Training and Development

Human Resource Management


y Models of Learning
y Reinforcement Theories y Cybernetic & Information Theories y Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving y Experiential Learning Cycle

y The learner and the organisation : transfer y Model of Training Needs Analysis (TNA) :

individual and organisational levels of analysis y Special training and development needs : diversity management


Training and developmental activities are designed to bring about changes in behaviour Arnold, Cooper & Robertson (1998)

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience Bass & Vaughan (1966)
y How do we learn ? Psychological theories...

Reinforcement Theories
y Pavlov (1904) Classical Conditioning making dogs dribble y Skinner (1965) Operant Conditioning teaching pigeons ping-pong

y Watson & Rayner (1920) little Albert y Nord (1969) application of Skinner s positive reinforcement principles to org./mgmt practices y N.B. Conditioning by punishment ?

what µcues¶ or µstimuli¶ an experienced worker is being guided by (e.g. typist : µhunt & peck¶) .Cybernetic & Information Theories How information is received and monitored ( human thermostats . 1975) Power Source (muscular action) Monitoring Process (receipt of µcues¶ through the senses) Feedback Skills Analysis .Stammers & Patrick.

g. bananas and sticks or Archimedes Eureka!! ) .Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving y Reflect the way in which we learn to recognise and define problems or experiment to find solutions trial & error y deductive reasoning y information seeking y y Kohler (1973) Theory of Insight Learning or Discovery Learning (e. Chimps.

hierarchically related. if A then B ) Problem Solving (recombining old rules into new ones) .e.Gagné s Hierarchy of Learning y 8 major varieties of learning. more simple abilities (which therefore act as prerequisites for more complex abilities) y y y y y y y y Signal Learning (classical conditioning) Stimulus-Response Learning (operant conditioning) Chaining (connecting sequence of 2+ S-R units) Verbal Association (learning verbal chains) Discrimination Learning (different responses to similar stimuli) Concept Learning (common response to different stimuli in gp) Rule Learning (a chain of 2 or more concepts I. each building on earlier.

cautious. bigger picture y theorist : adapt & integrate observations. back-seat. logical. vertical. bored with implementation y reflector : ponder experiences. hierarchical y pragmatist : try out new ideas to see if they work in practice y . 1992) : Learning Styles activist : open-minded.Experiential Learning Kolb (1974) : Learning Cycle Concrete Testing implications of concepts in new situations experience Observations & Reflections Formation of abstract concepts & generalisations Honey & Mumford (1986. actively involved.

The Learner-Organisation Interaction (I) y Learner Motivation y Otto & Glaser (1970) : taxonomy of motivational factors in learning : achievement motivation. curiosity. providing new information y . anxiety. acquisitiveness y Knowledge of results (feedback) form of reinforcement y Extrinsic KR y Intrinsic KR y Learning curves & plateau y y Attitude formation & change predispose learners to action y having harmonious attitudes (Festinger s concept of cognitive dissonance. approval. 1957) y group discussion.

and comprehension increase (reasoning and numerical ability test scores decreased) Vernon (1960) rate of decline slowest in originally high scorers. Stimulation Education & Training offset decline in abilities .The Learner-Organisation Interaction (II) Age y less brain cells. speeded performance declines y short-term memory deteriorates (increased y y y y y errors in cognitively complex tasks) Welford (1962) older less able to cope with large amounts of information and vocab.

driving on right hand side) .g.B. maths to statistics) y lateral positive transfer : occurs when the same type of stimulus requires the same response (e. flight simulators) y N. Cooper & Robertson.g. On. 1998) y Positive Learning Transfer when learning that has already taken place on one task assists later learning on another y vertical positive transfer : one subject acts as a basis for another (e. when the same stimuli requires a different response (e.g.Transfer y Training transfer occurs when new learning is used in new settings beyond those employed for training purposes (Arnold.vs Off-the-job Training y y Negative Transfer y when an old learning or past experience can hinder performance on a new task.

learning. previous. issue of physical and psychological fidelity y Overlearning y practising beyond the level of minimum competence y Association y getting the trainee to associate new learning with other.Individual y Understanding of general principles y facilitated by discovery learning. Organisational y Supportive culture ? y Congruent norms/values/attitudes Factors that assist Transfer .

Human Resource Management 13 .

Introduction to Training Training is the systematic process of altering employee behavior in a way that will achieve organizational goals  It should be related to present job skills and abilities  It helps employees master the specific skills and abilities needed to be successful Human Resource Management 14 .

attitudes. knowledge. and interpersonal skills are training targets Human Resource Management 15 . and abilities that result in a relatively permanent change in behavior  Any behavior that has been learned is a skill  Motor.Introduction to Training A training program is an opportunity for employees to acquire skills. and knowledge  Learning is the act by which an individual acquires skills. cognitive.

Intr ti n Training and development are processes that provide employees with:  Information  Skills  An understanding of the organization and its goals  The ability to make positive contributions in the form of good performance Human Resource Management 16 .

High-Leverage Training y Linked to strategic goals and objectives y Uses an instructional design process to ensure that training is effective y Compares or benchmarks the company s training programs against training programs in other companies y Creates working conditions that encourage continuous learning .

Human Resource Management 18 .

What is Management Development? Development that uses behavioral science knowledge to deal with problems of change  It is a continuous process in the most effective firms Management development should be planned because it requires:     Systematic diagnosis Development of a program The mobilization of resources Top-management commitment for success There is no best development approach Human Resource Management 19 .

Training & Development y Training & development y Represents ongoing investment in employees. and recognition that employees are assets y Importance of training & development y Rapid technological changes cause skill obsolescence y Redesign of work brings need for new skills y Mergers and acquisitions have increased need for integrating employees into different cultures y Globalization of business requires new knowledge and skills Human Resource Management 20 .

Benefits of Training & Development y Individual employee y Increased employee marketability y Increased employee employability security y Organization y Improved bottom line. efficiency and profitability y Increased flexibility in employees who can assume different and varied responsibilities y Makes employees more accountable for results Human Resource Management 21 .

Employee Training Determining training needs Specific training goals should be based on:  organization¶s needs  type of work to be done  skills necessary to complete the work Indicators of need for more training:     drops in productivity increased rejects inadequate job performance rise in the number of accidents Human Resource Management 22 .

Principals of Learning Learner Attention  Importance/Relevance to job Positive Reinforcement/Corrective Feedback Transfer of Learning Knowledge of Progress Practice  Whole vs Part Human Resource Management 23 .

Learning Theory and Training earning principles can be applied to job training: The trainee must be motivated to learn The trainee must be able to learn The learning must be reinforced The training must provide for practice of the material  The material presented must be meaningful  The material must be communicated effectively  The training taught must transfer to the job     Human Resource Management 24 .

Training Process Identify Training Needs Set Training Objectives  Evaluation Criteria Choose Training Materials and Methods Conduct Training Evaluate Training Human Resource Management 25 .

and goals  Person analysis: determining who needs training and their readiness for training  Task analysis: identification of the tasks. training is necessary  Organizational analysis: examining a firm¶s mission. skill. resources. and what type of. and behaviors that should be included in a training program Human Resource Management 26 . knowledge.Needs Assessment Needs assessment is a process used to determine if.

Levels of Needs Assessment Human Resource Management 27 .

Assessing Current Employees¶ Training Needs Assessment Center Results Performance Appraisals Individual Diaries Methods for Identifying Training Needs Job-Related Performance Data Attitude Surveys Observations Tests Human Resource Management Interviews 28 .

training and development can be monitored and evaluated Human Resource Management 29 .Needs Assessment The information gathering provides a profile of:  What type of training is needed  Who should be trained  When training should be conducted  Whether training is the preferred approach Instructional objectives lead to the selection and design of instructional programs:  If assessment and program design are done carefully.

and short-term objectives Human Resource Management 30 .Training Needs and Objectives Needs assessment involves analyzing:  The organization¶s needs  The knowledge. skill. and ability needed to perform the job  The person or jobholder¶s needs  The firm¶s long.

Instructional Methods This phase of training includes:  Selection of content and training methods  The actual training Human Resource Management 31 .

On The Job Training Methods y Job instruction training (JIT) y Coaching y Mentoring y Job rotation y Apprenticeship training y Committee assignments Human Resource Management 32 .

Off The Job Training Methods y Vestibule training y Role playing y Lecture method y Conference or discussion method y Programmed instruction Human Resource Management 33 .

Decision-making skills (a)In-basket (b)Business game (c)Case study (a)Role play (b)Sensitivity training (c) Be aviour Modelling (a) On-t e-job experiences (b) 4.Interpersonal skills 3.General kno w le d ge (a) (a) (b) (c) 6.Specific individual need s (a) (b) Human Resource Management 2.Job kn o w le dge Coac ing Job rotation Special courses (c) Understudy kno w ledg e Special meetings Specific readings Special projects Committee assignments 34 .Organisational 5.Methods of executive development 1.

On-The-Job Training This is the most widely used method of training  Although OJT is simple and relatively inexpensive. hidden costs can include: Damaged machinery Unsatisfied customers Misfiled forms Poorly taught workers Human Resource Management 35 .

Computer-Based Instruction y Benefits y Self-paced y Adaptive to different needs y Can be customized y Easy to deliver y Usually less expensive to administer y Can be conducted when convenient for employee y Drawbacks y Learners must be selfmotivated y Cost of producing online. interactive materials y Lack of interaction with others may work against needs and preferred learning styles Human Resource Management 36 .

Case Method The case method uses a written description of a real decision-making situation  Managers are asked to study the case in order to: Identify the problems Analyze the problems Propose solutions Choose the best solution Implement it More learning takes place if there is interaction with the instructor Human Resource Management 37 .

the feelings of others Human Resource Management 38 .Role Playing  Each person is assigned a role in a situation and is asked to react to other players¶ role-playing  The player is asked to react to the stimuli as that person would  Players are provided with background information on the situation and the players  A script is usually provided The success of this method depends on the ability of the players to play the assigned roles believably  Role-playing can help a manager become more aware of. and more sensitive to.

email. and telephone list  Important and pressing matters are mixed in with routine business matters The trainee is analyzed and critiqued on:  The number of decisions made in the time allotted  The quality of the decisions  The priorities chosen for making them To generate interest. job-related.In-Basket Technique The participant is given typical items from a specific manager¶s mail. and not impossible to make decisions on Resource Management Human 39 . in-basket materials must be:  Realistic.

if used in conjunction with videotape methods Research evidence is generally positive Human Resource Management 40 .Behavior Modeling There are four steps in this process: Modeling of effective behavior (films) Role playing Social reinforcement (role playing) Transfer of training to the job Modeling offers promise for developing leadership skills.

Programmed Learning Presenting questions. facts. or problems to the learner Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of answers Advantages     Reduced training time Self-paced learning Immediate feedback Reduced risk of error for learner Human Resource Management 41 .

Choosing the Best T&D Method y Choice of delivery method depends on: y Organizational culture and values y T&D objective and content y Profiles of trainees and trainers y Financial and technological resource availability y Time y Location Human Resource Management 42 .

Choosing the Best T&D Method y Developments occurring with regard to delivery methods y Shift toward on-the-job training y Increased efficiency y Exploitation of technology to aid learning y Increased emphasis on teams y Focus on mentoring Human Resource Management 43 .

Evaluation y Integral part of overall training program y Provides feedback on effectiveness of training program y Evaluation criteria should be established in tandem with and parallel to training objectives Human Resource Management 44 .

Four Levels of Training Evaluation Human Resource Management 45 .

not skills Poaching of trained workers Human Resource Management 46 .Impediments to Effective T & D Commitment lacking Inadequate budget allocation Universities award only degrees.

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