Edward IV

How far did he restore order?

Overview of key question

Why did Edward IV’s first reign end in usurption?

What can you remember about how Edward IV became king?

Key points from 1st reign
Edward ends Lancastrian opposition to his regime Edward captures Henry VI in 1465, strengthening his position Edward faced growing opposition from Warwick, ending in his rebellion in 1469 Edward was forced to flee the country in 1470 but regained the throne in 1471.

Edward ends Lancastrian resistance, 1461-65
Lancastrian nobles still posed a threat in the North April 1461: Edward marches troops north and into Wales – successful Margaret of Anjou landed in the north (with French support) in 1462 – defeated Lancastrian French support unpopular! E4 secured truce, 1463

Edward ends Lancastrian resistance, 1461-65
Spring 1464, Somerset tried to start rebellions but defeated by Warwick’s brother, John Neville. H6 still on the run but Lancastrian cause was shattered By 1464, country was under Edward’s control

Edward the merciful!
July 1465 – Henry VI captured Henry not executed but imprisoned in the Tower of London What does this tell us about Edward? (Methods of control)

Edward the cunning!
Edward was building up his power base as soon as he became king. Passed Attainders on 113 men and confiscated their estates Many of these lands were then granted out in order to gather political support Warwick rewarded but not as much as some others…

Edward the romantic!
By 1464, Edward well established Time for his first mistake! May 1464, secretly married Elizabeth Woodville (widow of a Lancastrian knight) Advantages / disadvantages? Deeply upset Warwick who was negotiating marriage for Edward with the French – later claimed this was why they fell out. Not so!

Edward and Warwick
The official line … foreign policy!
Who shall I ally with...?
…Burgundy…

…or France?

Edward and Warwick
Edward eventually decides on Burgundy – marries his sister Margaret to Charles the Bold and prepares the country for war with France Warwick thought the opposite – had been negotiating with the French Warwick felt humiliated and isolated when Edward announced the Burgundian alliance

Edward and Warwick
Add to this: Rising power of the Woodvilles eg - Earl Rivers Warwick tries to marry Isobel (daughter) to Clarence against E4’s wishes – E4 furious! E4 dismissed Warwick’s brother George Neville as lord chancellor – heard he was getting Pope’s support for the marriage. All of this means the start of a personal alliance between Warwick and Louis XI But: Was Edward conciliating? Warwick granted the wardship of Francis, Lord Lovell and the king installed his brother Richard in Warwick’s household.

Rebellion!
1469 – Warwick decides to rebel Plan: build up coalition of forces so powerful the king is forced to do his bidding Warwick encourages a rising in Yorkshire – Edward taken by surprise, captured At the same time, Warwick persuades George Duke of Clarence to join the plot and married him to his daughter Isobel Neville.

Warwick’s problems…
Warwick couldn’t really justify the murder or deposition of the king – what to do? Tried Yorkist propaganda, maybe Edward would be so shocked by what was happening, he would submit to Warwick’s direction Unlikely… Edward is no Henry VI! Some attempts at reconciliation but Warwick clearly in trouble Popular protests at the imprisonment of the king March 1470 – Henry Percy released from prison and restored to his earldom of Northumberland Warwick’s brother John Neville had to make way for him.

Warwick’s problems…
Edward raised fresh forces to put down the remains of the rising Warwick and Clarence declared traitors – fled to France Problem for Edward – Louis XI welcomes them and is prepared to help them (why?)

Warwick’s invasion - 1470
Louis’ masterstroke: brings together long time enemies Warwick and Margaret of Anjou Warwick realises that Clarence’s claim will never be as strong as Edward’s – swaps sides! Margaret upset by arrangement – too high a price?

Warwick’s invasion - 1470
Warwick stirs up another rising in the North Edward goes up north to deal with it Warwick lands in Devon! Much more support (eg Earl of Oxford) this time for Warwick. Edward’s support dying out Edward flees abroad

Edward’s invasion of 1471
Edward in Flanders – support from Charles the Bold, lands a small army in Yorkshire in 1471 Chances slim, so Edward uses cunning…

I’m only back to claim my duchy of York… ho

Edward’s invasion of 1471
Warwick taken by surprise None of the nobility seemed prepared to fight against Edward Clarence reconciled with his brother deserted Warwick Warwick’s troops not strong enough to prevent Edward from getting to London Edward recaptures Henry VI then hunts down Warwick Armies meet at Barnet, Edward decisively wins, Warwick is killed.

Final thoughts on Warwick…
The “Kingmaker” – a deserved title! Warwick the exception, not the rule Magnates loyal to one side or the other After Warwick, most became cautious and avoided getting involved in political affairs.

Battle of Tewkesbury, 1471
Edward now raised troops to fight Margaret and her son Edward who had landed in the West Country Edward victorious at Tewkesbury Biggest consequence: Edward killed in the aftermath of the battle Henry VI now doomed – killed as soon as Edward returned to London.

Task:
Edward’s main problems when The role of Warwick and other he became king nobility

Edward’s character and ability The nature of kingship and as king power of the monarchy

Task
Draw a living graph of Edward’s first reign, plotting his changing fortunes from 1461 – 71.
C ha ng in g for tu ne s

1461

1471