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Digestion
¾ The process of transforming the food we eat

into units for absorption
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Absorption
¾ The movement of substances into or across

tissues; in particular, the passage of nutrients & other substances into the walls of the gastrointestinal tract & then into the blood stream.

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The GI tract is a flexible muscular tube from the mouth, through the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum to the anus. The GI tract works with assisting organs salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas ² to turn food into small molecules that the body can absorb & used.

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Ingestions
¾ Receipt & softening of food

Transport of ingested food Secretion of digestive enzymes, acid, mucus & bile Absorption of end products of digestion Movement of undigested minerals Elimination
¾ The transport, storage and excretion of waste products

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The process of digestion begins in the mouth. As you chew, your teeth crush large pieces of food into smaller ones, and fluids blend these pieces to ease swallowing (taste mechanism as well) When swallowing, the food passes through the pharynx. To bypass the entrance to your lungs, the epiglottis closes off the air passages After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, it is called bolus.

The esophagus has a sphincter muscle at each end. During a swallow, the upper esphageal sphincter opens. The bolus the slides down the esophagus, which passes through a hole in the diaphragm to the stomach € The lower esophageal sphincter at the entrance of the stomach closes behind the bolus so that it proceeds forward & don·t slip back into the esophagus € The stomach retains the bolus for a while in its upper portion. Little by little, the stomach transfers the food to its lower portion, adds juices to it and grinds it to a semi liquid mass called chyme. € Then bit by bit, the stomach releases the chyme through the pyloric sphincter, which opens into the small intestine & then closes behind the chyme
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The chyme arrives at the ileocecal valve, the the beginning of the colon in the lower right hand side of the abdomen. As chyme bypasses the appendix and travel along the large intestine up the right hand side of the abdomen, across the front to the left hand side, down to the lower left hand hand and below the other folds of the intestine to the back side of the body, above the rectum. During the chyme·s passage to the rectum, the colon withdraws water from it, leaving semisolid waste. The strong muscles of the rectum and anal canal hold back this waste until it is time to defecate.

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To breakdown food into small nutrients that the body can absorb, 5 different organs produce secretions:
¾ Salivary glands ¾ Stomach ¾ Pancreas ¾ Liver (via the gallbladder) ¾ Small intestine

Organ or Gland Salivary Glands Gastric Glands

Target Organ Mouth Stomach

Secretion Saliva Gastric Juice

Actions Fluid eases swallowing; salivary enzymes break down carbs Fluid mixed with bolus; hydrochloric acid uncoils protein; enzymes break down protein; mucus protects stomach cells Bicarbonate neutralizes acidic gastric juices; pancreatic enzymes break down carbs, fats & protein

Pancreas

Small intestine

Pancreatic Juice

Organ or Gland Liver

Target Organ Gallbladder

Secretion Bile Bile Intestinal juice

Actions Bile stored until needed Bile emulsifies fat so enzymes can attack Intestinal enzymes break down carbs, fat & protein fragments, mucus protects the intestinal wall

Gallbladder Small intestine Intestinal glands Small intestine

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Most absorption takes place in the small intestine Absorption of nutrients into intestinal cell typically occurs by
¾ Simple diffusion x H20 & small lipids are absorbed by simple diffusion. x They cross into intestinal cells freely ¾ Facilitated Diffusion x Water soluble vits are absorbed by FD. They need a specific carrier to transport them from one side of the cell membrane to the other ¾ Active Transport x Glucose & AA must be absorbed actively. These nutrients move against a concentration gradient, which requires energy.

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Psychological influences
¾ Stress ² decreased gastric acid secretion, reduced BF to the stomach, inhibits peristalsis

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Chemical influence
¾ Plant protein less digestible than animal protein (Cooking protein increases digestibility) ¾ Frying food in fat at very high temperatures, decreases the flow of digestive secretions ¾ Cold food may cause intestinal spasms ¾ When food is consumed on an empty stomach, absorption faster

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Bacterial influence
¾ Low [hydrochloric acid], can cause gastric, stomach lining inflammation.

Constipation € Diarrhea € Diverticulosis € Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD) € Irritable Bowel Syndrome € Colon Cancer € Gas € Ulcers € Functional Dyspepsia
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