Introduction to Food Engineering

Chapter 4 Heat Transfer in Food Processing

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Heat Transfer Mechanisms Conduction Convection Radiation  Mechanisms of heat loss from the human body and relative magnitudes for a resting person. .

m2 ‡ dT/dx = temperature gradient. W/m ‡ A = cross section area. /m .Thermal Conduction Fourier¶s Law of Heat Conduction  Qcond dT ! k A dx ‡ k = thermal conductivity.

The Mechanisms of Heat Conduction in different phase of a substance .

Thermal Conductivity. k .

liquids. . and gases with temperature.The variation of the thermal conductivity of various solids.

E Heat Conducted E! Heat Stored k ! V Cp .Thermal Diffusivity.

m 2 / sec .

Thermal Convection .

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Newton¶s Law of Cooling  Qconv ! h As .

Ts  Tg ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ h = convection heat transfer coefficient. m2 Ts = surface temperature. T’ = temperature of the fluid. W/m2 As = surface area. .

Thermal Radiation .

m2 Ts = surface temperature. . 5.67×10-8 W/m2 K4 As = surface area.Stefan-Boltzmann Law  ! IW emit   4 s s   I = emissivity of the surface W= Stefan-Boltzmann Constant.

The Net Rate of Radiation Heat Transfer between two Surfaces  Qrad ! IW As .

 T T 4 s 4 surr .

Determine the total rate of heat transfer from this person if the exposed surface area and the average outer surface temperature of the person are 1.  ! h As .6 m2 and 29 . Assume the emissivity of a person is I = 0. respectively.95.Heat Loss from a person Consider a person standing in a breezy room at 20 . and the convection heat transfer coefficient is 6 W/m2 .

Ts  Tg conv ! .

W / m 2 ™o C .

6 m 2 29  20)oC 6 1 ( ! 86.4 W 4  Qrad ! IWAs . .

s4  Tsurr T ! .

0.95 .

67 v 10 8 W / m 2 ™ K 4 . .

6 m 2 . .

29  273  .

20  273 K 4 5 1 ! 81.7 W 4 4 ? A .

Thermal Properties of Foods ‡ Specific Heats ‡ Thermal Conductivity ‡ Thermal Diffusivity .

. kJ m = mass. kg (T = temperature change in the material.Specific Heat Specific heat is the quantity of heat that is gained or lost by a unit mass of product to accomplish a unit change in temperature. kJ/kg Q = heat gained or lost. Q Cp ! m ((T ) where Cp = specific heat. without a change in state.

349 ™ X w where Xw = the water content expressed as a fraction.Siebel (1892) C p ! 0.256 ™ X s  4.093 ™ X f  1. Charm (1978) C p ! 2.187 ™ X w where Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xs = the mass fraction of non-fat solids Xw = the mass fraction of water .837  3.

675 ™ X f  0.837 ™ X a  4.187 ™ X w where Xc = the mass fraction of carbohydrate Xp = the mass fraction of protein Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xa = the mass fraction of ash Xw = the mass fraction of water .Heldman and Singh (1981) C p ! 1.424 ™ X c  1.549 ™ X p  1.

.Choi and Okos (1986) n C p ! § C pi ™ i !1 i where Xi = the mass fraction of the ith component n = the total number of component in a food Cpi = the specific heat of the ith component  Table A2.9 gives the specific heat of pure food components as a function of temperature.

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Estimation for the Specific Heat of Various Components .

m2 ‡ dT/dx = temperature gradient. W/m ‡ A = cross section area. /m .Thermal Conduction Fourier¶s Law of Heat Conduction  Qcond dT ! k A dx ‡ k = thermal conductivity.

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Factors affect the thermal conductivity ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Temperature the state of the substance chemical composition Physical (Cellular) structure Density Moisture Content Moisture migration Heat conduction is usually interpreted either as molecular interchange of kinetic energy or electron drift (the mobility of free electrons) .

08  0.Sweat (1974) ± for fruits and vegetables with a water content greater than 60% k ! 0. wet basis k ! 0. Sweat (1975) ± for meats and fish. temperature 0~60 .52 ™ X w .148  0.493 ™ X w where Xw = the water content expressed as a fraction. water content 60~80%.

135 ™ X a  0.606 W/(m ) is .25 ™ X c  0.58 ™ X w where Xc = the mass fraction of carbohydrate Xp = the mass fraction of protein Xf = the mass fraction of fat Xa = the mass fraction of ash Xw = the mass fraction of water  The thermal conductivity of pure water at 25 0.Sweat (1986) k ! 0.155 ™ X p  0.16 ™ X f  0.

Choi and Okos (1986) n k ! § ki ™X i i !1 where Xi = the mass fraction of the ith component n = the total number of component in a food ki = the thermal conductivity of the ith component .

Thermal Diffusivity. E Heat Conducted E! Heat Stored k ! V Cp .

m 2 / sec .