Fiber Optics Presentation

NCC View Deck National Transmission Corporation Quezon Ave. Diliman, Quezon City November 9, 2007

Table of Contents
A. Morning Schedule
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to Fiber Optics Fiber Optic Principle Fiber Optic Cables Transmission Systems OLTE (Optical Line Terminal Equipment) Fiber Optic Equipment and Test Instruments Fiber Optic Accessories Fiber Optic Splicing

Table of Contents
B. Afternoon Schedule
Practical Demonstration • Fusion Splicing • OTDR Reading • Power Measurement • Signal Detection • Others

Introduction to Fiber Optics
What is Fiber Optics?

• Transmitting communication signals over hair-thin strands of glass or plastic • Not a "new" technology • Concept a century old • Used commercially for the last 25 years

Introduction to Fiber Optics
History of Fiber Optics
1870 – John Tyndall’s Experiment 1880 – William Wheeling: “Piping light” Alexander Graham Bell: Photophone 1950’s – Fiberscope 1957 – Use of Laser 1962 – Semiconductor Laser 1970 – Corning developed glass fiber with less than 20dB/km attenuation

John Tyndall’s Experiment

Fiber Optic Applications
Applications

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Telecommunications SCADA Protection LAN applications CATV - for video, voice and Internet connections Security - closed-circuit TV and intrusion sensors Military

Principle of Light
Velocity, Wavelength, and Frequency of Light

λ = V V : Velocity of light f V = 3x10E8 m/sec
(speed of light in free space)

f : Frequency λ : Wavelength (m) Wavelength for Optical Communication: Short Wavelength : 850 nm Long Wavelength : 1300 – 1550 nm

Refraction of Light
N

i=R Incident Light i
Medium A Medium B O

n = sin i sin r

R

Reflected Light

n : Index of Refraction i : Incidence Angle r : Refractive Angle
N : Normal Line O : Incident Point

r Refracted Light

Optical Transmission
Frequency Spectrum above 300MHz

Radio

Optical

Wavelength λ
100 cm 10 cm 10 mm 1 mm 100 µm 10 µm 1 µm

Microwave Millimetric Submillimetric
100 GHz 300 MHz 300 GHz 30 GHz 10 GHz 10 THz

Infrared

Visible

Frequency f

Bands for fiber optic transmission

1000 THz

100 THz

1 GHz

1 THz

Optical Transmission

First Window 810 - 850 nm (3 dB/km loss) Second Window 1220 - 1340 nm (0.5 dB/km loss) Third Window 1540 - 1610 nm (0.2 dB/km loss) Fourth Window 1625 nm Optical Fiber Attenuation versus Wavelength

t OPTICAL FIBER CHARACTERISTICS
Fiber Description

i

Standard Zero Dispersion Unshifted-Single Mode (ZDUSSM) fiber or ITU G.652
9.3±0.5 μm 10μm ±1 μm Step index 125 μm ± 2 μm Approx. 0.25mm At 1300 nm 0.4 dB/km At 1550 nm 0.25 dB/km

Mode field Diameter (nominal) Core Diameter Cladding Design Clad Diameter Coating Diameter Attenuation Coefficient Temp Dependence (Max) Cutoff Wavelength Bend Performance Proof Test level Cladding Non-circularity

Continuous 90°C Less than 1300nm ≤0.1 Db 0.7% Not more than 2%

Instantaneous 200°C

Optical Communication System
Basic Elements of a Fiber Optic System

TRANSMITTER
SIGNAL – ELECTRICITY CONVERTER ELECTRICITY – LIGHT CONVERTER

RECEIVER OPTICAL FIBER CABLE
LIGHT – ELECTRICITY CONVERTER ELECTRICITY – SIGNAL CONVERTER

Optical Communication System
Types of Optical Fiber

1. Single Mode 2. Multimode a. Step Index (S.I.) b. Graded Index (G.I.)

Types of Fiber

Distribution of Refractive Index

n1 n2

n1 n2

Core Diameter
10µm 50µm 125µm 50µm 125µm

Cladding Diameter

125µm

Single Mode Fiber

Multimode Fiber (Step Index)

Multimode Fiber (Graded Index)

Types of Fiber
Single Mode Fiber
CLADDING

CORE

AXIAL MODE ONLY

Types of Fiber
Multimode Fiber (Step Index)
CLADDING

CORE
Refractive Index

AXIAL MODE (Shortest Path)

HIGH ORDER MODE (Longer Path)

LOW ORDER MODE (Shorter Path)

Types of Fiber
Multimode Fiber (Graded Index)
CLADDING
LOWER INDEX HIGH INDEX LOWER INDEX

CORE

AXIAL MODE

MERIDIONAL MODE

Optical Transmission

Transmitting End

1 km

Receiving End

Ray of Light Pi : Input Power

Ray of Light Po : Output Power

Transmission Characteristics
Factors Which Cause Optical Fiber Loss

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Absorption Loss Scattering Loss Emitting Loss Connecting Loss Coupling Loss

Comparison With Metallic Cables
A. Advantages of Optical Fiber Cables

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Small Size and Lightweight Wide Transmission Band No Crosstalk Electrical Isolation Low Attenuation High Resistance to Heat Security

This single fiber can carry more communications than the giant copper cable!

Advantages of Optical Fiber Cables

• Fiber is the least expensive, most reliable method for high speed and/or long distance communication. • While we already transmit signals at Gigabits per second speeds, we have only started to utilize the potential bandwidth of fiber.

Comparison With Metallic Cables
B. Disadvantages of Optical Fiber Cables

1. Fragility 2. Loss Increases When Bending Fiber 3. Infrastructure deployment delay

Fiber Optic Cables
Types of Fiber Optic Cables

1. OPGW (Optical Fiber Composite Overhead Ground Wire) 2. ADSS (All Dielectric Self-Supporting) 3. Approach or Buried Cable 4. Wrap-Around Cable

Fiber Optic Cables
OPGW (Optical Fiber Composite Overhead Ground Wire)
Type of cable that is used in the construction of electric power transmission and distribution lines. Such cable combines the functions of grounding and communications. The conductive part of the cable serves to bond adjacent towers to earth ground, and shields the high-voltage conductors from lightning strikes. The optical fibers within the cable can be used for high-speed telecommunication.

Fiber Optic Cables
Cross-section of Optical Fiber Unit (OPGW 24 Fibers)
Aluminum-Clad Steel Wire Aluminum Pipe Heat Resistant Wrapping Heat Resistant Sheath

Strength Member Optical Fiber Unit Optical Fiber

Fiber Optic Cables
Cross-section of Optical Fiber Unit (OPGW 12 Fibers)
Aluminum-Clad Steel Wire Aluminum Pipe Heat Resistant Wrapping

Strength Member Optical Fiber Unit Optical Fiber

Fiber Optic Cables
OPGW (Optical Fiber Composite Overhead Ground Wire)

Fiber Optic Cables
ADSS (All Dielectric Self-Supporting) Designed and constructed with non-metallic components, that is designed for aerial applications and does not require a separate cable messenger.

Fiber Optic Cables
Cross-section of Optical Fiber Unit (ADSS 36 Fibers)

Fiber Optic Cables
ADSS (All Dielectric Self-Supporting)

Fiber Optic Cables
Approach or Buried Cable A kind of communications cable which is especially designed to be installed underground without any kind of extra covering, sheathing, or piping to protect it. Typically used in connecting the OPGW from the switchyard to the station.

Fiber Optic Cables
Tension Type

Fiber Optic Cables
Tension Type

Fiber Optic Cables
Suspension Type

Fiber Optic Cables
Suspension Type

Fiber Optic Accessories
Cable Accessories

Fiber Optic Accessories
Cable Accessories

Transmission Systems
Multiplexing - Transmission of information from one or more source to one or more destination over the same transmission medium.
Governing Standards ITU-T ANSI ETSI Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union (Formerly CCITT) American National Standard Institute European Telecommunication Standard Institute

Transmission Systems
3 Methods of Multiplexing

FDM TDM WDM -

Frequency Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiplexing Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Asynchronous Transmission Systems
Basic TDM Principle Using PAM

1 2 3 4

A B C D

1 A I 2 B II 3 C III 4 D IV

I II III IV

Asynchronous Transmission Systems
European Standard E1 Frame

CH 1

CH2

CH3

CH4

CH5

CH6

CH31

CH32

2.O48 MBit/s

32 Channels Frame 256 Bits Frame x

x

8 Bits Channel

=

256 Bits/Frame

8000 Frames sec

=

2.048 MBit/sec

PLESIOCHRONOUS DIGITAL HIERARCHY (PDH)
PDH Hierarchies
DS1 1,544 kbit/s x 24 DS0 64 kbit/s E1 2,048 kbit/s x4 E4 8,448 kbit/s x4 European Standard E16 34,368 kbit/s x4 E64 139,264 kbit/s x4 DS2 6,312 kbit/s x7 DS3 44,736 kbit/s

American Standard

x 30

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
SONET STS OC Synchronous Optical Network Synchronous Transport Signal Optical Carrier

-

SONET Hierarchy
OC-1/STS-1 OC-3/STS-3 OC-12/STS-12 OC-48/STS-48 OC-192/STS-192 51.84 Mbit/s 155.52 Mbit/s 622.08 Mbit/s 2488.32 Mbit/s 9953.28 Mbit/s STM-0 or STM-1/3 STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-32

Synchronous Transmission Systems
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Process based on using a single optical fiber to carry many different wavelengths of light simultaneously without mutual interference.

Synchronous Transmission Systems
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
The higher number of wavelengths has led to the name DWDM. The lasers must be of very specific wavelengths and the DWDM demultiplexers must be capable of distinguishing each wavelength without crosstalk.

Fiber Optic Communication Setup

Fiber Optic Communication Setup
Optical Line Terminal Equipment (OLTE)
Equipment where the fiber is terminated to complete the link from one station to another. Provides the channels used for telephony, SCADA, Protection functions, LAN applications and other telecommunicaton services.
The Nortel TN-4XE

Fiber Optic Communication Setup
Nortel TN-4XE Tx
Fiber Optic

Rx

STM-4 Optical Aggregate

DXC

120Ω Tributary (Electrical)
32 E1 capacity

Tx Rx 1 E1

Telephony

NEMCA/ EXLAN/ PHLC3 DXC

8 E1 capacity

1 E1

MDF

SCADA

UNIDA 431
DXC DXC

LOMIF (Electrical)
DXC – Digital Cross-Connect MDF – Main Distribution Frame

Protection

UNIDA 432 FOX 515 Multiplexer

Synchronous Transmission Systems

Synchronous Transmission Systems

Synchronous Transmission Systems

Synchronous Transmission Systems

Synchronous Transmission Systems

Synchronous Transmission Systems

Fiber Optic Equipment
Equipment and Test Instruments

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) Power Meter and Laser Source Optical Fiber Scope Talk Set Fusion Splicer Splicing Kit

Equipment and Test Instruments
OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)

Used to monitor the distance, losses and fiber optic breaks.

Equipment and Test Instruments
OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer)

Equipment and Test Instruments
Remote OTDR

Equipment is on 24-hour operation and monitors different fiber links. It can be remotely accessed via LAN.

Equipment and Test Instruments
Power Meter and Laser Source

Measures the optical power from the end of the fiber by employing a laser source on one end.

Equipment and Test Instruments
Optical Fiber Scope

Used to inspect the end surface of a connector for flaws or dirt.

Equipment and Test Instruments
Talk Set

Utilizes spare fiber for communication during installation and maintenance.

Equipment and Test Instruments
Fusion Splicer

Splices fibers by fusing or welding them, typically by electrical arc.

Equipment and Test Instruments
Splicing Kit

Specialized tools used for preparation for fiber optic splicing.

Equipment and Test Instruments
Splicing Kit

Equipment and Test Instruments
Splicing Kit

Fiber Optic Accessories
Fiber Optic Accessories

1. 2. 3. 4.

Splice Box Organizer FODP (Fiber Optic Distribution Panel) Cable Accessories

Fiber Optic Accessories
Splice Box

Enclosure for protection of spliced fiber optic cables.

Fiber Optic Accessories
Organizer

Tray for organizing fiber optic splices.

Fiber Optic Accessories
FODP (Fiber Optic Distribution Panel)

Where the outside cable (i.e. approach cable) is terminated and distributed indoors into individual slots.

Fiber Optic Accessories
FODP (Fiber Optic Distribution Panel)

Fiber Optic Connectors
Fiber Optic Connectors and Patch Cords

Fiber Optic Connectors
Fiber Optic Connectors and Patch Cords

Fiber Optic Connectors
Fiber Optic Connectors and Patch Cords

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method

1. Stripping 2. Cleaving 3. Fusion Process 4. Protection

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Stripping
Strip all the external sheathing of the cable until the bare fiber is exposed. Expose about 1.5 inches and clean with lint-free wipes and denatured alcohol. It will “squeak” when it is clean.

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Cleaving
Put the heat shrink tube on to one of the ends and cleave the fibers using a precision cleaving tool. It is important that the ends are smooth and perpendicular to get a good splice.

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Fusion Process
Once the fiber ends are prepared, they are placed carefully in the fusion splicer. Press the button and the machine takes care of the rest of the fusion process automatically.

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Fusion Process

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Fusion Process

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Fusion Process

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Protection
The heat shrink tube is slid into place and the whole assembly is put into the built-in oven on the fusion splicer to shrink the tube on to the splice. The tube gives physical protection to the splice.

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Protection
Further protection is provided by placing the splices in the organizing tray.

Fiber Optic Splicing
Fusion Splicing Method Protection
Once all of the fibers have been joined, the whole tray is then fixed into a splice box which protects the cable joint as a whole and the cable clamps are then tightened to prevent any external forces from pulling on the splices.

Luzon Fiber Optic Network

Visayas Fiber Optic Network

End Slide

THANK YOU!

Fiber Optic System Section TTSD/STD/SO

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