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Effective Teaching of Mathematics and Numeracy

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Reflection Connect: How are the ideas and information presented CONNECTED to what you already knew? Extend: What new ideas did you get that EXTENDED or pushed your thinking in new directions? Challenge: What is still CHALLENGING or confusing for you to get your mind around? What questions, wonderings or puzzles do you now have?

Effective teachers Have high expectations of all students and set challenging tasks and goals appropriate for each student Integrate their content knowledge and their teaching skills to make connections that engage student interest and maintain involvement Monitor student progress using their knowledge of each students current achievement an the next steps appropriate for them, and provide feedback to the student
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.29, (project Good start et al. 2005 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Key elements from research examining effective numeracy teaching practices Clear focus on concepts and thinking An emphasis on valuing strategies students use Encouraging students to share strategies and solutions

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Teacher knowledge and scaffolding: ..mathematical content knowledge required for teaching is connected to the teaching of particular content and that how teachers hold knowledge may matter more than how much knowledge teachers hold This is a clear reference to the importance of (mathematical) pedagogical content knowledge for effective teaching..
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.29 (The National Numeracy Review COAG 2008) Paper No. 18 June 2009

Content knowledge: Knowledge of the mathematics being taught, the amount and organisation of the subject matter per se in the teachers mind Pedagogical knowledge: Knowledge of generic teaching strategies, such as questioning, grouping, planning, assessing, general factors that might impact on learning

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Critical aspects of knowledge for teaching mathematics: Knowledge of basic mathematical ideas (i.e. the mathematical ideas to school mathematics) The ability to make connections between mathematical ideas A capacity to create and use multiple representations of these idea in teaching A deep knowledge of the curriculum continuum
Numeracy in Practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Pedagogical content knowledge: Knowledge of the ways of representing and formulating the subject that makes it comprehensible to others which includes Knowledge of what makes the learning of specific topics easy or difficult The perception and preconceptions that students of different ages and backgrounds bring with them

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p29 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Mathematical pedagogical content knowledge-for-teaching in in the primary and middle years needs to be highly valued

Primary and Middle Years pedagogical knowledge is not the same as knowledge of advanced mathematics

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.29 Paper No. 18 June 2009

The nature of teaching Teachers who (at any year level) possess high-level mathematical knowledge have to work with students who clearly have basic forms of that knowledge Cognitively guided instruction which aims to build on what students are thinking places great demands on knowledge-for-teaching (pedagogical content knowledge) since students responses and strategies can take lessons in many possible directions The teachers role is then to draw together those different possible directions with a clear focus on enhancing student understanding
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p. 30 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Department of Education, Science and Training 2004, Researching approaches to teaching numeracy in primary schools, identified a range of interaction patterns or scaffolding practices undertaken by teachers Scaffolding when support provided to students in the learning process until the student is ready to be independent

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.30


Department of Education, Science and Training 2004

Paper No. 18 June 2009

The 12 scaffolding practices identified which contributed to improved student learning outcomes and changed the predominant focus on activities to the recognition of the importance of teach knowledge and the role of classroom culture Excavating Modelling Collaborating Guiding Convince me Noticing Focussing Probing Orienting Reflecting and Reviewing Extending Apprenticing
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.30 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Excavating drawing out, digging, uncovering what is known, making it transparent

Teacher systematically questions to find out what students know or to make the known explicit. Teacher explores students understanding in a systematic way

http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingresources/maths/mathscontinuum/s

*In pairs, write a list of questions you might ask to systematically explore
student understanding of the meaning of the equals sign

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Modelling- demonstrating, directing, instructing, showing, telling, funnelling, naming, labelling, explaining

Teacher shows students what to do and/or how to do it. Teacher instructs, explains, demonstrates, tells, offers behaviours for imitation
*Direct Instruction *Thinking and Working Mathematically using different modes
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Collaborating- acting as an accomplice, co-learner/problem-solver, co-conspirator, negotiating

Teacher works interactively with students in-the-moment on a task to jointly achieve a solution. Teacher contributes ideas, tries things out, responds to suggestions of others, invites comments/opinions in she/he is doing, accepts critique

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Guiding- cuing, prompting, hinting, navigating, shepherding, encouraging , nudging

Teacher observes, listens, monitors students as they work, asks questions designed to help them make connections, and /or articulate generalisations
*Direct Instruction models (step 4 and 6 John Hattie)
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Convince Me- seeking explanation, justification, evidence, proving

Teacher actively seeks evidence, encourages students to me more specific. Teacher may act as if he/she doesnt understand what students are saying, encourages students to explain, to provide/obtain data
*Multi- Modal Thinking
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Noticing- highlighting, drawing attention to, valuing, pointing to

Teacher draws students attention to particular feature without telling students what to see/notice( i.e. by careful questioning, rephrasing or gestures), encourages students to question their sensory experience *Multi-Modal Thinking and Working MathematicallyNumeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Word Communicate

Focusing coaching, tutoring, mentoring, flagging, redirecting, revoicing, filtering

Teacher focuses on a specific gap (i.e. a concept, skill or strategy) that students need to progress. Teacher maintains a joint collective focus and provides an opportunity for students to bridge the gap themselves

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Probing- clarifying, monitoring, checking

Teacher evaluates students understanding using specific question/task designed to elicit a range of strategies, presses for clarification, identifies possible areas of need

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Orienting- setting the scene, contextualising , reminding, alerting, recalling

Teacher sets the scene, poses a problem, establishes a context, invokes relevant prior knowledge and experience, provides a rationale (not necessarily at the beginning of a lesson, but at the beginning of a new task/idea)

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Reflecting/Reviewing - sharing, reflecting, recounting, summarising, capturing, reinforcing, reflecting, rehearsing

Teacher orchestrates a recount of what was learnt, a sharing of ideas and strategies. This typically occurs during whole class share time at the end of a lesson where learning is made explicit, key strategies are articulated, valued and recorded
*Reflection cues

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Extending challenging, spring boarding, linking , connecting

Teacher sets significant challenge, uses open and or open-ended questions to explore extent of students understanding, facilitate generalisations, provide a context for further learning *Ways to create open questions - discuss
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Apprenticing - inviting peer assistance peer teaching peer mentoring

Teacher provides opportunities for more learned peers to operate in a student-as-teacher capacity, endorses student/student interaction

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.31 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Where in the Direct Instruction Model might each of these scaffolding practices be actioned by teachers?
Excavating Modelling Collaborating Guiding Convince me Noticing Focussing Probing Orienting Reflecting and Reviewing Extending Apprenticing

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.30 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Instructivist versus Constructivist approaches


A common misunderstanding regarding constructivist theories of knowing (that existing knowledge is used to build new knowledge) is that teachers should never tell students anything directly, but, instead should always allow them to construct knowledge for themselvesconstructivists assume that all knowledge is constructed from previous knowledge, irrespective of how one is taught.there are times usually after people have grappled with issues on their own that teaching by telling can work extremely well (p11 How people learn)

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.34 How People Learn (National Research Council 2000) Paper No. 18 June 2009

It is now widely accepted that the most effective teaching approach combines important aspects of direct instruction together with the most meaningful and motivating components of student centred learning Westwood
(2004)

Direct instruction (COAG 2008 p. 35) direct interactive teaching with highlevel questioning Direct teaching that which is based on teacher-proof materials or teaching that simply focuses on fast-paced, explicit instruction
Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.34 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Instructivist

Constructivist

Also called

Teacher-centred learning Teacher- directed learning Direct instruction

Student-centred learning Self-directed learning Discovery learning

Approach

Based on a transmission model: Teacher = expert imparts Knowledge to student = novice

Based on a model of construction of knowledge by student/learner with teacher as facilitator

Characterised by

Reliance on textbooks Demonstration of correct method followed by student practice

Active construction of meaning through activities, discussion with other students Use a variety manipulative

Example of program

Direct Instruction

Cognitively Guided Instruction

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p. 35 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Expert teachers can Identify essential representations of their subject Guide learning through classroom interactions Monitor learning and provide feedback Attend to affective attributes and Influence student outcomes The 5 attributes listed above, lead to 16 prototypic attributes of expertise. Three attributes in particular were found to provide almost all the differences between expert and experienced teachers challenge, deep representation, and monitoring and feedback

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics p.37 (NZ Ministry of Education Best Evidence Synthesis Anthony and Walshaw 2007), and John Hattie Paper No. 18 June 2009

Expert teachers

Challenge Expert teachers provide appropriate challenging tasks and goals for students

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics, p37 Paper No. 18 June 2009

Expert teachers Deep representation Expert and experienced teachers do not differ in the amount of knowledge they have about curriculum matters of knowledge about teaching strategies Experts do differ in how they organise and use this content knowledge Experts possess knowledge with prior knowledge; can relate current lesson content to other subjects in the curriculum; make lessons uniquely their own by changing, combining and adding to them according to their students needs and their own goals

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Monitoring and Feedback

Expert teachers are more adept at monitoring student problems and assessing their level of understanding and progress, and they provide much more relevant, useful feedback

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Direct Instruction two components Using Andrew Fullers graph provide a graphic sense of the flow of a lesson A direction instruction model

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

Creating Resilient Learners- The Get It! Model of Learning 2003 Andrew Fuller http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Research_eLert_Issue_19_Numeracy-rpt-v1.0-2009052

The Get It! Instruction Model (for Long Term Memory Input)
Andrew Fuller

* Refer to
slides 31 - 38

* * *
1
5 mins

*
*
6

*
Maximum10 minutes 10-15 mins

Approximate Times [arbitrary]


10 mins 10- 15 minutes 5 mins

A Direct Instruction Model and the Andrew Fuller Get It Model Approximate Instruction Times

Mins. 10 10-15 10-15 10 -15 10 5 Before the lesson


Data is used to determine the topic and key intention (focus) of the lesson; focus question and open question/statements determined Success criteria determined

Direct Instruction Arbitrary Instruction times Minutes

10 10-15 10-15 10 -15 10 5 Short tuning in activity- maximum 5 minutes

*
10 10-15 10-15 10 -15 10 5

The most critical time of any instruction for long term memory input Optimum time for learning in a lesson Maximum of ten minutes Teacher poses and clarifies the focus of the lesson and success criteria Content specific Skills Mathematical language Teacher models an example/exemplar Whole Group one mathematical concept Closed context Reflection will be.

Approximate Instruction Times

*
10 10-15 10-15 10 -15 10 5

Question/Task open question/statement Students individually work on problem Or Students work in pairs Problems might be interactive Students may be working in different mathematical modes (multi- modal thinking) Teacher roves- supports, questions, checks, tweaks, listens, probes.

Approximate Instruction Times

Whole Group Feedback/discussion/ and in some instances review, revision Target group selected/formed by teacher (and or individual student request further support) i.e. Intervention Further explanation/demonstration/discussion with target group to support learning Possibly some reflection whole group or individual Students who have managed set task well skills practice or relevant game for skills practice e.g. Mathletics, FUSE or a time for memorising (may/may not be related to key focus of the lesson)

*
10 10-15 10-15 10 -15 10 5
Approximate Times

Students continue with the problem (target group) or a variation of the problem

*
10 10-15 10-15 10 -15 10 5
Approximate Times

Other students consolidate understanding of the problem or demonstrate understanding using a different mathematical mode or continue with a variation of the problem or work with an extension variation of the task or investigate extension of the problem independently ( extend by posing and investigating a question posed independently) Demonstrate understanding/new learning from the problem, in another mode Use ICT software to demonstrate understanding or pursue further investigation

The second opportunity in a lesson for establishing learning for the long term Teacher leads reflection in relationship to the focus of the lesson In some instances student reflection 10 10-15 10-15 10 -15 10 5
Approximate Instruction Times

Reflect in different mathematical modes Reflection using questions/tools which generate a high cognitive load when students respond Reflection cues (see next slide)

Possible reflection times

Reflection cues Today in maths: I learned something important. It was.. I learned to be careful when I .. I learned the following from another student I was surprised to find.. Connect How were the ideas and information in this lesson connected to what you already knew? Extend What new ideas did you get from todays lesson that extended your thinking or pushed your thinking in new directions? Challenge What is still challenging to get your mind around? (or confusing you?) What questions, wonderings or puzzles do you now have?

10 10-15 10-15 10 -15 10 5


Approximate Instruction Times

Numeracy in Practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009

http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Research_eLert_Is Andrew Fuller Creating Resilient Learners The Get It! Model http://www.lccs.org.sg/downloads/10Creating_Resilient.pdf John A.C. Hattie Visible Learning A Synthesis Of Over 800 Meta Analyses Relating To Achievement Routledge 2009

Numeracy in practice: teaching, learning and using mathematics Paper No. 18 June 2009