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Cloud Computing

By: Hajar ElShafei Menna-Allah Mohamed

‡ What is Cloud Computing? ‡ The Nature of Cloud Computing. ‡ Cloud computing infrastructure models. ‡ Cloud Computing benefits. ‡ Evaluating Risk in Cloud Computing. ‡ Security on the Cloud. ‡ Can You Do Everything ´In the Cloudµ that You Can Do with Conventional Software? ‡ Finally Cloud Computing is GREEN.

µ (The Economist) ‡ ´Reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users.µ (Wikipedia) ‡ ´The next step in the evolution of software-as-a-service (SaaS) technology.µ (Carey.What is Cloud Computing? The chairman of the Cloud Summit Executive 2008 conference reportedly started the event by joking that he asked 20 people to define Cloud Computing. ‡ Something that will ´profoundly change the way people work and companies operate. Arizona State University·s online business publication) . and got 22 different answers.

Apache.What is Cloud Computing? ‡ ´The ability to rent a virtual server.µ . load software on it. and PHP with the ability to scale automatically in response to changing workloads. Perl. It can be supported by a cloud provider that sets up a platform that includes the OS. or clone it ten times to meet a sudden workload demand. Python. a MySQLŒ database. turn it on and off at will.µ ‡ ´Storing and securing immense amounts of data that is accessible only by authorized applications and users.

with pay-as-you-go pricing. and support. ongoing operation. Wikipedia defines software-as-a-service (SaaS) as ´a model of software deployment where an application is hosted as a service provided to customers across the Internet. SaaS alleviates the customer's burden of software maintenance.What is Cloud Computing? The Most Meaningful: ‡ Cloud Computing is a form of software-as-a-service. on demand. as a service. By eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer.µ ‡ Therefore Cloud Computing is providing IT infrastructure and environment that is dynamically scalable over the Internet to develop/host/run services and applications. .

What is Cloud Computing? .

applications can be deployed and scaled rapidly. without having to first procure physical servers. storage. and network resources changes dynamically in order to meet both workload and business demands.The Nature of Cloud Computing 1. Virtual machines as the standard deployment object: ‡ Virtualization enhances flexibility because it abstracts the hardware to the point where software stacks can be deployed and redeployed without being tied to a specific physical server. ‡ Virtualization enables a dynamic datacenter where servers provide a pool of resources that are harnessed as needed. and where the relationship of applications to compute. ‡ With application deployment decoupled from server deployment. .

pay-by-use model: ‡ The on-demand nature of Cloud Computing helps to support the performance and capacity aspects of service-level objectives. ‡ The pay-by-use nature of Cloud Computing may take the form of equipment lease that guarantees a minimum level of service from a cloud provider. The on-demand.The Nature of Cloud Computing 2. The ability to use and pay for only the resources used shifts the risk of how much infrastructure to purchase from the organization developing the application to the cloud provider. self-service. ‡ The self-service nature of Cloud Computing allows organizations to create elastic environments that expand and contract based on the workload and target performance parameters. .

Infrastructure is programmable: ‡ A developer can use a cloud provider·s API to create not only an application·s initial composition onto virtual machines.The Nature of Cloud Computing 3. and that architect needs to be able to create a self-monitoring and self-expanding application. . along with the architectural patterns for how they are interconnected. ‡ To use Cloud Computing most effectively. but also how it scales and evolves to accommodate workload changes. a developer must also be an architect. The developer/architect needs to understand when it·s appropriate to create a new thread versus create a new virtual machine.

.The Nature of Cloud Computing 4. Applications are composed and are built to be composable: ‡ This requires having simple. and well-documented APIs. clear functions. In the meantime. their internal IT organization said that it would take seven weeks. one developer using 100 Amazon EC2 simple Web service interface instances running Hadoop completed the job in 24 hours for less than $300. o The New York Times wished to convert 11 million articles and images in its archive to PDF format (almost 1TB of data).

Services are delivered over the network: ‡ Cloud Computing extends the existing trend of making services available over the network. The beauty of Internet-based service delivery is that applications can be made available anywhere. This enable Cloud Computing applications to be created. The role of open source software: ‡ Open source software plays an important role in Cloud Computing by allowing its basic software elements to be created from easily accessible components. . and dynamically scaled on demand.The Nature of Cloud Computing 5. deployed. and at any time. 6.

Cloud Computing infrastructure models Clouds can be categorized as public. and shift infrastructure risks from the enterprise to the cloud provider. or hybrid: ‡ A public cloud provides a flexible. and to shift IT investment and risk to a third party. faster control over the deployment of IT resources to support their work. . to decrease capital outlay for IT infrastructure. In addition. ‡ Public Clouds offer the ability to scale up and down on demand. users typically realize access to greater IT functionality along with automatic. private. pay-per-use IT environment that helps the business to better match actual IT demand to expenditure.

and regulatory requirements. or the application is stateless. ‡ A hybrid cloud delivers IT through a mix of both public and private clouds. The private clouds and its infrastructure are owned by the company. If the data is small. . and provides more enterprise control over deployment and use. A private cloud is easier to align with security. a hybrid cloud can be much more successful than if large amounts of data must be transferred into a public cloud for a small amount of processing.Cloud Computing infrastructure models ‡ A private cloud operates within an enterprise datacenter or in an externally hosted datacenter for the sole benefit of a single enterprise. compliance. A public cloud can be used to perform periodic tasks that can be deployed easily on a public cloud.

Cloud Computing infrastructure models .

such as Google Apps. ‡ Low cost for sporadic use: TurboTax online is free for ´standardµ taxpayers. ‡ Ease of management: No need to worry about keeping licenses current or purchasing additional hardware. ‡ Scalability: High-growth companies can easily expand the number of users and locations at modest cost. Similarly. . some cloud-based business services.Cloud Computing benefits ‡ Low start-up costs: make Cloud Computing especially attractive to small businesses and entrepreneurs. do not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent computing.

‡ Rapid innovation: Because vendors are able to roll out new features incrementally.Cloud Computing benefits ‡ Device and location independence: The way you access a cloud could be your desktop. It could be someone else's computer. . It could be a smart phone. they can respond to user needs more rapidly.

. you need it at peaks." . You don't need all that capacity 365 days a year. It would take weeks just to order the equipment and get it installed.´ Scalability is an additional Cloud Computing advantage that Genentech has experienced: "You can go from one to 15.. unprecedented integration and ease of use. and device independence.Cloud Computing benefits As quoted by Todd Pierce. Genentech's vice president of corporate information technology: ´Cloud Computing saves us millions of dollars over five years over any of the other alternatives we looked at and provides us with worldwide data recovery. and that's possible with Google Apps. Just imagine if you tried to do that in your own data center. .000 [users] instantly.

. software updates occur at intervals. Updates are incremental and typically do not disrupt workflow.Evaluating Risk in Cloud Computing In three areas of risk. In traditional on premise environments. updates happen automatically. ‡ Spam and virus threats: Cloud Computing providers optimize the load across data centers so that the impact of a large attack is defused. applications are always current. Cloud Computing enjoys big advantages: ‡ Upgrade management: With SaaS. You never need to worry about updating hardware to accommodate new software capabilities. With cloud-based applications. and they typically represent major changes in functionality and sometimes incur significant costs.

They must work to establish ² and maintain ² the customer·s trust. . for example. They might set in place rigorous security controls and protocols to which they hold themselves accountable by regular.Evaluating Risk in Cloud Computing ‡ Public accountability: Established Cloud Computing providers understand that switching costs in the cloud are lower. independent audit.

. A more drastic measure is to host sensitive applications in controlled areas that are physically and logically separated from other cloud tenants.Security on the Cloud ‡ Policy process and technology controls. Animoto·s Mashup tool that creates a video from a set of images and music. ‡ Data transfers: ± Strong encryption. physical and logical containment techniques can be used to prevent disclosure Examples: Google docs. a secure implementation is essential to protect against these and other security risks.

Amazon. but the array of Cloud Computing services available to businesses is increasing. However. instant messaging. With this computing infrastructure in place. including Google.Can You Do Everything ³In the Cloud´ that You Can Do with Conventional Software? Not yet.). have traditionally only been affordable to very big enterprises with big IT budgets. Web-based retail. companies that sell these solutions are finding they can reach small to medium businesses by making their very expensive. have built enormous datacenter-based computing capacity all over the world to support their Web services offerings (search. There are several factors driving this trend: ‡ A number of companies. Microsoft. ‡ . etc. and IBM. these companies are already poised to offer new cloud based software applications. Large enterprise software solutions. very complex applications available as Internet-based software services. The range and functionality of applications may be a limitation currently. such as ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) applications. These new market segments have encouraged them to expand their SaaS offerings.

lighter and more portable notebook computers (net books).Can You Do Everything ³In the Cloud´ that You Can Do with Conventional Software? ‡ New kinds of hardware. This means the market for SaaS is also being driven at the user end by new Internet accessible devices. and even high-end smart phones with Internet accessibility. any place. make it easier for end-users to log into their cloud based applications any time. such as Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs). .

Finally Cloud Computing is .

Cloud Computing eliminates to keep data centers up and running 24 hours a day. With its ondemand model. compared with running equivalent software in on-premise application servers. Marc Benioff. or avoiding the consumption of 19. Salesforce. this translates to significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. on average. Cloud Computing is green. And with most of the world·s generation of electricity being thermal-based. ´The Salesforce.5 million gallons of gas. thereby reducing electricity consumption.Finally Cloud Computing is GREEN ‡ Studies show that customers of Cloud Computing services produce 95 percent less carbon. 7 days a·s chairman and CEO.000 cars off the road.900 tons of carbon in 2010 ² the equivalent of taking community saved an estimated 170. how green is it is still subject to debate. said in a statement. ‡ .µ ‡ Some of the reasons for such savings seem to be obvious. Therefore.

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