Office Automation



Records management cost $4 billion annually. 41.Some Statistics  In US in 1950s over 25 billion cubic feet of space occupied by Govt records.  Records in Govt of India estimated to occupy 25 KM of linear storage space  In Japan in 1980.6% of workers were office workers. .

duplicating & support services/executive. £1550/annum .00 per page Total accommodation. £4866/annum Typing.00 Use of copying machine costs £1. furniture & work services / manager in London.Some Statistics« Cost indicators in 1982.28 to type in London Dispatching a document b/w 2 London buildings costs £3. British Civil Service A4 letter costs £3.

What is Office Automation ? ‡ Office automation refers to the use of integrated computer & communication systems to support administrative procedures in an office environment.´ .

Office Models ‡ Office models tend to mimic the office working ‡ Classification according to Newman Information flow models (b/w offices) Procedural models (procedures executed) Decision making models Database models (information records) Behavioral Models (social activities) .

agents as active entities in an office and perform different roles Mixed models. retrieval etc. updating.combination of above 3 . Process-based models ± use activities as the basic element Agent-based models.Office Models« Data-based models ± use forms in offices to perform storage.

though! Example: PRESENTATION GRAPHICS . Cheerful Work Space * No paper company has suffered.Office Automation Systems (OAS) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Toward A ³Paperless´ Office* Redesign Of Work Flow Integrated Software Ergonomic Design Bright.

notetaking systems« . ‡ Example: word. modify. excel. verbal or videl form. and communiczate business correspondence. ppt. display.Office Automation System (OAS) ‡ OAS can create. where in written. store.

Components of Office Automation Systems .

Computer Assisted Retrieval (CAR) Microform Systems. is an improved version.Document Storage & Retrieval Microform Document Systems Inexpensive means of preserving & disseminating rare as well as deteriorating documents. Elements of CAR Microform system ± ‡ Camera System for filming source document. ‡ Microform retrieval unit (reader/printer) ‡ Computer system for indexing & addressing documents ‡ Terminal interface to couple reader & computer .

Kodak.Document Storage & Retrieval Types of Microforms used: 1)Roll Microfilm: Standard width of 16mm film is used in cassette.Can hold 2000 images. Operator retrieves the film cartridge and inserts into the reader which searches for the the time of recording image an image mark-blip is recorded on the film. sensed by photo electric cell. . Major vendors ± Bell & Howell. 3M. How to locate image. The electronic counting circuitry locates the desired frame in terms of its serial no counted from the start of the roll.

Storage is on a small rectangular film. fire services. police forces telephone directory assistance .Document Storage & Retrieval Microfiche Most Computer output Microform (COM) is on Microfiche. Areas of application ± airlines.

. compactness permits the use of small. lowinertia mechanism for retrieval of images. store 2000 images at a reduction of 1:200.Document Storage & Retrieval Ultrafiche Systems Ultra strip measuring 35mm X 200mm.

Ultrafiche Systems .

. with the ³cut marks´ on the film helping to locate the required fiche.Document Storage & Retrieval Scroll Systems Microfiche ³scrolls´ through.

300 pages.Document Storage & Retrieval Capacity of Microforms 100 Ft of 16m film @ 1:27 reduction holds 3. Microfiche @ 1:24 reduction holds 98 pages COM recorder @1:48 can record 270 pages 300Ft roll of 105 mm scroll can hold 252000 pages @1:48 reduction. .

Document Storage & Retrieval Videomicrographics System : are CAR (computer Assisted Retrieval) systems attached with a scanner which digitally retrieves the image and display on a bit-mapped computer display terminal. Advantage: overcomes the limitations of microforms ± slow retrieval speeds & inability to electronically distribute. .

Adv: cheap & large storage.Optical Storage Systems Optical Technology: Optical disks have 10.000-20. Optical surface does not suffer any damage during read/write process 2 kinds ± CD-ROM & WORM (write once read many) .000 laser Created tracks/inch compared to <50 for magnetic Disk. faster retrieval than magnetic disk.

Optical Storage Systems CD-ROM storage device« Worm Storage Systems (write once read many) used for very high capacity storage mainly found in mainframe applications ideal for storing archival-type material usually readable only on drive on which data were written .

Optical Storage Systems Scanners The basic principle of a scanner is to analyze an image and process it in some way. on which the input document is placed and scanned. . Image and text capture (optical character recognition or OCR) allow you to save information to a file on your computer. Larger versions have a flat bed. like that of a photocopier.

the more dpi¶s the better the quality .Scanners«  Scanners Produce a digital image of a document for input and storage in a computer  You can then alter or enhance the image.  Resolution = dots per inch. print it out or use it on your Web page.

.Optical tape medium for optical storage consisting of a long & narrow strip of plastic on to which patterns can be written & read primary objective .possibility of far greater storage capacities than either magnetic tape or optical discs.

fingerprints.6 MB of data like photographs.Optical card technology similar CD ROMs the material is comprised of several layers that react when a laser light is directed at them it card can currently store 4 to 6. logos. x-rays .

Hold up to 45000 digitized images on 2GB storage. Display station 15´ @ 200 dpi resolution. archiving. Scanner of 12dpi @ 12documents/minutes. validation. capture.Optical Disk .File systems Philips Megadoc : P4000 series minicomputer act as file server. display & output .

File systems Canofile 5500 : Hybrid filing system ± microfilm scanner unit. . whereas less frequently used pages should go on the micorfilm. system controller with a 5. Usage.optical disk for highly active parts.Optical Disk .25 inch floppy disk. 2 optical disk drivers.25 inch hard disk and a 5. a document scanner & laser printer.

title print. . Microfilm scanner can digitize images recorded on microfiche/microfilm jacket at 1:24 or 1:48.6 GB / 80. File Net : High end hybrid system with a jukebox with 200 disk capacity. update.File systems Hitachi¶s Hitfile : Comprises a images. Filing options. delete. 12 inch optical disk and a 16 bit intel microprocessor with 50MB Winchester disc. Optical disk ± store 2. retrieve. high resoultion monitor with keygoard.Optical Disk . lsre printer.

5. laser printer & RDBMS software package. Indexed.Optical Disk . desktop scanner. full page high resolution monitor. Document. optical disk work satation) ± low cost optical disk document filing system configured with IBM PC.25 inch optical drive. .File systems Acctex FIND : Acctex FIND (Filed.

IT enabled the digitalization & storage of these information Multimedia database management system . reports. videos etc Basic operations ± filing. films. Complex non-formatted data ± graphs. paintings. retrieving. photos. invoices. graphs.Multimedia Document Storage System Information objects in office± Memos. pictures. drawings. browsing.key to document storage systems. updating . voice messages etc. letters.

logical structure. ISO & ECMA(European Computer Manufacture Association) ODA provides layout & logical structure of document. titles.summaries.pages.Office Document Architecture Standardized office document architecture facilitates document interchange both Intra office & Inter-office. columns . sections layout structure.

ODA Model Document Document profile Generic Logical layout Generic layout layout relations definition definition Specific Logical layout Specific logical relations logical structure structure Generic content Specific content .