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Motivation: Need Theories

Learning Goals
‡ Discuss the role of needs in behavior in organizations ‡ Describe the major need hierarchy theories of motivation ‡ Appreciate that the importance of particular needs varies from person to person

Introduction
± Behavior has a starting point, a direction, and a stopping point ± Focus is on voluntary behavior under the control of the person ± Behavior is not random. It has purpose and direction

Introduction (Cont.)
Motivation is the psychological process that leads to that results in Some level of job performance

Choice of behavior

The Motivation-Behavior-Job Performance Sequence

) ‡ Why know about motivation? ± Help you understand your behavior and the behavior of others ± Can help a manager build and manage a ³system of motivation.Introduction (Cont.´ ± Offers conceptual tools for analyzing motivation problems in organizations .

G.R.Overview of Where We are Headed ‡ Need theories (Chapter 7) ± Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality ± Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory ± E. Theory ± McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory ± Herzberg¶s Motivator-Hygiene Theory .

) ‡ Cognitive and behavioral theories (Chapter 8) ± Expectancy Theory ± Equity Theory ± Goal Setting Theory ± Behavior Modification .Overview of Where We are Headed (Cont.

Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality ‡ Assumptions ± People can adapt to their changing environment ± Human behavior is goal directed ± Internal and external factors affect behavior ± People learn from interactions with their environment ± Preconception of future affect behavior now .

Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont.) ‡ Needs ± Basic to Murray's theory ± Hypothetical concept: helps explain observable differences in behavior ± ³Invisible link´ between a stimulus and a person¶s reaction to the stimulus .

Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont. sex ± Psychological needs ‡ Focus on emotional and mental satisfaction ‡ Example: the need for social interaction or to achieve difficult goals . water.) ‡ Types of needs ± Physical needs ‡ Satisfaction of basic physical processes ‡ Need for food. air.

) ‡ Some needs in Murray's theory ± n Order: organize and systematically arrange objects.1 .Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont. and tidy ± n Achievement: attain difficult goals. neat. be clean. to seek honors and recognition The small n in front of the name of each need is the psychologist¶s abbreviation for the word need. See text book Table 7. perform as well as possible ± n Recognition: receive credit for actions.

have friends. affect the direction of a group ± n Deference: respect authority.Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont.) ‡ Some needs in Murray's theory (cont. admire a person with authority ± n Autonomy: be independent and not be influenced by others ± n Affiliation: associate with others. and join groups .) ± n Dominance: influence others.

Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont.) ‡ Characteristics of needs ± Latent internal characteristics activated by a stimulus ± A person tries to behave in a way that satisfies an activated need Strong need for affiliation: Meet someone you like and start talking to the person .

Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont.) ± Needs may show rhythmic patterns over time ‡ Manager could satisfy a Need for Dominance in relationships with subordinates ‡ Same manager is subordinate to someone else in the organization ‡ Engages in behavior directed at the Need for Deference .) ‡ Characteristics of needs (cont.

) ‡ Characteristics of needs (Cont.) ± Opposite needs and behavior ‡ Need for Dominance in work role. especially a manager or supervisor ‡ Need for Deference in nonwork (family) role Work Need for Dominance Nonwork Need for Deference .Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont.

Such activities are important for finding a good job Need for Affiliation serves Need for Achievement .Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont.) ‡ Characteristics of needs (Cont.) ± Multiple needs and behavior ‡ One need is primary. other need serves the primary ‡ Need for Achievement and Need for Affiliation ‡ Example: joining student organizations.

Murray¶s Theory of Human Personality (Cont.) ‡ Implications ± Understand own and other¶s behavior ± Needs vary in importance among people ± Directs people¶s behavior toward or away from objects ± Such knowledge can help managers¶ shape a motivation system ± Help us understand behavior we see .

Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory ‡ Five groups of basic needs ‡ Healthy adults try to satisfy these needs ‡ So basic that they motivate behavior in many cultures ‡ Chronic frustration of needs can lead to psychopathological results .

Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Cont. food. sleep. water. sex ‡ Safety needs: desires of a person to be protected from physical and economic harm ‡ Belongingness and love needs (social): desire to give and receive affection. be in the company of others .) ‡ Physiological needs: basic requirements of the human body.

) ‡ Esteem needs: self-confidence and sense of self-worth ± Esteem from others: valuation of self from other people ± Self-esteem: feeling of self-confidence and self-respect ‡ Self-actualization needs: desire for selffulfillment Maslow: ³.Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Cont. to become everything that one is capable of becoming. . . the desire to become more and more what one is.´ .

selfactualization . esteem.Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Cont. safety. belongingness.) ‡ Form a need hierarchy based on the ³prepotency´ of needs ‡ Prepotency: need emerges as a motivator after satisfying a lower-order (more prepotent) need ‡ Hierarchy progression: physiological.

1 Physiological .Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Selfactualization Belongingness and love Safety See text book Figure 7.

) ‡ Need hierarchy ± Unsatisfied need is a potential motivator of behavior ± Satisfied need is no longer a motivator ± Focus on more than one need: promotion leads to more money (esteem and physiological) ± Need satisfaction follows the order shown but is flexible ± Weak empirical support ± Remains a classic interpretation of behavior .Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Cont.

E. to use one¶s skills .R.G. Theory ‡ A variation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs ‡ Three groups of needs ± Existence needs: physical and material wants ± Relatedness needs: desires for interpersonal relationships ± Growth needs: desires to be creative and productive.

R.G.) Maslow hierarchy Selfactualization E.E.G. Theory (Cont.G.R. Growth needs Esteem Belongingness and love Relatedness needs Safety Physiological Existence needs . Theory Relationship of Maslow¶s hierarchy to E. Theory.R.

E.G.2 .) ‡ Both similar to and different from Maslow's need hierarchy ‡ Satisfied and unsatisfied needs operate in much the same way ‡ Movement upward is the same ‡ Movement downward is new See text book Figure 7.R. Theory (Cont.

R.G.) ‡ Satisfaction-progression: move up the hierarchy as needs are satisfied ‡ Frustration-regression: move down the hierarchy when a need is frustrated ‡ Deficiency cycle: more strongly desire existence needs when they are unsatisfied ‡ Enrichment cycle: more strongly desire growth needs when they are satisfied . Theory (Cont.E.

McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory ‡ McClelland and colleagues studied the behavioral effects of three needs ± Need for Achievement ± Need for Power ± Need for Affiliation ‡ Emphasized the Need for Achievement. although they investigated all three needs .

McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.) ‡ Product of an impressive long-running research program ‡ Controversy over measurement methods ‡ Recent study shows the validity of different measures .

McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.) ‡ Strong need for achievement people ± Take responsibility for results of behavior ± Willing to take calculated risks ± Set moderate achievement goals ± Prefer to set performance standards for themselves ± Prefer nonroutine tasks to routine assignments ± Welcome feedback about how well they are doing .

McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont. mythology.) ‡ Acquire the Need for Achievement through socialization to cultural values ‡ Presence of Need for Achievement themes in folklore. art ‡ Need for Achievement societies had high levels of economic development .

) ‡ Strong Need for Power people ± Focuses on "controlling the means of influencing the behavior of another person´ ± Having strong effects on other people ± Means of influence: anything available to the person to control the behavior of another ± Actively searches for means of influence Example: use superior-subordinate relationship or external rewards to control the behavior of another .McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.

McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont. exploitation ‡ View situations from a win-lose perspective ‡ Must win and the other party must lose ± Did not feel such power behavior resulted in the type of leadership required by organizations . physical aggression.) ‡ Two ways of expressing the Need for Power ± Dominance.

) ± Persuasion and interpersonal influence ‡ Tries to arouse confidence in those he or she wants to influence ‡ Clarifies group¶s goals and persuades members to achieve those goals ‡ Emphasizes group members¶ ability to reach goals .McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.) ‡ Two ways of expressing the Need for Power (cont.

) ‡ Tries to develop a competence belief in group members ‡ McClelland felt this type of power behavior characterized effective leaders in organizations .McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.) ‡ Two ways of expressing the Need for Power (cont.

especially those about whom they care ± Like other people. and restoring positive affective relations with others" ± Want close.) ‡ Strong Need for Affiliation people ± Focuses on "establishing.McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont. warm interpersonal relationships ± Seek the approval of others. want other people to like them. maintaining. and want to be in the company of others .

is a statement about success or failure ‡ Symbol of success and feedback about job performance .McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont. or receiving a bonus.) ‡ Need for achievement and behavior ± Money: important to both high and low achievers. but for different reasons ‡ High achiever wants concrete feedback about performance ‡ Making a profit.

McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.) ‡ Need for achievement and behavior (cont.) ‡ High achiever wants a challenging job and responsibility for work ‡ Want to feel successful at doing something over which they have control .

) ± Low achiever views monetary reward as an end in itself ± Get increased performance from low Need for Achievement person by rewarding with money .) ‡ Need for achievement and behavior (cont.McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.

McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.) ‡ Managers and executives usually have a stronger Need for Achievement than people in other occupations ‡ Evidence points to strong Need for Achievement as an entrepreneur characteristic ‡ Nature of Need for Achievement behavior fits well with such role demands .

) ‡ Need for Achievement and Need for Power: some relationships ± Strong Need for Achievement person ‡ Task centered ‡ Future oriented ‡ Performs to internal standard of excellence .McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.

) ± Strong Need for Power person ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Draws attention Risk taking Present oriented Assesses situations for change potential .) ‡ Need for Achievement and Need for Power: some relationships (cont.McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.

) ‡ Need for Achievement and Need for Power: some relationships (cont.) ± Both types of people important for successful organizations ± Strong Need for Achievement managers keep an organization going ± Strong Need for Power people bring dramatic change and innovation .McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory (Cont.