at much higher rates than analog lines. they are best suited for radio systems.More Advantages of Digital Transmission Systems  Higher Data Rate Possible:  With digital computers around. Since digital systems are free from noise. these can be even enhanced by ISDN customers (no conversion required)  Improvements using Digital Radio Systems:   Digital Exchanges and ISDN:  45 . Digital exchanges have tremendous advantages over analog exchanges.

it is possible to use different codes by µscrambling¶ the signals at transmitter and unscrambling at the receiver end. Digital systems are physically small and relatively cheap thanks to advancements in LSI circuits  Space Saving and Economical:  46 .More Advantages of Digital Transmission Systems   Lesser Maintenance Extra Security:  With digital systems.

More Advantages of Digital Transmission Systems  Higher Capacity  Digital systems can use the available bandwidth of the channel much more efficiently as compared to analog systems.In other words. better multiplexing schemes are available and being developed. 47 .

48 . a system carrier is continuously varied by the signal. In AM or FM. an exact replica of any signal which is applied to the input.Transmission System   The aim of any transmission system is to produce at the output.

H. Reeves in 1937 Pulse Code Modulation is the representation of a signal by a series of digital pulses firstly by sampling the signal. numerically encoded binary values derived from digitizing the analog signal. 49 . quantizing it and then encoding it.PCM    Initially invented by A. The PCM signal itself is a succession of discrete.

PCM System 50 .

PCM Steps  Sampling   PAM Nyquist sampling rate theorem Uniform and non uniform A. 51  Quantizing    Encoding  .Law Binary sequences.Law and Q.

Digitization of Signals




Pulse Modulation Systems
A series of regularly recurring pulses is made to vary in amplitude, duration, shape, or time as a function of the modulating signal Used to transmit both analog and digital information, such as voice and data.The analog signal is sampled, digitized and encoded into a digital pulse stream.If the signal is already is in digital form, it may be encoded into a digital pulse train.

Pulse Modulation Examples      Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) Delta modulation (DM) Pulse-width modulation (PWM) Pulse-code modulation (PCM) Pulse-position modulation (PPM) 55 .

ADVANTAGES OF PULSE MODULATION       Noise immunity Inexpensive digital circuitry Can be time-division multiplexed with other pulse modulated signals Transmission distance is increased through the use of regenerative repeaters Digital pulse streams can be stored. Error detection and correction is easily implemented 56 .

DISADVANTAGES OF PULSE MODULATION    Require a much greater bandwidth to transmit and receive than its analog counterpart Special encoding and decoding techniques may be necessary to increase transmission rates making the pulse stream more difficult to recover. May require precise synchronization of clocks between the transmitting and the receiving stations 57 .

The amplitude of the pulses in a PAM signal contains the intelligence or modulating voltage. 58 . The pulse's amplitude is equal to the level at the time in which the analog signal was sampled. PAM is the technique used to produce a pulse when the signal is sampled.Pulse Amplitude Modulation   Sampling is the process of determining the instantaneous voltage at given intervals in time.

59 .

however. due to the bandwidth limitation on the large amounts of data that would need to be transmitted. the closer the recovered signal approaches the original signal.Sampling    The higher the sampling rate. an infinite sampling rate would be desirable in terms of reproducing the original signal. This is not practical. 60 . Ideally.

61 .

a sampling rate of 8 kHz is used which is easily above twice the highest frequency component within this range. the original signal can be completely reconstructed.  62 .Sampling  Nyquist Sampling Theorem: If a signal is sampled at a rate that is at least twice the highest frequency that it contains. Since the bandwidth of the telephone lines is 300 to 3400 Hz.

sampling period 125 Qs (1 Sec/8000 Samples) Within one sampling period.Sampling    8000 samples per second. samples of several telephone channels can be sequentially accommodated. Alias distortion occurs if Shannon¶s criterion is not satisfied 63 . This process is called TDM. or 8 kHz.

or distortion. is called as ALIASING. the frequency of the output signal will be incorrect. This is known as anti-aliasing filter. To prevent aliasing. This error.ALIASING    If the proper relationship between the highest input frequency and the sampling rate is not maintained (e. too high frequency is used at the input).g. a low pass filter is used at the analog input cutting it off at 4kHz. 64 .

65 .Quantization    Instead of transmitting the exact amplitude of the sampled signal. it will be possible to tell accurately which discrete value was transmitted and the original signal can be approximately reconstructed. At the receiving end the signal value will have a value slightly different from any of the specified discrete steps due to noise and distortions encountered in the transmission channel. If the disturbance is negligible. only certain discrete value closest to the true one is transmitted.


Quantizing is a process by which analog samples (from a pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) signal) are classified into a number of adjacent quantizing intervals. Each interval is represented by a single value called the Quantized Value. This process introduces an error in the magnitude of the samples resulting in quantizing noise However, once the information is in quantized form, it can be sent over reasonable distance without further loss in quality through regeneration of the binary levels involved to counter distortion. 66


A group of on-off pulses can be used to represent 2n discrete sample values. Working range: the permitted range of values of an analog signal divided into quantizing intervals. In quantizing telephone signals, the range of signals to be transmitted is divided into 256 intervals (8 bits).


Linear Quantization      The quantizing intervals are of equal size. every added binary digit increases the ratio by 6dBs Channel capacity=B log2(1+S/N)=3. S/N=49.76 dB In other words. Quantization noise: the difference between the input signal and the quantized output signal Signal-to-quantized-noise ratio S/N= 4n *3/2= 6n+1.76 dB n=8.1 log2(1+ 48 3/2)=51 kbps 69 .

70 .

.Linear Quantization. Example 71 .

This is assigned level 2 (same for any voltage between 1 & 2). which is transmitted as line code 101.5V (the middle value of the decision level at the encoder) This produces an error of 0. 72 .Linear Quantization.. At the receiving end 101 is converted to a pulse of +1. the actual amplitude of    signal is +1.7V.2V between original input and output signals. Example the  Consider sample 2.

Quantizing noise depends on step size and not on signal amplitude 73 . increasing the steps will complicate the coding operation and increase bandwidth requirements. If smaller steps are taken the quantization error will be less. However.Linear Quantization except where the  Errors occur on every sample   sample size exactly coincides the mid-point of the decision level.

Therefore. non-linear quantization is used. the signal to noise ratio is large for high levels but small for low level signals.Non-Linear Quantization  With linear quantization.  74 .

S/N ratios for weak signals are much better but is slightly less for the stronger signals. 75 . Small quantizing intervals are allocated to small signal values (samples) and large quantization intervals to large samples so that the signal-toquantization distortion ratio is nearly independent of the signal level.Non-Linear Quantization    The quantizing intervals are not of equal size.

Non Linear Quantization 76 .

Canada and Japan. 77 . Expand the number of levels at low amplitudes Compress at high amplitudes = Companding Two separate laws are used   A-Law adopted by ITU-T for 30 channel PCM.Non-Linear Quantization    Companding: a process in which compression is followed by expansion. µ-law used mainly in USA.

An 8-digit binary code is used for 128 positive and 128 negative quantizing intervals.ENCODING be transmitted is obtained by  PCM signal to    encoding the quantizing intervals. First bit used for all PCM words for all positive intervals is µ1¶ and for negative intervals is µ0¶ 78 . Allocation of 8-bit word is done to each individual sample.

A PCM word of one telephone signal is followed by PCM words of of all other telephone signals arranged in consecutive order.MULTIPLEXING    The 8-bit PCM words of a number of telephone signals can be transmitted consecutively in repeated cycles. This results in PCM TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEX signal 79 .

The time interval within which a PCM word is transmitted is known as Time Slot. A bit train containing one PCM word each from all inputs is known as Pulse Frame.MULTIPLEXING      Multiplexing function is carried out fully electronically. A switch moves from one input to other. The PCM-TDM signal is then available at the output of the switch. 80 .

81 .

82 . a signal amplitude is allocated to each word. Decoding PCM words in the PCM signal i.e. Result is a PAM signal.Receiver Side    Demultiplexing PCM-TDM signal i.e. the PCM words of the telephone signals are distributed to the individual lines. which is equal to the midpoint value of the particular quantizing interval. Reproducing the original analog telephone signal from the PAM signal through a LPF.

and thus may require translation  83 .Line Code  A code chosen for use within a communication systems for transmission purposes. A line code may differ from the code generated at a user terminal.

e. 84 . Bipolar RZ -.Line Codes for PCM     Unipolar NRZ -.2 non zero voltages i. Bipolar NRZ -. Unipolar RZ -. positive for 1 and negative for 0 and does not return to 0.there is always a return to level 0 between individual bits during binary 1 cell.Stays positive and does not return to level 0 during binary 1 cell.e.2 non zero voltages i. positive for 1 and negative for 0 and returns to level 0 as well.

Line Codes for PCM   CMI -.1s represented by alternate + and states and 0s always represented by zero voltage. 85 . AMI -.1s represented by alternate + and states and 0s always represented by a state during first half and + in second half of bit interval.

Line Codes for PCM  HDB3 -. The first zero may be replaced by a 1 to prevent two V¶s to have the same polarity.   The last zero of 4 consecutive zeroes is replaced by a violation (V) pulse that violates the AMI rule. 86 .used to eliminate series of more than 3 0s in the AMI. 0000 ==> X00V. X is so chosen the V¶s polarities alternate.

Transmission media carrying PCM signals employ regenerative repeaters that are spaced sufficiently close to each other (approximately 2kms) to prevent any ambiguity in the recognition of the binary PCM pulses 87 .Regenerative Repeater chiefly in the fact  The advantage of PCM lies   that it is a digital process. It is much easier for a receiver to distinguish between a 1 and a 0 than to reproduce faithfully a continuous wave signal.

The resulting signal is said to be threshold detected. and below the threshold is a logic 0.Regenerative Repeater    The regenerative repeater conditions the received (attenuated and distorted) pulses through preamplifiers and equalizer circuits. The signal is then compared against a voltage threshold Above the threshold is a logic 1. 88 .

The resulting code is used to regenerate and retransmit the new equivalent signal 89 . The threshold detected signal is sampled at the optimum time to determine the logic level of the signal.Regenerative Repeater    Timing circuits within the regenerative repeater are synchronized to the bit rate of the incoming signal.

Regenerative Repeater 90 .

PCM Transmission System 91 .

numbered slot 0 to slot 31. transmission rate 2.048 Mbps Time slot 0: frame alignment and service bits Time slot 16 for multiframe alignment and signaling.Formats for 30-channel PCM systems (E1)      A time slot: 8 bits A frame lasts 125 Qs and is divided into 32 slots. the remaining 30 slots for data transmission (voice channel) A multiframe consists of 16 frames (2ms) numbered frame 0 to 15 92 .

93 .

PCM 30 Pulse Frame 94 .

Formats for 24 channel PCM systems (T1)     Used in North America and Japan (DS1) A frame lasts 125 Qs. 1 bit at the start of every frame included for frame and multiframe alignment purpose 95 . 24 time slots each having 8 bits The 8th bit in every six frames is used for signaling.

Formats for 24 channel PCM systems (T1)  A multiframe consisting of 12 frames.544 Mbps 96 . frame alignment word 101010 on odd frames. multiframe alignment word 001110 on even frames  Transmission rate (1+24* 8)/125 = 1.

PCM24 Pulse Frame 97 .

98 .


Four low rate bit streams E1 (tributary) are multiplexed in a bit-by-bit manner to E2 100 .Higher-Order Digital Multiplexing (CCITT)    T1 and E1 are the primary order of digital multiplexing Higher orders can be formed Example: second order multiplexing (2 to 8 Mbps) -.

PDH 101 .


Transmission Rates 103 .

Their bit rates may deviate within certain tolerances from the nominal values (e.Timing Alignment by Justification    Digital signals which have to be combined to form higher order multiplex signals are not 100% exactly synchronous with each other.g. + 5* 10-5) Such signals are known to be plesiochronous. 104 .

the transmitter continuously informs the receiver whether justification has taken place. The receiver used justification service bits to reverse the justification and recover the original signal. Additional transmission capacity is provided for the purpose.Timing Alignment by Justification  When signals are combined in a digital signal unit.    105 . their timing is synchronized by justification. With the aid of justifying service digits.

Timing Alignment by Justification. For combination to the higher order.. 106 . Example     Four plesiochronous PCM30 signals (each having the rate of 2048kbits/s are combined into a single transmission system for 120 channels). 2048 *4 = 8192. but actual rate is 8448kbits/s Additional 256 kbits/s are used for justification purpose. justification is carried out.

requires on-site visit A lot of equipment needed Management interfaces (remote alarm handling etc. 140 Mbit/s) a full demultiplexing is need Loss of compatibility between European.e. 2 Mbit/s) from a high hierarchy (i.e.PDH Drawbacks      PDH is rigid.) proprietary In order to get low speed channel (i. Japanese and North American hierachies 107 . Installation and configuration only by cables.

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