Oryza sativa

Rice An introduction Prepared by: Sweta Pachlangiya

CONTENTS

Introduction Understanding the business The Consumer s perspective

INTRODUCTION

4% of global production internationally traded 90% P&C happens in Asia Characteristics: ± Nutrient dense with >15 vitamins & minerals ± High in calories. high quality protein and fiber ± Easily digestible (gluten free carb) .A GLIMPSE ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Second most grown grain in the world Primary food for over 3 billion people.

622 427.985 420.INTERNATIONAL SCENARIO World Rice Production & Consumption (MMT) over the years 452.364 421.507 437.675 433.33 438.152 441.156 Per Capita Consumption per year 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 production consumption 2009/10 2010/11Oct .712 448.541 452.

Source: USDA .35 35.no Country .541 Production over the years Note: All figures are in MMT.9 420.3 29 22. 5 452.364 Production 2009-10 (Oct) 13 9 38 32.3 24.2 93.WORLD MILLED RICE PRODUCTION (2006-7 TO 2009-10) Sl. 1 2 3 4 5 China India Indonesia Bangladesh Vietnam World Production 2006-07 12 .

World Milled Rice Production 2009-10 (OCT) United States 2% Korea Pakistan 1% Cambodia South Egypt 1% 1% 1% Nigeria 1% Brazil 2% Japan 2% Philippines 2% Burma 2% China 30% Thailand 5% Vietnam 5% Bangladesh %   Others 8% India 21% Indonesia 8% Source: USDA Data till Oct 10 .

Country Consumption 2006-07 12 .43 3 . 8 421.no. 12 Consumption over the years 1 2 3 4 5 China India Indonesia Bangladesh Vietnam World Note: All figures are in MMT.9 29. 31. 6 18.2 86.6 19.33 Consumption 2009-10 (Oct) 135 85.15 452.WORLD RICE CONSUMPTION (200910) Sl. Source: USDA . 35.

1. 21.22% Indonesia.82% Vietnam. 1.90% Thailand. 29. 2. 11. 8.06% Nigeria.46% India. 9% Brazil. 0. 1.19% Burma.21% Japan. 3. 1.88% Egypt.31% Bangladesh.23% Philippines. 2.85% Iran. 0. 4% ¡ ¡ ¡ Source: USDA Data till Oct 10 .88% United States.World Milled Rice Production 2009-10 (OCT) Korea South. 0.21% Others. 4. .03% China. 0. 6% ¡ Cambodia.

ESTIMATED WORLD CONSUMPTION The demand-supply gap Source: IRRI .

1 31.INTERNATIONAL TRADE 2010 Top Importers Philippines Nigeria EU-2 S Saudi Arabia Iran India Iraq China Malaysia Cote d'Ivoire South Africa Japan Cambodia 29.54 30.24 30.85 2010 Top Exporters Thailand Vietnam United States Pakistan World RIce Trade (MMT) Uruguay Argentina 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11Oct .75 29.

the United States and India) cover about 80% of exports. Viet Nam. ‡ Domestic food security is a major concern for these players ‡ Developing countries are the main players in the world rice trade.CONCLUSIONS ‡ Major Producers are major consumers as well. ‡ The concentration is particularly high on the export side. since 5 countries (Thailand. . China.

‡ There is no major international future market for rice. ‡ State trading is a characteristic feature of the world rice economy. .‡ Import markets are highly fragmented and the wide fluctuations in individual countries purchases.

35 90.18 93. 85.466 91.69 9 96 Source: USDA .09 89.13 ¢ ¢ 2006/0 ¢ 86.43 200 /08 2008/09 production consumption 2009/10 ¢ 2010/11Oct 96.INDIAN SCENARIO India Rice Production & Consumption (MMT) 99.

France. Nepal. Oman. N etherlands.S.Major Export Markets: Basmati: Saudi Arabia. Russia. Data of 2008 . U. Ger many. Yemen. Bahrain. Oman. Ma laysia. Mauritius. Canada. Qatar. Somalia. Saudi Arabia. Korea. Kuwait..A . Maldives. Australia. Austria. Germany. Indonesia. Singapore. Jordan.. Italy. France. Djibouti.. Indonesia Competitor: Pakistan Non Basmati Rice: Bangladesh. SriLanka. Ethiopia.E Source: GoI. U. South Africa. Belgium . Hong Kong. Australia.A. Bahrain. Belgi um.K.K. Ivory coast. Denmark. U. Nigeria. U.

UNDERSTANDING THE BUSINESS .

THE WORLD OF RICE Rice is classified on the basis of: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Area of production Length of the grain Grain Shape Presence of Aroma Processing method Amylose content Any other specialty Major Rice types internationally .

61.51-6. 1 2 3 Type Extra long Long Medium Short Length range > .1-3 mm <2mm For Milled rice type Long Medium Short .5 mm 5.6 mm <5.no.1 mm 2. 1 2 3 4 Sl.5 mm Length range >=3.TYPES OF RICE (1) ‡ On the basis of kernel length For brown/unbroken kernels Sl..5 mm 6.no.

TYPES OF RICE (2) ‡ On the basis of grain shape (brown/unbroken kernel) Sl.no 1 2 3 Type Low-amylose Intermediate amylose High amylose Amylose content <20% 21-25% >25% Type of rice Soft texture & sticky Soft cooked rice Hard texture .1 3 1.1 2 <1 ‡ Amylose content Sl.no 1 2 3 4 Type Slender Medium Bold round Length:width ratio >3 2.

of starch) ± Low (55 to 69.5 to 80°C) ‡ Presence of aroma ± Aromatic ± Non aromatic ‡ Milling process ± Parboiled ± Raw .5°C ) ± Intermediate (70 to 74°C) ± High (74.TYPES OF RICE (3) ‡ On the basis of cooking time (gelatinsation temp.

raw milled rice) ‡ Predominantly indica (medium quality. raw milled rice) ‡ Japonica(short/medium grain. long grain. long grain.WORLD MARKET CLASSIFICATION ‡ Predominantly Indica (high quality. raw milled rice) ‡ Parboiled rice ‡ Aromatic/fragrant rice ‡ Waxy/glutinous rice .

FROM FARMER TO CONSUMER Farmer Aartiya (middle man) Miller Aartiya (middle man) Whole seller Super markets Retailer Distributor Retailer .

THE PLAYERS INVOLVED (MACRO LEVEL) .

FROM PADDY TO RICE Pre Cleaning De Stoning Parboiling (optional) Husk Aspiration Weighing & Bagging Paddy Separation Blending Length grading Polishing Whitening .

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It improves the milling recovery percent during de shelling and polishing / whitening operation ‡ Husking : Removing husk from paddy ‡ Husk Aspiration : Separating the husk from brown rice/ unhusked paddy ‡ Paddy Separation : Separating the unhusked paddy from brown rice ‡ Whitening : Removing all or part of the bran layer and germ from brown rice ‡ Polishing : Improving the appearance of milled rice by removing the remaining bran particles and by polishing the exterior of the milled kernel ‡ Length Grading : Separating small and large brokens from head rice ‡ Blending : Mixing head rice with predetermined amount of brokens. as required by the customer ‡ Weighing and bagging : Preparing the milled rice for transport to the customer .DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS ‡ Pre Cleaning : Removing all impurities and unfilled grains from paddy ‡ De-stoning : Separating small stones from paddy ‡ Parboiling (Optional) : Helps in improving the nutritional quality by gelatinization of starch inside the rice grain.

vinegar. noodles. precooked & quick cooking rice) Dry milled flour (bread. beer) Milled rice (enriched rice. tablets. muffins. wines) Rice starch (noodles. cakes. puffed rice.VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS Rough Rice (Popped rice & Sierra rice) Brown rice Parboiled rice (beaten/flaked rice. food stabilizer) Puffed & extrusion cooked rice (baby food. puddings) Cooked rice & rice products (cakes. noodles. rice paper) (Quick cooking rice) Broken Rice (khichdi. canned rice. crackers. Puffed rice) Wet milled rice (cakes. Fermented cakes. breakfast cereal etc) .

THE CONSUMER S PERSPECTIVE .

‡ Quality is assessed by sensory inspection. ‡ Factors affecting quality of rice: ± Variety of the rice ± Post harvest handling . demand for superior quality of rice also increases.THE BASICS ‡ As supply increases.

Quality of dry seed for consumption (Moisture content. amylose content 2 3 4 Miller/ Trader Market quality Cooking and eating quality According to a study by IRRI (confirmed by IMRB research): ‡ Consumers prefer higher head rice yield and more translucent grain.PERCEPTION OF QUALITY Sl. with one exception: lower income consumers prefer rice that is more filling . ‡ Preferences do not vary much across income levels. microbial deterioration & spoilage) low moisture. 1 Stakeholder Farmer Quality Parameter Quality of seed for planting material.no. reflecting their ability to pay. ‡ High-income consumers pay higher premiums for a larger number of quality characteristics than low-income consumers. variety integrity & high milled rice yield (total and head ) Physical properties and variety name physico-chemical properties of rice esp.

GRAIN QUALITY INDICATORS ‡ Physical properties: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Length Width translucency degree of milling Colour age of milled rice Amount of foreign matter Amount of dead grains ‡ Eating Quality ± Amylose content (correlates directly with volume expansion and water absorption during cooking and with hardness. whiteness and dullness of cooked rice) .

central. Republic of Nepal Thailand (northeast) Pakistan (Basmati) Philippines Thailand (central) Viet Nam Outside Asia Argentina Australia Spain USA (short & medium grain) USSR USA (long grain) Brazil (upland) Cuba Italy Ivory Coast Liberia Madagascar Nigera Brazil (irrigated) Colombia Guineab Mexico Peru Cambodia Chinaa (japonica) India Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar Thailand (north. south) Bangladesh China (indica) India Pakistan (IR6 type) Philippines Sri Lanka Low Amylose Intermediate amylose High .RICE PREFERENCES waxy Asia Laos Thailand (north) China (japonica) China-Taiwan (japonica) Japan Korea.

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