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Introductory Session

Aim of Course
• To attain a general understanding of UMTS systems – GSM Evolution Towards UMTS – 3g Standards – Code Division Multiple Access Technology – UMTS Network Elements and Architecture – UMTS Air Interface

Locator Slide

Locator Slide
• • • • • 1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 3rd Generation Drivers and Standards CDMA Mobile Technology Overview UMTS Architecture Overview UMTS Air Interface

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview Cellular Generations Data rate • People talk about mobile technology in terms of generations: – – – – 1st Generation or 1G 2nd Generation or 2G 2.5G 3rd Generation or 3G • But what do these mean? 1978 1992 2000 2001 time Progress of data rates with time and generation .

though really the technology of the 1980’s • • • • • Analogue modulation Frequency Division Multiple Access Voice traffic only No inter-network roaming possible Insecure air interface .1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 1st Generation • 1976+.

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 1st Generation Standards • • • • • AMPS (Analogue Advanced Mobile Phone System) – North American Standard in cellular band (800MHz) TACS (Total Access Communications System) – UK originated Standard based on AMPS in 900MHz band NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony System) – Scandinavian Standard in 450MHz and 900MHz bands C-450 – German Standard in 450MHz band JTACS (Japanese Total Access Communications System) – Japanese Standard in 900MHz band .

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 1st Generation Planning • • • • Macrocellular – – High sites for coverage driven planning Antennas above roof height For networks with more cells than frequencies these must be planned Around 30km Mobile only ever connected to a single cell Frequency planning required – Large cell size – Handover – .

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 2nd Generation • • • • 1990’s 1st system to use Digital modulation Voice and low rate circuit switched data Same technology allows international roaming • Secure air interface .

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview GSM • • First networks in 1992 European developed standard. GSM1800. GSM1900 GSM phones from 1999/2000 • • • Largest 2nd Generation subscriber base Frequency/Time Division Multiple Access . GSM900. but with worldwide subscriber base Different frequency bands – GSM450.

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview GSM Planning • • • Macrocells and Microcells – Capacity driven planning Frequency planning required Optional parameters requiring planning – – – – Hierarchical Cell Structures Frequency Hopping Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Power Control • • Simple subscriber/traffic analysis – Capacity limited by number of TRX’s Handover .yes .

based upon AMPS – Predominantly used in North and South America – ANSI-41 Core Network (American National Standards Institute) – Planning Similar to GSM • PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) – Japanese TDMA/FDMA based standard – Predominantly used in Asia – Planning Similar to GSM TDMA and PDC phones from 1999/2000 .1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview D-AMPS/PDC • TDMA (D-AMPS) – North American TDMA/FDMA based standard.

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview CDMA One • • • • First networks in 1996 Derived from Qualcomm IS-95 Air interface Largely American subscriber base with some Asian networks Code Division Multiple Access – The closest 2nd generation standard to many of the 3rd generation standards • • ANSI-41 core network Chip rate of 1.2288Mcps .

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview CDMA One Planning • • • Macrocells and Microcells Single Frequency – multiple frequencies for hotspots • • Soft Handover (Multiple connections between mobile and network) Code Planning Capacity Interference Limited (Capacity reduces with interference) 1 Connection 2 Connections 3 Connections .

Artech House. 1998 20 01 .1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview Worldwide Mobile Communications Million Subscribers 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 19 91 19 93 19 95 19 97 19 99 Year Second Generatio D-AMPS Second Generatio PDC Second Generatio GSM Second Generatio cdmaOne First Generation Source: Wideband CDMA for 3rd Analogue Generation Mobile Communications.

Artech House. 2000 2010 .1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview Worldwide Mobile Subscribers Million Subscribers 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1995 European Countries North Ame Asia Pacifi Rest of Wo Year 2000 2005 Source:Third Generation Mobile Communications.

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 2.5G • • • • • Digital modulation Voice and intermediate rate circuit/packet switched data Same technology roaming Secure air interface Based upon existing dominant standards such as GSM and CDMA One .

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview GPRS • • • General Packet Radio Service Enhancement to the GSM standard Utilises – Multiple Timeslots – Packet Switching • Packet Switched Data typically to rates of 56 kbps to 115 kbps .

1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview IS-95B • • Enhancement to CDMA One standard Utilises – High rate coding scheme – Combined code channels – Packet switching • Packet Switched Data to rates of 114 kbps Qualcomm PDQ Smartphone .

Locator Slide Locator Slide • • • • • 1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 3rd Generation Drivers and Standards CDMA Mobile Technology Overview UMTS Architecture Overview UMTS Air Interface .

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards IMT-2000 • International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 is a program focused on providing a single global standard for mobile communications • Development started in 1985 as FPLMTS – Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System • Proposed by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) .

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards Who does IMT-2000 serve? • Integrating all the following users – – – – – – – fixed cellular cordless professional mobile radio paging satellite specialised (aeroplane. etc) .

Aspects of IMT-2000 Networks 3rd Generation Drivers and Standards .

3gpp.org ftp.cdg.org/uwc13 6 www.tiaonline.3rd Generation Drivers and Standards The Road to 3G HSCSD www.org •HDR – High Data Rate .

CDMA development group • TIA.High dynamic range • 3GPP.Universal Wireless Communication (Is a standard based on the advanced TDM A-EDGE technology) .3rd generation partnership project • UWC136.Telecommunications Industry Association • HDR.3rd Generation Drivers and Standards • ETSI-European telecommunication standard institute • UWCC.Universal Wireless Communications Consortia • CDG.

144 kbps • Rural in car • • High spectrum efficiency compared to existing systems High flexibility to introduce new services .2 Mbps 3rd Generation Drivers and Standards • In office.384 kbps • Urban pedestrian – Full mobility .What are the IMT-2000 goals? • Data Rates – Local area . stationary – Limited mobility .

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards IMT-2000 Spectrum ITU Allocation 1885 IMT-2000 Land Mobile 1980 2010 2025 IMT-2000 Land Mobile 2110 MSS 1980 IMT-2000 2170 2200 Land Mobile 2110 MSS 2200 1880 1900 1920 Europe GSM 1800 DECT UMTS Unpaired UMTS Paired UL 20102025 UMTS Unpaired UMTS Paired DL 2170 MSS MSS 1920 Japan IMT-2000 1980 2110 IMT-2000 2170 Land Mobile UL 1920 Land Mobile DL 2110 Korea 1850 IMT-2000 1980 IMT-2000 2170 Land Mobile UL PCS UL 1910 1930 Land Mobile DL 1990 2110 2200 USA PCS DL Reserved 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 .

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards IMT-2000 Spectrum ITU (WARC-92) 1885 IMT-2000 Land Mobile 1980 2010 2025 IMT-2000 Land Mobile 2110 MSS 1980 IMT-2000 2170 2200 Land Mobile 2110 MSS 2200 1880 1900 1920 Europe GSM 1800 DECT UMTS Unpaired UMTS Paired UL UMTS SAT 20102025 UMTS Unpaired UMTS Paired DL 2170 UMTS SAT 1920 Japan IMT-2000 1980 2110 IMT-2000 2170 Land Mobile UL 1920 Land Mobile DL 2110 Korea 1850 IMT-2000 1980 IMT-2000 2170 Land Mobile UL PCS UL 1910 1930 Land Mobile DL 1990 2110 2200 USA PCS DL Reserved 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 .

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards 3rd Generation Cellular 2002+ •Digital modulation •Voice and high rate data •Multi technology roaming •Secure air interface •Standards • UMTS FDD (CDMA based) • UMTS TDD (CDMA based) • cdma2000 (CDMA based) • EDGE (TDMA based) .

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards UMTS FDD • • • UMTS Frequency Division Duplex Mode Built onto enhanced GSM core network Utilises: – – – – – QPSK modulation (Quadrature phase shift keying) Multiple channel coding and bearer rates Variable spreading factors and multi-code transmission CDMA FDD • Data up to rates of 2Mbps .

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards UMTS TDD • • • UMTS Time Division Duplex Mode Built onto enhanced GSM core network Utilises: – – – – QPSK modulation Multiple channel coding and bearer rates CDMA TDD • • Data up to rates of 2Mbps Will happen after UMTS FDD .

41 core network Utilises: – – – – – QPSK modulation Multiple channel coding and bearer rates CDMA FDD Multiple carriers on the downlink • allows compatibility with cdmaOne – Synchronous operation • Data up to rates of 2Mbps (typically less) .3rd Generation Drivers and Standards CDMA-2000 • • Built onto ANSI .

3rd Generation Drivers and Standards EDGE • Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution – Sometimes called E-GPRS (Enhanced GPRS) • • Enhancement to the GSM and TDMA standards Utilises: – – – – – 8PSK Modulation Possible 1.6 MHz carrier under IS-136 8 Channel Coding Schemes Multiple Timeslots (similar frame structure to GSM) TDMA • Data rates up to 384kbps (typically less) .

..3rd Generation Drivers and Standards 4th Generation..

Locator Slide Locator Slide • • • • • 1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 3rd Generation Drivers and Standards CDMA Mobile Technology Overview UMTS Architecture Overview UMTS Air Interface .

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Multiple Access Explained • Imagine you are in a cocktail party… • Now imagine you are trying to talk to somebody • If you are trying to listen to somebody you need to be able to pick out their speech from everybody else’s speech. • Everybody is using the same medium to talk .the air in the room .

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Terminology Explanation • This is Multiple Access – Many conversations/channels share the same medium • There are a number of different Multiple Access (MA) strategies you can try: – Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) – Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) – Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) .

Conversation/Channel separation is provided in time.CDMA Mobile Technology Overview TDMA at the Party • • • We divide time into a number of timeslots Everybody takes turns to speak within a timeslot Once everybody has spoken we go back to the start of the list and begin again . Bit of a problem if people speak too late or too early… – We may need guard periods between timeslots when nobody speaks • • • • People need to know when to speak… – We need signalling to tell people their timeslot .this is a frame This ensures that two conversations/channels don’t get confused.

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview TDMA Timeslot Period Frame Period frequenc y time User 1 User 1 Idealised TDMA (with no guard periods) Available Frequency Band .

Bit of a problem as the filters aren’t perfect… – We may need guard bands between channels where nobody speaks • People need to know the frequency of the conversation… – We need signalling to tell people their frequency channel . • • • Again this ensures that two conversations don’t get confused.CDMA Mobile Technology Overview FDMA at the cocktail party • We divide the available frequency band into a number of frequency channels of the same channel bandwidth • People speak continuously at different frequencies/pitches. Conversation/Channel separation provided in frequency. and use earpieces to filter out frequencies they’re not interested in.

Radio channels advertise their frequency. FDMA is the oldest form of multiple access technique.1 MHz Capital.CDMA Mobile Technology Overview FDMA at the cocktail party • FDMA is difficult to illustrate in terms of speech as everyone’s voice is at a similar frequency.g. You have used FDM when you tune into a radio channel. E. • • • . 95.

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview FDMA Frame Period (we may still need frames/timeslots for signalling) Channel Bandwidth frequency User 1 Idealised FDMA (with no guard bands) tim e .

• . Digital signals are easier to buffer and re-process and therefore cope better with a unfriendly radio channel.• • • FDMA and TDMA compared FDMA can be used for digital or analogue systems TDMA is realistically a digital technology CDMA Mobile Technology Overview TDMA reduces interference effects (inter-modulation) by allowing only one user access to the system at a time.

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview FDMA/TDMA • Of course we could also be clever and use a combination of TDMA and FDMA…like in GSM • This is commonly referred to as simply TDMA .

CDMA Spreading Spreading P f CDMA Mobile Technology Overview •Essentially Spreading involves changing the symbol rate on the air interface Despreading Channel P f P Tx Bit Stream P f f Air Interface Chip Stream P f Rx Bit Stream Code Chip Stream Identica l codes Code Chip Stream .

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Spreading and Despreading Tx Bit Stream 1 -1 Spreading X Code Chip Stream Air Interface Chip Stream Despreading X Code Chip Stream Rx Bit Stream .

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Spreading and Dispreading with code Y Tx Bit Stream 1 -1 Spreading X Code Chip Stream Air Interface Chip Stream Despreading X Code Chip Stream Y Rx Bit Stream .

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Spreading in noise Tx Signal P Rx Signal (= Tx Signal + Noise) P f P f f P f Channel Signal Spreading Code P f Spreading Code Signal Wideband Noise/Interference • The gain due to Despreading of the signal over wideband noise is the Processing Gain .

the message is recovered with a SNR of -6 dB.Spreading in noise (time domain) CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Run exe • Here. . The spreading code is at a rate 8 times greater than the data.

e Channelisation codes are no longer perfectly synchronised CDMA in Cellular • Downlink Channels on the same cell will interfere with each other • An ‘orthogonality factor’ (0.CDMA Mobile Technology Overview • Cellular systems have multipath propagation with variable delay • Channels from the same transmitter are no longer perfectly orthogonal • i.6 in urban macrocells typically) – The orthogonality factor gives the percentage of interference that is rejected .

then combined and finally scrambled together.CDMA Mobile Technology Overview A Channelised Transmitter Channel 1 Bit Stream Channel 2 Bit Stream Channel 3 Bit Stream Pulse Shaping and Modulation c1 c2 s1 In a Base Station. Each base station will be allocated one of 512 primary scrambling codes. channels are first spread and channelised using the channelisation codes. c3 .

•Orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) – Scrambling Codes •Are used to separate cells and terminals from each other rather than purely channels Different base stations will use the same spreading codes with separation being provided by the use of different scrambling codes. Scrambling code is a 38. – CDMA Mobile Technology Overview S2 C1 C2 C3 S1 C1 C2 C3 • • • • S3 C1 C2 C3 . Scrambling is done by adding a scrambling code to the signal after it is spread by the channelization code. Different SC is unique for each cell in DL & each UE in UL.400 chip long code with 10ms rate.Types of Code • Summarising: Channelisation Codes •Are used to separate channels from a single cell or terminal •In DL uniquely identify users or channels & In UL distinguish channels in a UE.

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Pilot Channels • • • Pilot channels are used in the cell selection process (i. The pilot is spread by the all 1’s channelisation code. “best server” means “strongest pilot”) Pilots contain no baseband information .e.no ‘bits’. – Effectively the pilot is the scrambling code • The required pilot channel SNR is referred to as Ec/Io (EcIo) .

and maintains the primary channel Other channels are known as handover channels The gain associated with soft handover is known as the macrodiversity gain – This occurs due to the uncorrelated nature of fast fading between cells and the variation in slow fading between cells – Note that slow fading is not entirely uncorrelated for different cells .CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Soft Handover • • • • • Soft Handover is where more then one cell is in communication with a terminal The cells in communication with the terminal are known as an active set The best serving cell is known as the primary cell .

g.GSM) Direction of Travel RX_Level Cell A Cell B In hard handover the mobile is only ever instantaneously connected to a single cell Handover Hysteresis Margin Distance .CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Hard Handover (e.

MS .CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Soft Handover • During soft handover more than one cell is in communication with the mobile.

in CDMA One) Pilot Ec/Io CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Active set = 1 Cell A =2 =1 Cell A and Cell B Cell B Direction of Travel In soft handover the mobile may be instantaneously connected to more than one cell T_ADD T_DROP Add Time Delay Drop Time Delay Distance .g.Soft Handover (e.

Cell Breathing • • • • • • • The higher the noise at a party the louder you have to speak You get to a point where you can’t shout louder and can’t have a conversation where you are standing The further away you are to the listener the louder you have to speak If it is noisy only people standing close together can have a conversation As it gets noisy the area that can be covered by a conversation decreases Conversely the quieter it is then the area covered by a conversation can be larger This is called Cell Breathing and occurs in mobile CDMA networks .CDMA Mobile Technology Overview CDMA at the Cocktail Party .

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Cell Breathing • • • An increase in traffic results in an increase in interference Mobiles at the extremities of cells may be pushed out of the cells effective coverage area due to decreased Eb/No This effect may occur over the course of 24 hours due to changes in traffic demand over peak hours 6am Noon 9pm .

however be eliminated.“good” or “bad” ? . . Its advantage is that it maximises capacity when it is demanded.CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Cell Breathing :. It cannot. • • • • Its disadvantage is that it leads to the creation of gaps in the network coverage. The amount of cell breathing can be controlled by limiting the Noise Rise.

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview Cell Breathing . 1 − 10 ( − NR 17. Coverage with 10 dB Noise Rise Unloaded Coverage Coverage with 3 dB Noise Rise Very rough rule of thumb.5 )   Area shrinkage (%) = 100 ×    .

CDMA Mobile Technology Overview More CDMA at the Cocktail Party Power Control • If somebody is shouting louder than they need. it increases the overall noise This is inefficient. as it reduces the number of people who can have conversations We need to speak as quietly as possible to maximise the number of simultaneous conversations. This is called Power Control in mobile networks In CDMA networks it is very important that this power control is efficient – We use fast power control with a much quicker feedback loop than in TDMA networks • • • • .

Locator Slide Locator Slide • • • • • 1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 3rd Generation Drivers and Standards CDMA Mobile Technology Overview UMTS Architecture Overview UMTS Air Interface .

UMTS Architecture Overview UMTS High Level Architecture New UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network UTRAN User Equipment Core Network UE UU IU CN .

Major Network Elements in UMTS Node B UMTS SIM Radio Network Controller UMTS Architecture Overview Iu-cs USIM Node B RNC CU Mobile Equipment IUb IUr IUb MSC/VLR Mobile Switching Centre Gateway MSC GMSC PLMN.Gateway GPRS Support Node • SGSN .Integrated services digital network . X25 Packet Network CN IU • GGSN .Serving GPRS Support Node • ISDN . PSTN. ISDN Home Location Register HLR ME Node B Radio Network Controller Serving GSN Gateway GSN UE UU Node B RNC UTRAN Iu-ps SGSN GGSN Internet.

UMTS Architecture Overview General UE Architecture UMTS SIM USIM CU Terminal Equipment Mobile Equipment ME UTRAN UE UU .

UMTS Architecture Overview Elements of the UE • Mobile Equipment (ME) – The radio terminal used for radio communication over the Uu interface • UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) – The smartcard that holds the subscriber identity. authentication and encryption keys etc • Additionally one can define a Terminal Equipment item that connects to the UE – This carries the application specific user interface .

General Core Network Architecture Other MSC F UTRAN UMTS Architecture Overview Iu-cs MSC/VLR Mobile Switching Centre F Gateway MSC GMSC D Gs Gr UTRAN Home Location Register External Circuit Switched Networks D HLR Gc Gateway GSN Iu-ps Serving GSN Gi SGSN Gn Gn GGSN CN External Packet Switched Networks IU Other SGSN .

Administration and Maintenance .UMTS Architecture Overview Functions of the CN • Switching • Service Provision • Transmission of user traffic between UTRAN (s) and/or fixed network • Mobility Management • Operations.

UMTS Architecture Overview

General UTRAN Architecture
Node B
Radio Network Controller

Iu-cs
RNC

CN (MSC)

Node B

IUb IUr IUb

UE

Node B
Radio Network Controller

CN (SGSN)

Node B

RNC

UTRAN IU

Iu-ps

UU

UMTS Architecture Overview

UTRAN
• UTRAN is the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network • The functions of UTRAN are:
– Provision of Radio Coverage – System access control – Security and privacy – Handover – Radio resource management and control

UMTS Architecture Overview

Elements of UTRAN
• Radio Network Controller
– Owns and controls radio resources in its domain (BSC in GSM) – Service Access point for all services that UTRAN provides for the CN

• Node B
– Acts as the Radio base station (BTS in GSM) – Converts the data flow between the Iub and Uu interfaces

Radio Network Subsystem (RNS) • A Radio Network Subsystem consists of: – A single RNC – One or more Node B’s – Cells belonging to Node B’s UMTS Architecture Overview Iu RNC Node B Cell Cell Cell Cell Iur Node B Cell Cell Uu .

Radio Network Controller (RNC)
• Responsible for the use and integrity of the radio resources within the RNS Responsible for the handover decisions that require signalling to the UE Provides a combining/splitting function to support macrodiversity between different Node Bs

UMTS Architecture Overview

Iu RNC
Node B
Cell Cell Cell Cell

Iur
Node B
Cell Cell

Uu

UMTS Architecture Overview

Node B
• Logical node responsible for radio transmission / reception in one or more cells to/from the UE Dual mode Node B can support FDD and TDD mode
Cell

Iu RNC
Node B
Cell Cell Cell

Iur
Node B
Cell Cell

Uu

UMTS Architecture Overview

Cell
Iu
• A cell is an area of radio coverage serviced by one or more carriers Node B
Cell Cell Cell Cell

RNC

Iur
Node B
Cell Cell

Uu

Interface in GSM .

UMTS Architecture Overview Major Interfaces in UMTS • There are four major new interfaces defined in UMTS – Iu •The interface between UTRAN and the CN CN Iu RNC Iub NodeB Uu UE Iur RNC – Iur •The Interface between different RNCs – Iub •The interface between the Node B and the RNC – Uu •The air interface .

UMTS Architecture Overview Iub • • The Iub is the interface between the RNC and the Node-B The Node B effectively performs a relay function between the Iub and the Uu Thus the Iub needs to carry: – Layer 2+ signalling between the UE and the UTRAN – Signalling directly to the Node B • To control radio resource allocation • General control of the Node-B • O&M Functionality • .

UMTS Architecture Overview Iur • The Iur is the interface between two RNCs • Thus the Iur needs to support: – – – – Basic Inter RNC Mobility Dedicated Channel Traffic Common Channel Traffic Global Resource Management .

UMTS Architecture Overview Iu • The Iu is the interface between the Core Network and the UTRAN There are two instances of the Iu: – The Iu-ps connecting UTRAN to the Packet Switched Network – The Iu-cs connecting UTRAN to the Circuit Switched Network • .

UMTS Architecture Overview Handover in UMTS • There are three basic types of handover – Intra frequency handovers • Handovers between 2 UMTS codes at the same frequency • These can be soft handovers – Inter frequency handovers • Handovers between 2 UMTS carriers at different frequencies • These are hard handovers – Inter system handovers • Handovers between UMTS and GSM carriers • These are hard handovers .

UMTS Architecture Overview Handover Sets in UMTS • Active Set – Cells forming a soft handover connection to the mobile. • Neighbour Set – Those cells which are continuously monitored but do not yet qualify for the Active Set. • Candidate Set – All those cells with are not in active set but are eligible to be active set. .

Macrodiversity between Node B’s I u UMTS Architecture Overview • If an active set consists of two connections to cells parented to different Node Bs then the combining of the two channels occurs at the RNC This is known as a soft handover This doubles the transmission ‘cost’ of the call RNC Node B Cell Cell Cell Cell Iur • • Node B Cell Cell Uu .

UMTS Architecture Overview Macrodiversity between Cells on the Same Node B Iu • If an active set consists of two connections to cells parented to the same Node B – combining of the two channels occurs at the Node B RNC Node B Cell Cell Cell Cell Iur • • • This is known as a softer handover This has no transmission implication But does have capacity implications. if cells are collocated. Node B Cell Cell Uu .

UMTS Architecture Overview Handover Decisions in UMTS Active set = 1 Pilot Ec/Io Cell A =2 Cell A and Cell B =2 Cell A and Cell C Window_ADD Window_DROP A Active B Active C Active Window_REPLACE Direction of Travel Add Time Delay Replace Time Delay Drop Time Delay .

Locator Slide Locator Slide • • • • • 1st and 2nd Generation Cellular Systems Overview 3rd Generation Drivers and Standards CDMA Mobile Technology Overview UMTS Architecture Overview UMTS Air Interface .

UMTS Air Interface Contents and Session Aims • This session aims to explain the protocols and operation of the air interface – To give an overview of the UMTS specific operation of the air interface •Overview of the Air Interface .

UMTS Air Interface Role of the Air Interface • To provide a number of bearer or physical channels – supports data transfer over the radio path. . • To provide control channels – to manage the cell • To provide a number of traffic channels – at an acceptable error performance and at various rates • To provide signalling channels – for call set up. etc.

UMTS Air Interface Role of the Air Interface • In providing all of this we must also: • • • • Ensure an efficient use of the available spectrum Minimise interference to other cells and services Minimise the use of power. particularly from the mobile Provide synchronisation .

UMTS Air Interface UMTS FDD Air Interface Overview Parameter Multiple Access Scheme Duplexing Method Chip Rate Carrier Spacing Carrier Spacing Raster Frame Length Slots per Frame Inter-cell Synchronisation Spreading factor User Data Rate Value Direct Sequence CDMA FDD 3.84 Mcps 5 MHz 200 kHz 10 ms 15 None Variable (4-512) 8->384 kbps .

UMTS Air Interface Multiple Access Scheme • • UMTS FDD mode makes use of CDMA In the case of UMTS this is commonly referred to as Wideband CDMA .WCDMA However there are elements of FDMA and TDMA in UMTS – Common channels for paging (TDMA) – Packet access share codes between UEs (TDMA) – Multiple carriers are used per operator (FDMA) • .

17GHz – The Uplink/Downlink Separation is 190MHz UL DL 1. 1 H z 7G H z • In the case of UMTS in Europe: – The Uplink band is between 1. 2 2. 1 1G 2. 2 8G .92 and 1.UMTS Air Interface Duplexing Method • UMTS FDD mode makes use of Frequency Division Duplexing – The UL and DL Channels are carried on separate carriers 1. 98 G H H z z 190MHz 2.85 1. 9 2G 1.11 and 2.15 .2G H G G G H G H z H H H z H H Hz z z z z z z .9G .95 2G 05 1G . 1 1 2.98GHz – The Downlink band is between 2.

84Mcps This leads to a carrier bandwidth of approximately 5MHz This chip rate was chosen because it: – Could be generated simply from existing GSM clock rates – Provided a similar bandwidth to cdma2000 to allow shared use of filters etc in UEs .UMTS Air Interface Chip Rate • • • The chiprate used in UMTS FDD mode is 3.

Carrier Spacing and Carrier Spacing Raster 5MHz • • The nominal carrier spacing for UMTS is 5MHz This was chosen to comply with the American market. where spectrum has been awarded in 5MHz blocks It is possible to move the centre frequency of the carrier on a 200kHz raster UMTS Air Interface • 200kHz .

Adjacent Channel Interference • • Required attenuation (by standards) – adjacent carrier 33dB – 2nd adjacent carrier 43dB UMTS Air Interface Adjacent channel interference may have a significant impact on UMTS capacity .

This removes the need for tight synchronisation between the base stations There is no need for GPS receivers at sites • • • – This makes implementation of Picocells and their integration with the network simpler as satellite Line of Sight is not required .UMTS Air Interface Inter Cell Synchronisation • Cells in a UMTS network are not synchronised in time with each other. This is a significant difference from CDMA One which is synchronised.

UMTS Air Interface Spreading Factor and User Data Rates • UMTS has been designed to provide flexibility to allow the user to use multiple services. some of which we cannot foresee at the moment Rather than having a fixed bit rate and spreading factor. each of the channels on the user interface has a range of bit rates that can be used This makes the channels more complicated than for GSM…but certainly more flexible • • .

• Mobile speeds faster than approximately 15 m/s may cause problems with power control.UMTS Air Interface Power Control • Power control commands are either Power Up or Power Down. • Fast fading results from multi-path propagation resulting in signal strength gradients of up to approximately 1 dB per centimetre in space. • Step size is usually 1 dB. . • It is intended to compensate for fast and slow fading.

• If the mobile reacts to Power Control commands. it is usual for the average power to increase. • This increases the level of interference experienced by neighbouring cells • The difference between the average power level on a fading and non-fading channel is known as the Power Rise. Power Control – Power Rise 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 Mobile Tx Pwr Average •Power Rise Non-fad .

Power Control – Soft Handover • A mobile near the edge of a cell will be causing almost as much Noise Rise on the neighbouring cell as it is on the serving cell. •Serving Cell •Neighbouring Cell .

Power Control – Soft Handover • Establishing a second connection from the neighbouring cell provides advantages on the uplink. • Lower incidence of power up commands results in lower Power Rise. RNC . • Tx power on the uplink is reduced by Macrodiversity: Eb/N0 estimate is passed to RNC that selects best connection.

the handover is called “softer” handover. • In this case. • A maximal combiner is also used in the mobile. . the benefits are greater as the two signals are combined using a maximal combiner.Power Control – Softer Handover • If both active cells are on the same site.

a maximal-ratio combiner is a diversity combiner in which (a) The signals from each channel are added together (b) The gain of each channel is made proportional to the rms signal level and inversely proportional to the mean square noise level in that channel (c) The same proportionality constant is used for all channels .Maximal Combiner • In telecommunication.

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