Burnout, Work Engagement and Performance

Evangelia Demerouti, PhD

Athens, May 2004

Outline
• • • • •

Burnout: background Measurement of Burnout Research Findings Engagement Burnout Interventions

Burnout: ‘discovery’
• •

Since 1974 (Freudenberger) Definition: Syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among people who do “people work” of some kind (Maslach, 1982) Main cause: Emotional demands posed by clients

Burnout: reasons for interest
• • • • •

Negative consequences for employees (lack of interest in work – existential doubts) Consequences for clients (low quality of service) High costs for organizations Its excessive spread (around 20% of the employees) Important social problem but still unclear concept

Causes of burnout
• Work pressure • Emotional demands • Role problems • Work-family conflict • Social support • Feedback • Participation in decision making

Consequences of burnout Individual level • Depression • Psychosomatic complaints • Infections Work-related attitudes • Job satisfaction • Organizational commitment • Turnover intention Organizational level • Absenteeism • Turnover .

Burnout and Personality • Neuroticism • Low extraversion • Low hardiness • External locus of control • Low self-esteem • Type A personality • Passive coping style .

aggression Low pleasure No weight symptoms No fearfulness Sleeping problems (difficulty to fall asleep) Guilt feelings No suicide thoughts Indecisiveness (complaint) Attribution of the problem: work Work-related Moderate vitality . displeasure Weight loss Fearfulness Sleeping problems (wake up early) Guilt feelings Suicide thoughts Indecisiveness Attribution of the problem: sickness General Low vitality Burnout • • • • • • • • • • • Anger.Depression vs. Burnout (clinical) Depression • • • • • • • • • • • Depressive mood Unhappiness.

Occupation-independent conceptualisation of burnout • • • Related to traditional work stressors Work stressors better predictors than ‘working with people’ (Schaufeli & Enzmann. efficacy) • Artefact of the utilized research designs: alternative hypotheses untested .. fatigue. alienation. withdrawal. 1998) Burnout symptoms parallel to phenomena in non-service occupations (e.g.

Measurement of Burnout .

decision tree • Questionnaire (self-reports) • .Two ways of diagnosis (Company) doctors using diagnostic session .

cynical and detached responses toward clients Reduced Personal Accomplishment (8): decline in one’s feelings of competence and successful achievement in work with people • Exhaustion (7): feelings of emotional emptiness. overtaxing from work. strong need for rest and a state of physical exhaustion Distancing from work (8): distancing oneself from one’s work. negative attitudes and behaviours toward work in general. work contents and object .MBI • OLBI • • • Emotional Exhaustion (9): feelings of being emotionally overextended and drained by others Depersonalization (5): feelings of callous.

1999 .above the 75 percentile on both dimensions Demerouti.clinical burnout .Oldenburg Burnout Inventory • • • • • Positive and negative worded items Only the core dimensions of burnout Not context-specific Based on theory and not on empirical findings Cut-off scores: .

I usually feel totally fit for my leisure activities” (R). 6 = every day) . Cynicism (MBI-GS) “I have become less enthusiastic about my work”.Example items OLBI & MBI-GS • • • • • • • Exhaustion (OLBI) “After my work. Professional efficacy (MBI-GS) “I feel I am making an effective contribution to what this organization does”. Distancing from work (OLBI) “I usually talk about my work in a derogatory way” “I get more and more engaged in my work” (R) (1 = totally disagree. I am good at my job”. “I feel tired when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on the job”. (0 = never. 4 = totally agree) • • • • • • • Exhaustion (MBI-GS) “I feel burned out from my work”. “In my opinion. “I have become more cynical about whether my work contributes anything”. I usually feel worn out and weary” “After my work.

Theoretical explanations .

1979 .Demand-Control Model Autonomy Job Demands Karasek.

1996 .Effort-Reward Imbalance Model Development Status. Selfesteem Salary External Demands Internal Demands Siegrist.

1996 .Inequity Model Outcomes Investments Schaufeli et al.

Job Demands Role conflict Work-Home Work times Emotional Demands Work Pressure .

Job Resources Skill Variety Possibilities Self-growth Supervisory Coaching Social Support Autonomy .

Balance Role conflict Work-Home Work times Emotional Demands Work pressure Skill Variety Possibilities Self-growth Coaching Social Support Autonomy .

Job Demands-Resources Model Mental Emotional Physical Etc. Support Autonomy Feedback Etc. Job Demands + (Impaired) Health Organizational Outcomes Job Resources + Motivation + Demerouti et al.. 2001 .

Assumptions • • • Unique Working Environment for every occupational group 2 categories: Job Demands and Job Resources 2 Processes • Health Impairment process • Motivational process • • Job Resources can be Buffer against Job Demands Job Demands may undermine the Motivational Impact of Job Resources .

Research findings .

ATC. observers ratings (italics) Demerouti et al. production.Human services.. 2001 . N = 374 Self-reports.

. 2000 .Slide 26 Demerouti et al.

Demerouti.62 Participation .20 T2 ST Absence Bakker.96 Commitment -. De Boer & Schaufeli.21 T2 LT Absence -.63 . N=214 WP Reorgan .58 Job Demands .67 Job Resources . 2003 .Food Processing Industry.68 Autonomy .92 Burnout .

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67 Exhaustion In-Role Performance .66 .88 .52 Workload .Human Services.45 e10 .68 .86 e2 Emotional Demands Work -Home Conflict Job Demands .26 e4 -.68 e9 e3 e9 .80 e10 Autonomy .55 .51 . 2004 .90 -.53 Other -rating e6 e8 e8 Bakker.89 OLBI – Disengagement e8 e5 Possibilities Development Social Support Job Resources -. Demerouti & Verbeke.90 Disengagement -. N=146 e7 e11 e12 OLBI – Exhaustion e1 Self -rating .42 Other -rating .37 .25 .45 Extra -Role Performance .99 Self -rating .

(Im) Balance JOB DEMANDS Impaired health H Impaired health Motivation Low motivation Health L Health Motivation H Low motivation L JOB RESOURCES .

& extra-role performance)  feelings of in-efficiency & poor professional self-esteem !!! The relationship between burnout – performance is not clear cut! . in a proactive manner ineffective: highest similarity with the burned-out group (low in.Study among salespersons (N= 650) • • • • • burned-out salespeople: lowest in-role & extra-role performance non burned-out salespeople: highest in-role & extra-role performance customer-exhausted: among the highest performers (in-role & extra-role performance)  compensation strategy customer-depersonalized: in-role performance uninfluenced. extra-role performance diminished  loss-based selection.

...Reciprocal effects • Exhaustion  Errors  more JD  more Exhaustion • Depersonalisation  negative behaviour  less JR  more Depersonalisation • Competence  good performance  more JR  more Competence • Negative or Positive Spiral.

van Dierendock & Schaufeli. submitted . Demerouti.Job Demands I Job Demands II Job Demands III Exhaustion I Exhaustion II Exhaustion III Job Resources I Job Resources II Job Resources III Depersonalization I Depersonalization II Depersonalization III Personal Accomplishment I Personal Accomplishment II Personal Accomplishment III Bakker.

Work engagement .

Publications on negative vs. 1999) • Causes of sicknesses are not identical with the causes of well-being Absence of sickness does not automatically mean presence of well-being Different focus: instead of treatment and prevention. improvement and optimalization! • • .. positive states are 17:1 (Diener et al.Towards positive psychology • Most psychologists are busy with sicknesses instead of well-being .

Burnout vs. Engagement Exhaustion Cynicism Red. Competence Vigor Dedication Absorption .

or behavior. event. Dimensions Vigor is characterized by high levels of energy and mental resilience while working. work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor. enthusiasm. Dedication is characterized by a sense of significance. dedication. and persistence also in the face of difficulties. and absorption (Schaufeli et al. and challenge.. pride. • • • . individual. fulfilling. Absorption is characterized by being fully concentrated and happily engrossed in one’s work. the willingness to invest effort in one’s work. 2004). It refers to a persistent and pervasive affective–cognitive state that is not focused on any particular object. whereby time passes quickly and one has difficulties with detaching oneself from work. inspiration.Work engagement: definition • Engagement: a positive.

Work Engagement • Vigor • At my work. my job is challenging • I am enthusiastic about my job • Absorption • When I am working. I feel strong and vigorous • Dedication • To me. I feel bursting with energy • At my job. I forget everything else around me • I am completely immersed in my work .

Engaged Employees • • • • • Take personal initiative Generate their own positive feedback Are also engaged outside their work Are tired in a different way Also want to do other things than working .

Prevalence % 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 Burnout Engagement .

) Job Resources + Engagement + Efficiency .Home Care. (in prep. Bakker et al. N=45.000 Workload Emotions Intimity Work-Home Job Demands + Burnout - Client Satisfaction Support Autonomy Feedback Coaching Source: Taris.

Slide 42 .

Burnout interventions .

Overview of the strategies Aim Focus Organization Individual Identification Primary prevention Secundary prevention Treatment .

Organisational strategies Identification Primary prevention Secondary prevention Treatment • Risk inventarisation • Screening • Regulation of work pressure • Job design / task content • Conflict management • Management Development • Contact company doctor • Social-medical team .

Individual strategies Identification Primary prevention Secondary prevention Treatment • Self-monitoring • Self-assessment • Didactic stress management • Work-Family balance • Time management • Relaxation training • Social medical supervision • Psychotherapy .

08 Effect moderate small moderate non-sign.51 .68 . (2000) .35 .Success (meta-analysis) k Cogn. Van der Klink et al. therapy Relaxation Multimodal Organization 18 17 8 5 N 858 982 470 1463 d .

and personoriented approaches Active participation of all involving parties Commitment of the top Kompier & Cooper (1999) .Critical success factors • • • • • Stepwise systematic approach Adequate diagnosis and analyses of the problems Combination of work.

Training Consultants JDR-Project Follow-up Acquisition Interventions Project Report Project team Data via Internet JDRquestionnaire .

Training Consultants JDR-Project Follow-up Acquisition Interventions Project Report Project team Data via Internet Individual Feedback JDRquestionnaire .

co.hcmg.Feedback Well-Being 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Exhaustion Cynicism Client Motivation Norm group Happiness Source: www.uk .

uk .hcmg.co.Feedback Job Demands 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Mental Emotional Client Physical Norm group WHI Source: www.

co.Feedback Job Resources 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Coaching Autonomy Client Support Norm group Self-growth Source: www.hcmg.uk .

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Summary and Future • Burnout: Syndrome of our times • More clarity regarding causality & consequences • Multi-dimensional approaches • JDR-model: flexible and static structure • Scientific . reciprocal relations. burnout contagion and crossover. international research . positive health indicators.Integration • Practice – Application to organizations. and individuals • Future Research • Longitudinal. teams.

Thank you for your attention! E.uu.Demerouti@fss.nl .

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