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. muscles or hair.ƒ WHAT IS ELECTRICAL SHOCK? ƒ An electric shock occurs upon contact of a human body with any source of voltage high enough to cause sufficient current through the skin.

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ƒ . The flow of electrons is necessarily brief when static charges are equalized between two objects.ƒ Electricity requires a complete path (circuit) to continuously flow.

respectively. . there is no hazard of shock.ƒ Without two contact points on the body for current to enter and exit. This is why birds can safely rest on high-voltage power lines without getting shocked: they make contact with the circuit at only one point.

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.ƒ WHAT IS MINIMUM CURRENT? ƒ ƒ ƒ The minimum current a human can feel : 1 milliampere (mA). The current may cause tissue damage or fibrillation if it is sufficiently high. currents approaching 100 mA are lethal if they pass through sensitive portions of the body. Generally.

loss of consciousness almost always occurs swiftly. with sufficient current.ƒ Shock effects ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Burns Heating due to resistance cause extensive and deep burns. Voltage levels of 500 to 1000 volts tend to cause internal burns Neurological effects Current can cause interference with nervous control. When the current path is through the head. it appears that. especially over the heart and lungs. Arc-flash hazards .

with those above 11000 volts being usually fatal.ƒ It is sometimes suggested that human lethality is most common with alternating current at 100 250 volts. . with supplies as low as 32 volts. however.000 volts are almost invariably fatal. death has occurred below this range. Shocks above 2700 volts are often fatal. Shocks with voltages over 40.

via a cardiac catheter or other kind of electrode). Above 200 mA. fibrillations are usually lethal because all the heart muscle cells move independently instead of in the coordinated pulses needed to pump blood to maintain circulation.g. muscle contractions are so strong that the heart muscles cannot move at all. ƒ ƒ . With DC. ƒ If not immediately treated by defibrillation. 300 to 500 mA is required. a much lower current of less than 1 mA (AC or DC) can cause fibrillation.Ventricular Fibrillation A domestic power supply voltage (110 or 230 V). 50 or 60Hz AC current through the chest for a fraction of a second may induce ventricular fibrillation at currents as low as 60 mA.. ƒ If the current has a direct pathway to the heart (e.

000 . In general. dry skin is a poor conductor that may have a resistance of around 100.000 .ƒ The resistance of human skin varies from person to person and fluctuates between different times of day. . while broken or wet skin may have a resistance of around 1.

i. ƒ Microshock: Direct current path to the heart tissue. the shock is required to be administered from inside the skin. a malfunctioning pacemaker. This type of shock by definition must pass into the body through the skin.Point of entry Macroshock: Current across intact skin and through the body. is likely to traverse the heart. or between an arm and a foot.e. ƒ ƒ . or ungrounded catheter etc. Current from arm to arm. therefore it is much more dangerous than current between a leg and the ground.

under carefully controlled conditions: Electroconvulsive therapy or ECT As a treatment for fibrillation or irregular heart rhythms: defibrillator and cardioversion. As a method of pain relief: Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator As an aversive punishment for conditioning of mentally handicapped patients with severe behavioral issues. .ƒ Deliberate uses ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Medical uses: Electric shock is also used as a medical therapy.

Electroshock weapons are incapacitant weapons Torture. .ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Law enforcement and personal defence. Capital punishment.

It's best to simply turn off the main power supply or pull out the fuse.ƒ First Aid For Electric Shock ƒ The victim usually gets stuck to the source of the electricity. ƒ Do NOT touch the victim with your bare hands. ƒ Turn off the power supply switch and disconnect the plug. Often. or the electric current will pass through you as well. and it is important that you first separate him from the electrical source. simply turning off the switch may not stop the flow of electricity. ƒ In certain circumstances it may be quicker to simply pull the victim away from the electrical source. .

and raise his legs. Cover the victim with a blanket.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ If you are barefoot. Let his head be slightly lower than the rest of the body. check to see if he is breathing. stand of some clothes or any hand non-conductive material like wood or paper. If breathing has stopped or seems slow. You can also use dry. Make sure you are not standing on anything that is wet. nonconductive material such as a wooden broom handle or a chair to separate the victim from the live current Once the victim is separated. . Throw a blanket over the victim and try to separate him from the source. Make sure you don't touch him though. administer articificial respiration immediately.

If the victim has a burn. Cover the burn with a dressing. Don't apply ice or any other ointment or cotton dressing to the burn. Call for emergency medical attention as soon as possible .ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Move the victim as little as possible. running water. remove the clothing from the burned area (unless it's stuck to the skin) and rinse it in cool. He may have suffered injuries to his spine and neck.

ƒ PRECAUTION ƒ Check for frayed or cracked electrical cords. ƒ Check to see that all lamps and light fixtures are outfitted with bulbs of the correct wattage. this will prevent overheating which could lead to a fire. ƒ Make sure that all fuses are the correct size for the circuit. The wrong size fuse can create a serious fire hazard. ƒ Make sure that outlets and extension cords are not overloaded. . and replace them. Either change the cord to a higher rated one or unplug some of the appliances.

Have it checked by an electrician as soon as possible. ƒ Always follow the manufacturer's instructions and safety precautions for all home appliances. ƒ If an outlet or switch is unusually warm or hot to the touch. unplug it and have it repaired or replaced. or shocked you. ƒ Have earthing installed in your house. an unsafe wiring condition could exist. tripped a circuit breaker.If an appliance has repeatedly blown a fuse. ƒ .

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