NANOTECHNOLOGY

QUANTUM COMPUTERS
Sou. Venutai Chavan Polytechnic By:- Akshay Diwakar Aditya Kumakale

INTRODUCTION
The meaning of term COMPUTER has evolved from a mere calculating machine to a full fledged multi-tasking entertainment device.

Evolution of Computers

Types of nanocomputers

Electrical

What¶s a QUANTUM Computer?
Its basically a device based on quantum mechanics. Imagine a machine that could do calculations about a billion times faster than today¶s silicon computers. Imagine one that would be as many times more efficient. Imagine one that would bring in a whole new era of technological advancement and computing power .

STOP imagining!!!

‡ The basis for the idea of a quantum nanocomputer came from the work of Paul Benioff and Richard Feynam during the 1980s.

‡ It uses a totally new principle of physics and goes away from classical mechanics into the realm of quantum physics .

1.Moore¶s Law
‡ According to Moore s Law, the number of transistors that will fit on a silicon chip doubles every eighteen months.
± Presently, microprocessors have more than forty million transistors; by 2012 they could have up to five billion. ± By the year 2020, the trend line of Moore s law states that there should be a one nanometer feature size.

Transistors
‡ The transistor is the most important component of a computer today.
± More transistors = larger computer memories and more powerful computers

‡ If Moore's law continues unabated, then ‡ each transistor is predicted to be as small as a hydrogen atom by about 2030. ‡ However, rather than be a hindrance, it is possible to exploit the quantum physics as a new way to do computation. ‡ And this new way opens up fantastic new computational power based on the wave nature of quantum particles.

2.Particle-Wave Duality
‡ We normally think of electrons, atoms and molecules as particles. But each of these objects can also behave as waves.This dual particle-wave behaviorwas first suggested in the 1920's by Louis de Broglie.

3.Superpositioning
‡ It basically means,that two things can overlap each other without interfering with each other.

4.BITS & QUBITS
‡ Fundamental unit of information is Quantum bit or Qubit.

About Qubits
‡ Exists as a ¶0·, a ¶1· or simultaneously as a superposition of both ¶0· & ¶1· with a numerical coefficient representing the probability for each state

5.Quantum Computing Parallelism
The most exciting feature of quantum computing is quantum parallelism.

‡ Parallelism allows a quantum computer to work on a million computation at once.

6.Main Applications
a) Quantum Entanglement b) Quantum Teleportation

b) Quantum Teleportation

Other Apps:
c) Encryption technology d) Ultra-secure and Super-dense Communications e) Improved Error Correction and Error Detection f) True Randomness

Limitations
‡ The main problem with this technology is instability. Instantaneous electron energy states are difficult to predict and even more difficult to control.
± An electron can easily fall to a lower energy state, emitting a photon ± A photon striking an atom can cause one of its electrons to jump to a higher energy state.

Future Development
‡ For now at least, the world of cryptography is safe because the quantum computer is very difficult to implement. ‡ The most successful experiments only being able to add one and one together. ‡ Nobody can tell if the problems being experienced by researchers can be overcome. ‡ The very thing that makes them powerful, also makes them extremely fragile .

Conclusion
‡ A quantum computer has the theoretical capability of simulating any finite physical system and may even hold the key to creating an artificially intelligent computer. ‡ Complex encryption & faster decryption of data enhancing cyberspace security.

References: 
"Quantum Computing with Molecules" article in Scientific American by Neil Gershenfeld andIsaac L. Chuang.  Gregg Jaeger (2006). Quantum Information: An Overview.  David P. DiVincenzo (2000). "The Physical Implementation of Quantum Computation". Experimental Proposals for Quantum Computation.  The Topsy Turvy World of Quantum Computing by Justin Mullins, IEEE spectrum,February 2001.

THANK YOU!!!

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