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Water (H2O) in your body contains numerous mineral ± electrolytes H2O makes up between 50 ± 75% of your weight Leaner > H2O An adult male ± 62% H2O, 17% protein, 15% fat & 6% minerals and glycogen. We can survive much longer without food than without H20.

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Heat capacity
Amount of energy required to raise its temperature 1oC H2O¶s high heat capacity ± it takes a lot of heat to change the temperature of the body

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Cooling ability
Warm: blood vessels dilate ± sweat.

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Participation in metabolism
Nearly all chemical reaction of metabolism involved H20 pH balance Buffer ± carbonic acid & bicarbonate

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Body fluids
Shock absorption, lubrication (synovial fluid), cleansing (tears) & protection (amniotic fluid)

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INTAKE
Food: 700 ± 1000ml Drink: 550 ± 1500ml

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OUTPUT

Metabolic: 200 ± 300ml Kidney (urine): 500 ± 1400ml Skin*: 450 ± 900ml

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* Hot environment ± 10-20 times more per hour ** severe diarrhea lose more

Lungs: 350ml Feces**: 150ml

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Based on body size & composition, activity level, temperature & humidity. 2400kcal/day loses 2.4 liters (10 cups) of water each day. RDA- 1.0ml to 1.5ml per kcal expended. Athletes & very active people need much more than this especially if they train in warm, humid climates.

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Our bodies maintain H2O balance by mechanisms that control H2O intake (thirst) & H2O excretion Low H2O ± kidney conserve H2O (reabsorb H2O, decreasing urine volume, concentrating the urine) High H2O ± kidney form & excrete a large volume of dilute urine.

H2O Deficit Increased [Na+] stimulates osmoreceptors

Pituitary gland released antidiuratic hormone (ADH)

EFFECT ON KIDNEY ‡ conserve H2O ‡ excrete solute in highly [urine]

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Alcohol Caffeine Diuretic medication High protein diet

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By continuous evaporation of water from the lungs and skin, typically accounts for about one quarter to one half of daily fluid loss Other factors:
High altitude Low humidity High temperature

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Commonly used strategies to help prevent excessive increase in body temperature during exercise in hot environment
Skin wetting Hyperhydration Rehydration

Before Event € Athletes are encourage to drink 13-20 oz (400600ml) or about 1½ to 2½ cups of fluid 2-3 hours prior to exercise € Larger athletes may consume a greater quantity € Fluid consume not just only water but carbs and electrolytes. € Sports drinks containing 4-8% carbs are preferred

During event
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Drink a small amount of fluid: 6-12 oz (150-350ml) or about ¾ or 1½ cups of fluid every 15-20 minutes during event. Additional fluid may be necessary in hot environment and heavy sweating. Fluid consumption maybe enhance when fluid is cooler (5-15 0C) Fluid consumption maybe enhance when fluid is flavored. Sports drink containing 6-8% carbs would be sufficient. Glucose, sucrose and maltodextrins are preferred over fructose. Add sodium (0.5-0.7g/L)

After event € Drink 16½ - 33oz (500-1000ml) or about 2-4 cups of fluid during the first 30min after event. € Fluid consumption maybe enhance when fluid is cooler and flavored. € Then consume at least 1L every 1-2 hour thereafter until consumption has matched 150% of sweat weight loss to allow complete rehydration. € Fluid containing carbs and electrolytes serve better than just water alone.

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Superior hydration Enhanced fluid consumption Carbohydrate replacement Electrolyte replacement Delay fatigue during exercise Enhance performance Examples: 100plus, Gatorade, Excel, Isomax

Ingested fluids should be« ` Cooler than ambient temperature ` Flavored for palatability ` 4-8% Carbohydrate

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Temperature
¾ Cooler solutions (5-15oC) may empty the stomach more quickly than warmer or hot solutions. ¾ Cooler drinks are more enjoyable and promote greater consumption.

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Osmolality and energy content
¾ High Fructose Corn Syrup has lower Osmolality than sucrose or glucose. ¾ Concentration of more than 8% carbohydrate in the stomach can slow down gastric emptying.

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Exercise intensity
¾ Athletes performing at higher intensities for a relatively short time (e.g., 10km run) might benefit more from consuming sport drinks. ¾ Mild to moderate exercise intensity (<70% VO2max) do not hinder gastric emptying even when the bouts lasts several hours.

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Exercise movement
¾ Sports involving greater torso movement (running) or horizontal position (swimming) may be prone to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) ± the movement of stomach content into the esophagus, during exercise.