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Difference between Acquisition and Learning
Language acquisition is a natural process for any native to acquire his native vernacular language. Language learning is a structured system for anyone to learn a language.
. language plays no major role in the community and is primarily learned in the classroom. The distinction between second and foreign language learning is what is learned and how it is learned. It functions as a recognized means of communication among members who speak some other language as their native tongue.What is Second Language Acquisition? In second language learning. In foreign language learning. language plays an institutional and social role in the community.
why most second language learners do not achieve the same degree of proficiency in a second language as they do in their native language.What is the Study of Second Language Acquisition? It is the study of: how second languages are learned. how learners create a new language system with limited exposure to a second language. . and why some learners appear to achieve native-like proficiency in more than one language.
The sociocultural perspective . The behaviorist perspective 2. The cognitive/developmental perspective 4. The innatist perspective 3.EXPLAINING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING Different theories have been proposed: 1.
. Students memorized dialogues and sentence patterns by heart.The Behaviorist Perspective Learning is explained in terms of imitation. and habit formation It had a powerful influence on second and foreign language teaching between the 1940s and the 1970s. practice. reinforcement. Example The Audiolingual method.
htm .The audiolingual method http://www.ca/curr_content/hutt/esl/almstrat.saskschools.
The audiolingual method .
The audiolingual method .
Discussion What do you think to be the main limitations of behaviorism as a theory of learning? What·s the role of teachers and students? .
same measures for all students . testing Assessment strategies: Written tests. practice. demonstrate competence ² all students learn the same material Types of activities: Lecture. demonstration.Behaviorism Teacher role: Transmitter of knowledge/expert source Student role: Receive information. seatwork.
The Innatist Perspective It·s mainly concerned with first language acquisition. why do they say things have never heard before? . He argued that if children learn language by imitation. One of its main pioneers is Naom Chomsky. It asserts that humans have access to the knowledge that is processed innately.
The Innatist Perspective Chomsky·s conclusion: Children·s minds are not blank states to be filled by imitating language they hear in the environment. . Hypothesis: Children are born with a specific innate ability to discover by themselves the rules of language system on the basis of the samples of a natural language they are exposed to.
Nonetheless. they learn to distinguish between grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. .The Innatist Perspective Example: Children hear falso starts. incomplete sentences and slips of tongue.
Noam Chomsky made the argument that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language. In turn. there is an assumption that all languages have a common structural basis. .The Innatist Perspective Universal Grammar Chomsky even affirmed that babies did not have to learn rules specific to each language because according to him all languages follow the same set of rules. This set of rules is known as universal grammar.
Krashen·s Model .
Krashen·s Model It is one of the models that adopt the innatist perspective It was quite influential in the 1970s. Monitor hypothesis 3. The natural order hypothesis 4. The affective filter hypothesis . It emphasizes the role of exposure to comprehensible input in second language acquisition. Acquisition/learning hypothesis 2. It is based on 5 hypotheses: 1. The input hypothesis 5.
The Sociocultural Perspective Vygotsky¶s theory .
The Sociocultural Perspective Vygotsky·s theory proposes: Cognitive development. arises as a result of social interaction.Cognitive development starts from the social context then become internalized. . Learning occurs how? When an individual interacts with an interlocutor . .Focus on input and output in the interaction. including language development. .within his ZPD ( a situation where the learner is capable of performing at a higher level because there is support from the interlocutor).