Digital computers ± it is a machine that will accept data and information presented in its required form, carry out arithmetic logical operations, and then generate the required results in an acceptable form. Main characteristics of a computer: 1. Automatic 3. Electronic 2. Programmable 4. Digital

Presper Echert of Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Caculator) ± built in 1943 by John Maulchy and J.Brief History of computers  Generation 0 (1940-1950) ± this was the experimental period when most of the pioneering work was under taken in universities in the US and UK. . 1.

± Performs 5000 arithmetic operation per second.It uses the stored program computer concept where a sequence of instructions are stored in a memory and executed one by one by a central processor. ± . EDVAC ± built by John Von Neuman .It is a general purpose device programmable by means of pluggable interconnections. ± Used 19000 vacuum tubes and consumed 200 KW of electricity 2.

Mark 1 from UK and the Whirlwind 1 from MIT which was designed for air traffic control and similar applications.Other experimental machines during this period were EDSAC and FERANT 1. .it was a parallel machine and processed data in words. It was the first parallel stored program computer.3. . 4. . BINAC ± made by Echert and Maulchy when they founded their Echert Maucchy Corp. IAS (Institute of Advance Studies) ±built by John Von Neuman in Princeton.

The first to use magnetic tape storage and was initially used for census applications in US. These computers utilizes vacuum tube technology. Generation 1 (1950-1958) ± the first machines for commercial use were developed and sold during this period. 1. UNIVAC ± made by Echert and Mauchy after BINAC was unsuccessful. . .

4. IBM 701 ± a machine designed for defense and aerospace applications. 3. IBM 702 ± a machine designed for business applications. IBM 704 ± first successful designed first generation computer .2.

3. IBM 1401 ± first transistorized computer STRETCH ± the next machine after 1401 was proven successful. 1. 2. Generation 2 (1958-1964) ± the transistor was invented and started the new era of solid state computers and the emergence of the supercomputer. LARC ± a modification of UNIVAC and it was also successful .

DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) ± introduced the first minicomputer. made possible by the integrated circuit. .new players entered the market such as Honeywell Control Data. NCR and RCA .4. Philco Ford. General Elecrric. the PDP/1 and PDP/5.

VAX 11/780 (one of the most successful minicomputers) IBMs 8/360 & 5/370 . DECs. 1. PDP/11. Generation 3 (1964-early 70¶s) ± the integrated circuit was invented and this increased the capacity and power of computers and gave rose to the minicomputer. 2.

CDC 6600 ± designed by Seymour Cray under Cray is a super computer and was under control data. .3. . CRAY 1 ± designed by Seymour Cray. of the most powerful computer in the world during this generation. .

Osborne and North Star. Generation 4 (80¶s to present) ± the microprocessor was invented and desktop computers emerged. 1. . Joined by Commodore. Cormemco. - ALTAIR 8800 ± first computer that utilizes microprocessors APPLE II ± owned by apple computer One of the first commercially successful company. Vector Graphics. 2. distributed computing became popular.

3.a family of high performance desktop computer called workstations also emerged. These are power scientific applications using RISK architectures. IBM PC ± first desktop to hit the commercial market .more popular than apple macintosh . .

.Three Basic Elements of a Microcomputer 1. Input/Output Devices ± provide the communication means between the microcomputer and the user. ALU (arithmetic logic Unit) ± generally controls the other elements of the microcomputer by means of control signals and timing signals 2. results of operations and data . also controls the system operation like data transfer. Memory ± for storing instructions. CPU (central processing unit) ± performs arithmetic and logical operations.

it is where the programs reside before being executed.must have continuous electrical power .user¶s memory .directly connected to the CPU .. RAM (random access memory) ± a volatile memory . 2 types of memory: a.

. bootsrap program and system memory .types: SRAM (static RAM) and DRAM (dynamic RAM) b.contains first program to boot up .automatically present: system boot up. ROM (read only memory) ± non-volatile memory .

It cannot be reprogrammed. It cannot be reprogrammed.types: a1. MROM (mask read only memory) ± type of ROM that is programmed by the manufacturer during production. MPROM(mask programmable read only memory) ± type of ROM that is programmed by the user and uses fusible links that are burned out during programming stage.. a2. .

. EEPROM (Electrically erasable programmable read only memory) ± a type of ROM that can be programmed and reprogrammed by the user with the application of electric charges across the pins of the IC chip.a3. EPROM (Erasable programmable read only memory).a type of ROM that can be programmed and reprogrammed by the user with application of UV rays into a window type opening on the chips design. a4.

used to run other programs and is permanent.changed due to the loading of different applications and is temporary. . . 2. SPC (Stored program computer) ± programs/ instructions should be stored in the main memory before it can be executed 1. Resident program ± found in the ROM .2 types of programs Transient program ± stored in the RAM execution.executed automatically at boot up.

EBCDIC (extended binary coded decimal interchange code) ± 8 bit code . ASCII (american standard code for information interchange) ± 7 bit code Usually with an additional bit called ³parity bit´ and the parity bit is located at the MSB.Designed primarily for the IBM computers ± . 2.Computer Codes 1.

Address bus ± unidirectional .Three bus architecture  The microcomputer uses three buses to transfer data to and from one unit to another thereby facilitating the proper execution of program.carries the memory address that must be read or written . 1.

3.carries the signal that specifies the type of operation to be performed. . Control bus ± unidirectional . Data bus ± bidirectional .carries the data that needs to be decoded by the computer.2.

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