CDMA

Wireless Access Technologies
Time Code Code Time

Freq
FDMA
‡Frequency Division Multiple Access ‡Different frequency bands are allocated to different users. ‡Example ---- AMPS and TACS

Time
TDMA

Freq
‡Time Division Multiple Access ‡Different time slots are allocated to different users ‡eg. IS-136, GSM

Code

Freq

CDMA
‡Code Division Multiple Access ‡Different users are assigned unique code and transmitted over the same frequency band ‡Example --- CDMA 2000 and WCDMA

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What is CDMA? 
It is a Multiple Access concept based on Spread Spectrum Techniques  There are three ways to spread the bandwidth of the signal : Frequency hopping  Time hopping  Direct sequence

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CDMA Features 
CDMA is based on Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum.  Each user is assigned a unique pseudocode that differentiates the call from all other users and is orthogonal to others  All other codes appear as noise due to decorrelation

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CDMA Features 
All users use same frequency and may transmit simultaneously  Narrowband message signal is multiplied by wideband spreading signal, or codeword  Receivers must know transmitter¶s transmitter¶ codeword. codeword.

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Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

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Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

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CDMA Center Frequencies
991 799

A-Band

B-Band

9911023

1 - 311

312- 334333 355

356 - 666

667 - 716 717 - 799

283 P
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384 P
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691 S

777 S

CDMA Frequency Assignments

2 2 2 5 5 5 1 2 3

2 5 4

2 6 2

2 6 3

2 8 3
1.23 Mhz

3 0 3

3 0 4

3 3 1 1 2 3

3 3 3

CDMA CARRIER BAND 41 Analog Channels

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Structure of typical CDMA System

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Voice Call Path

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Logical Channels in CDMA
Pilot (Downlink)

Supervisory

Page (Downlink) Sync (Downlink) Access (Uplink)

Speech & Data

Full 9600 (Rate 1) Half 4800 (Rate 1/2) Quarter 2400 (Rate 1/4) Eighth 1200 (Rate 1/8)

Traffic
Signaling

Blank & Burst Dim & Burst Power Control

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Logical Channels
Forward Channels: 
  

Pilot Channel Paging Channel Sync Channel Traffic Channel

Reverse Channels: 
Traffic Channel  Access Channel

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Forward Channels 
Sync Channel 
 

Required for synchronization 9 digit message that carries Pilot number

Data stream for system identification and parameter information 

Pilot Channel 


PSMM,PRMR (power level measurements)

Used to measure signal strength in support of handoff

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Forward Channels 
Paging Channel 
 

CDMA Channel List System parameters Call Setup order

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Reverse Channels 
Traffic Channel 


Used to transmit traffic to BTS There are as many traffic channels as there are CDMA phones in the world 

Access Channel 
 

Registration Origination Page Response

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Power Allocation

Pilot 15%

Paging 5.5% 1.5%Sync

78% Traffic Channels

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Walsh Functions 
Forward CDMA channel contains 64 code channels. These code channels are assigned to different logic channels and are called WALSH function

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Types of CDMA
Two types of CDMA  Frequency Hopping CDMA  Direct Sequence CDMA

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Frequency Hopping CDMA

Each user¶s narrowband signal hops among discrete frequencies and the receiver follows in sequence This technique is used in military applications

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Direct Sequence CDMA

Narrowband input signal from the user is coded by a unique broadband code and is then transmitted Receiver knows the user code and recovers the data

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Spreading

‡ Sender combines data with fast spreading sequence, transmits spread data stream ‡ Receiver intercepts the stream, uses same spreading sequence to extract original data.
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Effects of Spreading in Spectrum
Spreading increases the rate of alterations and therefore increases the bandwidth

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Processing Gain
‡Ratio of bandwidth after spreading (W) to information bit rate (R) is called Processing Gain(Gp) Gp = W/R ‡Despreading is accomplished by correlating the received waveform with the same sequence p(n)

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Handoffs 
Softer Handoff

A softer handoff occurs when a single channel element communicates with a personal station through two sectors of the same base station at the same time 

Soft Handoff

A soft handoff occurs when two or more base stations are communicating with a personal station at the same time 

Hard Handoff

A Hard Handoff occurs when an assigned frequency is changed causing the personal station to retune

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Advantages 
 

Increased capacity Improved voice quality Eliminating the audible effects of multipath fading Enhanced privacy and security Reduced average transmitted power Reduced interference to other electronic devices
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Limitations 


Wide bandwidth per user required Precision code synchronization needed

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Applications
‡ Military based applications

‡ Second Generation Cellular and PCS Systems (IS-95) ‡Wireless Local Loop Systems ‡Third Generation/ IMT 2000 Systems (CDMA 2000, WCDMA) ‡Mobile-Satellite Systems (Global-Star)

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THANK YOU

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QUERIES?
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