The Interaction

Communication user system

y Interaction models
y translations between user and system

y Ergonomics
y physical characteristics of interaction

y Terms of interaction y Norman model y interaction framework

g.g.domain goal task the area of work under study e. create a solid red triangle how you go about doing it ultimately in terms of operations or actions e. select fill tool. click over triangle Note y y traditional interaction use of terms differs a lot especially task/goal !!! .g. graphic design what you want to achieve e.

y Seven stages y user establishes the goal y formulates intention y specifies actions at interface y executes action y perceives system state y interprets system state y evaluates system state with respect to goal y Norman s model concentrates on user s view of the interface .

user s formulation of actions actions allowed by the system Gulf of Evaluation The degree to which the system/artifact provides representations that can be directly perceived and interpreted in terms of the expectations and intentions of the user. user s expectation of changed system state actual presentation of this state .y Some systems are harder to use than others. Why some interfaces cause problems to users? Gulf of Execution Difference between the user s formulation of the actions to reach the goal and actions allowed by the system.

slip understand system and goal correct formulation of action incorrect action mistake may not even have right goal! Fixing things? slip better interface design mistake better understanding of system .

extension of Norman their interaction framework has 4 parts y user y input y system y output each has its own unique language Performance O output Articulation S core Presentation U task I input Observation interaction   translation between languages problems in interaction = problems in translation .

user intentions p translated into actions at the interface p translated into alterations of system state p reflected in the output display p interpreted by the user general framework for understanding interaction y y y y not restricted to electronic computer systems identifies all major components involved in interaction allows comparative assessment of systems an abstraction .

have control over tasks System in charge of processing and returning data.y User maintains the responsibility to formulate intentions and establish goals. . The System is said to exist within the core.

 The User then resumes responsibility through observation or simply the act of formulating new goals.  The process is ran in "core language" and then returned to the user in a presentation phase. .  This action is known as articulation or the process of describing your request in the form of a "task language".y User and Input  User is able to communicate with the system via the Input. y The Input and System  Input Runs System command in a performance process.

y Study of the physical characteristics of interaction y Also known as human factors but this can also be used to mean much of HCI! y Ergonomics good at defining standards and guidelines for constraining the way we design certain aspects of systems .

g. physical position.g.g. use of red for warning.g. controls grouped according to function or frequency of use. lighting. humidity). environmental conditions (temperature. green for okay. . noise. awareness of colour-blindness etc. y use of colour e. or sequentially y surrounding environment e.y arrangement of controls and displays e. seating arrangements adaptable to cope with all sizes of user y health issues e.

industrial interface? Context matters! type of data rate of change environment office textual slow clean industrial numeric fast dirty the oil soaked mouse! .Office interface vs.

precise values y not physically located. complex interfaces y may need both Vessel B Temp 0 100 200 113 multiple representations of same information . multiple representations. more flexible. loss of context.y industrial interface: y traditional dials and knobs y now screens and keypads y glass interface + cheaper.

y office direct manipulation y user interacts with artificial world y industrial indirect manipulation y user interacts with real world through interface y issues .. y feedback y delays interface immediate feedback instruments system plant .

y dialogue computer and user y distinct styles of interaction .

y command line interface y menus y natural language y question/answer and query dialogue y form-fills and spreadsheets y WIMP y point and click y three dimensional interfaces .

short abbreviations. single characters.y Way of expressing instructions to the computer directly y function keys. or a combination y suitable for repetitive tasks y better for expert users than novices y offers direct access to system functionality y command names/abbreviations should be meaningful! Typical example: the Unix system . whole words.

letters. mouse y combination (e.g. mouse plus accelerators) y Often options hierarchically grouped y sensible grouping is needed y Restricted form of full WIMP system .y Set of options displayed on the screen y Options visible y less recall . arrow keys.easier to use y rely on recognition so names should be meaningful y Selection by: y numbers.

easier to use y rely on recognition so names should be meaningful y Selection by: y numbers. letters. mouse y combination (e. mouse plus accelerators) y Often options hierarchically grouped y sensible grouping is needed y Restricted form of full WIMP system .y Set of options displayed on the screen y Options visible y less recall .g. arrow keys.

y Familiar to user y speech recognition or typed natural language y Problems y vague y ambiguous y hard to do well! y Solutions y try to understand a subset y pick on key words .

y Question/answer interfaces y user led through interaction via series of questions y suitable for novice users but restricted functionality y often used in information systems y Query languages (e. hence requires some expertise .g. SQL) y used to retrieve information from database y requires understanding of database structure and language syntax.

y Primarily for data entry or data retrieval y Screen like paper form. y Data put in relevant place y Requires y good design y obvious correction facilities .

followed by Lotus 1-2-3 MS Excel most common today y sophisticated variation of form-filling.y first spreadsheet VISICALC. sum of all cells in this column y user can enter and alter data spreadsheet maintains consistency .g. y grid of cells contain a value or a formula y formula can involve values of other cells e.

and pull-down menus! y default style for majority of interactive computer systems. mice.Windows Icons Menus Pointers or windows. icons. especially PCs and desktop machines .

y used in . y multimedia y web browsers y hypertext y just click something! y icons.. text links or location on map y minimal typing .

y virtual reality y ordinary window systems y highlighting y visual affordance y indiscriminate use just confusing! flat buttons « click me! y 3D workspaces y use for extra virtual space y light and occlusion give depth y distance effects « or sculptured .

pointers +++ buttons. toolbars. dialog boxes also see supplementary material on choosing wimp elements . palettes. icons.

y Areas of the screen that behave as if they were independent y can contain text or graphics y can be moved or resized y can overlap and obscure each other. or can be laid out next to one another (tiled) y scrollbars y allow the user to move the contents of the window up and down or from side to side y title bars y describe the name of the window .

.y small picture or image y represents some object in the interface y often a window or action y windows can be closed down (iconised) y icons can be many and various y highly stylized y realistic representations.

joystick. cursor keys or keyboard shortcuts y wide variety of graphical images . trackball. trackpad.y important component y WIMP style relies on pointing and selecting things y uses mouse.

Choice of operations or services offered on the screen y Required option selected with pointer y File Edit Options Font Typewriter Scr Times problem take a lot of screen space solution pop-up: menu appears when needed .

mouse just moves over bar! y Contextual menu appears where you are y pop-up menus . menu drags down y pull-down menu .arranged in a circle y easier to select item (larger target area) y quicker (same distance to any option) but not widely used! .mouse hold and drag down menu y drop-down menu .mouse click reveals menu y fall-down menus .actions for selected object y pie menus .y Menu Bar at top of screen (normally).

y Cascading menus y hierarchical menu structure y menu selection opens new menu y and so in ad infinitum y Keyboard accelerators y key combinations .same effect as menu item y two kinds y active when menu open usually first letter y active when menu closed usually Ctrl + letter usually different !!! .

y which kind to use y what to include in menus at all y words to use (action or description) y how to group items y choice of keyboard accelerators .

y individual and isolated regions within a display that can be selected to invoke an action y Special kinds y radio buttons set of mutually exclusive choices y check boxes set of non-exclusive choices .

y long lines of icons but what do they do? y fast access to common actions y often customizable: y choose which toolbars to see y choose what options are on it .

e. Once the file is saved. the box disappears. . a dialogue box is displayed to allow the user to specify the filename and location.g: when saving a file.y information windows that pop up to inform of an important event or request information.

easy to focus on look what about feel? .

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