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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Third Edition

CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T. DeWolf Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Stress and Strain Axial Loading

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Learning Outcomes
Students will be able to:

Beer Johnston DeWolf

a)To understand the strength of the materials as mechanical properties. b)Determine the elastic deformation of axially loaded member

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Stress & Strain: Axial Loading

Beer Johnston DeWolf

Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the deformations in the structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics analyses alone are not sufficient. Considering structures as deformable allows determination of member forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate. Determination of the stress distribution within a member also requires consideration of deformations in the member. Chapter 2 is concerned with deformation of a structural member under axial loading. Later chapters will deal with torsional and pure bending loads.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

9.2 The StressStrain Diagram

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Conventional StressStrain Diagram Nominal or engineering stress is obtained by dividing the applied load P by the specimens original crossP sectional area. = A 0 Nominal or engineering strain is obtained by dividing the change in the = L0 specimens gauge length by the specimens original gauge length. 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Normal Strain

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P = = stress A = = normal strain L

2P P = = 2A A = L

P = A 2 = = 2L L
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2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Stress-Strain Test

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Hookes Law: Modulus of Elasticity

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Below the yield stress

= E E = Youngs Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity


Strength is affected by alloying, heat treating, and manufacturing process but stiffness (Modulus of Elasticity) is not.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior

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If the strain disappears when the stress is removed, the material is said to behave elastically. The largest stress for which this occurs is called the elastic limit. When the strain does not return to zero after the stress is removed, the material is said to behave plastically.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Deformations Under Axial Loading
From Hookes Law:

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= E

P = E AE

From the definition of strain: = L Equating and solving for the deformation, PL = AE With variations in loading, cross-section or material properties, PL = i i i Ai Ei
2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Example

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SOLUTION: Divide the rod into components at the load application points. Apply a free-body analysis on each component to determine the internal force. Determine the deformation of the steel rod shown under the given loads. Evaluate the total of the component deflections.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
SOLUTION: Divide the rod into three components:

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2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Poissons Ratio

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For a slender bar subjected to axial loading: x = x y = z = 0 E The elongation in the x-direction is accompanied by a contraction in the other directions. Assuming that the material is isotropic (no directional dependence),

y = z 0
Poissons ratio is defined as y lateral strain = = = z axial strain x x

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Poissons Ratio

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Poissons ratio, v (nu), states that in the elastic range, the ratio of these strains is a constant since the deformations are proportional. v = lat long

Poissons ratio is dimensionless. Typical values are 1/3 or 1/4.


Negative sign since longitudinal elongation (positive strain) causes lateral contraction (negative strain), and vice versa.

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

The Shear StressStrain Diagram

Beer Johnston DeWolf

For most engineering materials the elastic behaviour is linear, so Hookes Law for shear applies.
= G

G = shear modulus of elasticity or the modulus of rigidity

3 material constants, v, E, and G are actually related by the equation


G= E 2(1 + v )

2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.