Computer Networking

12th Class





A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications among users and allows users to share resources. A computer network allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software. Early networks of communicating computers included the military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) and its relative the commercial airline reservation system Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment (SABRE), starting in the late 1950s. In the 1960s, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) started funding the design of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) for the United States Department of Defense. Development of the network began in 1969, based on designs developed during the 1960s. The ARPANET evolved into the modern Internet.

‡ A computer network is a system for communicating between two or more computers and associated devices. It is an interconnection of computers for the purposes of sharing information and resources. A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. A computer network is a collection of two or more connected computers. When these computers are joined in a network, people can share files and peripherals such as modems, printers, tape backup drives, or CD-ROM drives. When networks at multiple locations are connected using services available from phone companies, people can send e-mail, share links to the global Internet, or conduct video conferences in real time with other remote users. As companies rely on applications like electronic mail and database management for core business operations, computer networking becomes increasingly more important. ‡ A popular example of a computer network is the internet, which allows millions of users to share information

An example of a network Router Hub Bridge Hub Segment Node Internet 4 .

and video conferencing etc. ‡ Application sharing: Applications can be shared over the network. CD-ROM drives. scanners.‡ File sharing: Networking of computers helps the users to share data files. which are supports multi-users. hard drives etc. ‡ Hardware sharing: Users can share devices such as printers. and this allows to implement client/server applications ‡ ser communication: Networks allow users to communicate using e-mail. . newsgroups. ‡ Network gaming: Lot of games are available.

an accounting employee who wanted to prepare a report for manager would have to produce it on his PC. Data Sharing: One of the most important uses of networking is to allow the sharing of data. Intranets and extranets can be used to distribute corporate information between sites and to business partners. and then walk it over to the manager. More so. such as databases. one printer can be placed on the network for everyone to share. who would transfer the data to her PC's hard disk. Before networking was common. ‡ . Once connected. This makes the transmission of business (or non-business) information easier. LANs in distant locations can be interconnected into larger wide area networks (WANs). and much more. (This sort of shoe-based network was sometimes sarcastically called a sneakernet . For example. group software development.) True networking allows thousands of employees to share data much more easily and quickly than this. instead of giving each of 10 employees in a department an expensive color printer (or resorting to the sneakernet again). Individuals within a building or work group can be connected into local area networks (LANs). more efficient and less expensive than it would be without the network. Hardware Sharing: Networks facilitate the sharing of hardware devices. it is possible for network users to communicate with each other using technologies such as electronic mail.‡ ‡ ‡ Connectivity and Communication: Networks connect computers and the users of those computers. it makes possible applications that rely on the ability of many people to access and share the same data. put it on a floppy disk.

Internet Access Sharing: Small computer networks allow multiple users to share a single Internet connection. In addition. The significance of the Internet on modern society is hard to exaggerate. and gaming across wide area networks (including the Internet) has also become quite popular. Many home networks are set up for this reason.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Internet Access: The Internet is itself an enormous network. a network can be used to enhance the overall performance of some applications by distributing the computation tasks to various computers on the network. makes it possible for the administrators to ensure that the data is regularly backed up. Entertainment: Networks facilitate many types of games and entertainment. Performance Enhancement and Balancing: Under some circumstances. you are using a network. This makes it easy for everyone to find the data. data can be centralized on shared servers. of course. a network allows the administrators to much better manage the company's critical data. The Internet itself offers many sources of entertainment. many multi-player games exist that operate over a local area network. and also allows for the implementation of security measures to control who can read or change various pieces of critical information. Data Security and Management: In a business environment. Special hardware devices allow the bandwidth of the connection to be easily allocated to various individuals as they need it. especially for those of us in technical fields. so whenever you access the Internet. and permit an organization to purchase one high-speed connection instead of many slower ones. Instead of having this data spread over dozens or even hundreds of small computers in a haphazard fashion as their users create it. .

Identifying computers and users over a network ‡ Domain Name ‡ MAC 'Media Access Control . and ‡ IP address .

ORG. ± When the Domain Name System was created in the 1980s. ‡ Top-level domains ± The top-level domains (TLDs) are the highest level of domain names of the Internet. In addition.DNS (Domain Naming Service) ‡ An important purpose of domain names is to provide easily recognizable and memorizable names to numerically addressed Internet resources. NET. globally or locally in an intranet. The country code top-level domains (ccTLD) were primarily based on the two-character territory codes of ISO-3166 country abbreviations. website) to be moved to a different physical location in the address topology of the network. the domain name space was divided into two main groups of domains. These were the domains GOV. COM. . and INT.. They form the DNS root zone of the hierarchical Domain Name System. MIL. Every domain name ends in a top-level or first-level domain label. a group of seven generic top-level domains (gTLD) was implemented which represented a set of categories of names and multi-organizations. EDU. This abstraction allows any resource (e.g. Such a move usually requires changing the IP address of a resource and the corresponding translation of this IP address to and from its domain name.

‡ The www preceding the domains is the host name of the WorldWide Web server. and 'state' a subdomain of 'oh. ± Next are third-level domains. There can be fourth. An example of an operational domain name with four levels of domain labels is www.DNS (Domain Naming Service) ‡ Second-level and lower level domains ± Below the top-level domains in the domain name hierarchy are the second-level domain (SLD) and so on.and fifth-level domains. .us'. which are written immediately to the left of a second-level domain. As an example. subdomains are domains subordinate to their parent domain. In in the domain 'sos' is said to be a sub-domain of 'state. wikipedia is the second-level'.oh.oh. These are the names directly to the left of .wikipedia. Each label is separated by a full stop (dot).org. and the other toplevel domains. . with virtually no limitation.state. etc.

the domain name is pcwebopedia. the domain name microsoft.Educational institutions org . For example. For example: gov .com/index. not domain names.Network organizations ca .commercial business net .html.DNS (Domain Naming Service) ‡ Domain names are used to identify one or more IP addresses.Government agencies edu .com.pcwebopedia. every Web server requires a Domain Name System (DNS) server to translate domain names into IP addresses.Canada th . There are only a limited number of such domains. For example.Military com . in the URL http://www. Every domain name has a suffix that indicates which top level domain (TLD) it belongs to. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .Thailand Because the Internet is based on IP addresses.Organizations (nonprofit) mil . Domain names are used in URLs to identify particular Web represents about a dozen IP addresses.

495.000.00 INR 1.00 INR 499.00 5 Years INR us co.500.500.00 INR 499.00 INR 1.000.Price of Cheap Domain Registration in India TLD TLD com net org biz info in co.00 INR 2.495.500.00 INR 7.00 INR 799.00 INR 7.00 INR 449.00 INR INR 2.500.00 INR 2.00 ws INR net.500.500.00 INR 5.000.995.245.00 .245.00 INR cn com.500.00 INR 7.00 INR 2.500.00 INR 499.00 INR 499.00 INR 7.00 INR 7.500.495.00 INR 1 Years INR net.00 INR 1.00 INR 3.500.00 cc INR org.00 INR 7.00 INR 449.00 5 Years INR 2.495.00 INR 499.00 tv INR 3.495.500.00 org.500.500.00 INR 2.00 INR 11.00 INR 1.00 INR 499.00 name INR 2.00 INR 1.00 mobi INR 700.00 INR 2.00 INR 1 Years INR 700.00 de INR 2.00 INR 700.00 org.495.

The MAC address is the number located next to "Physical Address" in the list. When we're connected to the Internet from our computer (or host as the Internet protocol thinks of it). the MAC (Media Access Control) address is computer's unique hardware number. a hardware address that uniquely identifies each node of a network. ‡ ‡ ‡ .MAC 'Media Access Control ‡ ‡ DEFINITIONIn a local area network (LAN) or other network. Short for Media Access Control address. How to Find a MAC Address To display your MAC address on a Windows NT/2000/2003/XP/Visa computer: ± Click START ± Go to ACCESSORIES ± Select Command Prompt ± Type: (no quotes) "ipconfig /all" ± In the "ipconfig /all" results look for the adapter to find the MAC address of. a correspondence table relates IP address to computer's physical (MAC) address on the LAN.

a physical network consisting of several network segments interconnected by repeaters. Once a MAC address has been assigned to a particular network interface (typically at time of manufacture). A MAC address is a unique serial number.e. This guarantees that each device in a network will have a different MAC address (analogous to a street address). . An IP router may interconnect several subnets. but not by IP routers. that device should be uniquely identifiable amongst all other network devices in the world.MAC 'Media Access Control ‡ The MAC layer addressing mechanism is called physical address or MAC address. This makes it possible for data packets to be delivered to a destination within a subnetwork. i. bridges and switches. hubs.

a new addressing system (IPv6).16. Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.IP Address ‡ An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e. but they are usually stored in text files and displayed in human-readable notations. and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 (for IPv6). ‡ IP addresses are binary numbers. due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the predicted depletion of available addresses. .[1] An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. A route indicates how to get there. computer. was developed in 1995..1 (for IPv4). using 128 bits for the address.254. is still in use today." ‡ The designers of the Internet Protocol defined an IP address as a 32-bit number[1] and this system.g. An address indicates where it is. ‡ The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally and delegates five regional Internet registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to local Internet registries (Internet service providers) and other entities. However. known as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). such as 172.

Example: 140. An IP address is a 32 bit binary number usually represented as 4 decimal values.179 .10110011. The Class of the address and the subnet mask determine which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address.11011100.220 . This is known as "dotted decimal notation. each representing 8 bits.11001000 ‡ Every IP address consists of two parts. in the range 0 to 255 (known as octets) separated by decimal points. 140 .220. one identifying the network and one identifying the node. .IP Addressing ‡ An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier for a node or host connection on an IP network.200 10001100.179.200 ‡ It is sometimes useful to view the values in their binary form.

179.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN. by default. 140.255 specifies the example broadcast address.179. are reserved for loopback and for internal testing on a local machine.nnnnnnnn Class C -.x.200). Class E addresses begin with 1111.220. or 192 to 223 decimal.x) and the node part is defined by the last 2 octets (x.nnnnnnn Class B -. or 224 to 239 decimal. which part of the IP address belongs to the network (N) and which part belongs to the node (n). Note that this is true regardless of the length of the node section. 140.0. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . the node section is set to all "0"s. They should not be used for host addresses. or 127 decimal. When the node section is set to all "1"s.NNNNNNNN. or 240 to 254 decimal.220.nnnnnnnn. We can determine which class any IP address is in by examining the first 4 bits of the IP address.1.200 is a Class B address so by default the Network part of the address (also known as the Network Address) is defined by the first two octets (140. Now we can see how the Class determines.0 specifies the network address for 140.NNNNNNNN. Class C addresses begin with 110x. In our example. Class B addresses begin with 10xx. Class A -. Class E addresses are reserved for future use. [You can test this: you should always be able to ping 127.179. 140.Address Classes ‡ There are 5 different address classes.200.nnnnnnnn In the example. or 128 to 191 decimal. In order to specify the network address for a given IP address. Addresses beginning with 01111111. it specifies a broadcast that is sent to all hosts on the network. which points to yourself] Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting.255.220.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnn. Class D addresses begin with 1110. or 1 to 126 decimal.NNNNNNNN.179.x.0. Class A addresses begin with 0xxx.0.179.NNNNNNNN.

‡ Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. In an Ethernet network, all nodes on a segment see all the packets transmitted by all the other nodes on that segment. Performance can be adversely affected under heavy traffic loads, due to collisions and the resulting retransmissions. A router is used to connect IP networks to minimize the amount of traffic each segment must receive. Subnet Masking Applying a subnet mask to an IP address allows you to identify the network and node parts of the address. Performing a bitwise logical AND operation between the IP address and the subnet mask results in the Network Address or Number. For example, using our test IP address and the default Class B subnet mask, we get:
10001100.10110011.11110000.11001000 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 10001100.10110011.00000000.00000000 Class B IP Address Default Class B Subnet Mask

‡ ‡ ‡

------------------------------------------------------------------------Network Address Default subnet masks: Class A - - 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 Class B - - 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 Class C - - 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

IP versions
‡ Two versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are in use:
± IP Version 4, and ± IP Version 6.

IP Address Format
The 32-bit IP address is grouped eight bits at a time, separated by dots and represented in decimal format known as dotted decimal notation. Each bit in the octet has a binary weight (128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1). The minimum value for an octet is zero (0) and the maximum value for an octet is 255.

IP version 4 Addresses
‡ ‡ In IPv4 an address consists of 32 bits which limits the address space to 4294967296 (232) possible unique addresses. IPv4 reserves some addresses for special purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (~270 million addresses). IPv4 addresses are canonically represented in dot-decimal notation, which consists of four decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g., Each part represents a group of 8 bits (octet) of the address. In some cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may be presented in various hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations.

a subnet mask is not used for IPv6. and coffee makers. anycast.282. The IETF has produced a comprehensive set of specifications to define what is commonly known as the next-generation IP protocol ( IPng or IPv6 ).211. With the growth of the Internet and its possible extension to additional devices. IPv6 increases the IP address size from 32 bits to 128 bits to support more levels of the addressing hierarchy. ‡ ‡ .IP version 6 Addresses ‡ IPv6 routing is almost exactly like IPv4 routing except for the length of the address and the subnet mask. and multicast).607. Although IPv4 uses a dotted-decimal representation of the network prefix known as the subnet mask. There are just not enough IPv4 addresses. IPv6 supports approximately 340. IPv6 text representation is very different from IPv4.456 possible IP addresses. such as TVs. The address form can be written three ways (preferred.768. all IPv4 solutions proposed for scaling the Internet address space will only delay the inevitable. Only the prefix length notation is supported. toasters. and mixed) and it offers three different types of addresses (unicast. and simpler auto-configuration.938. compressed.374. a much greater number of addressable nodes.431.920.463.366.463.

ISO wanted a framework into which the major network hardware and software components and protocols could be placed to give every item a common reference point: a means of relating the components and their functionality to each other and a way of standardizing some of the components and protocols. ‡ Note: All People Seems TO Need Data Processing.The OSI Seven-Layer Model ‡ The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) seven-layer model was developed by a International standards organization called ISO. .

This model is the best known and most widely used guide to describe networking environments. Vendors design network products based on the specifications of the OSI model.OSI Model Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model has become an International standard and serves as a guide for networking. It also helps with trouble shooting by providing a frame of reference that describes how components are supposed to function. . It provides a description of how network hardware and software work together in a layered fashion to make communications possible.

‡ Layer 2: Data Link Layer Layer 2 is responsible for gathering together and completing all of the elements that make up a data packet and putting the whole thing together so that it can be passed to a Physical layer device and on to the network. The Data Link layer also determines whether it is possible or permissible at any instant to try and send data to the network. to make sure the packet ends up in the right place. At any instant. The Data Link layer assembles outgoing packets and generates the CRC. another computer may already be using the network.OSI Seven Layers ‡ Layer 1: Physical Layer Layer 1 is responsible for defining the network standards relating to electrical signals. both packets will become corrupted. and media types and the way that data is placed on the network media. For incoming packets. it checks the data for validity by comparing its locally generated CRC value with that sent in the packet. connectors. ‡ Layer 3: Network Layer Layer 3 understands addressing how to find the ultimate destination address for a data packet and routing. If you transmit data at the same time. .

These sessions enable networked systems to exchange information. the Transport layer reassembles the fragmented data (performs defragmentation). which is actually counterproductive. manageable chunks that will fit inside two or more packets. and terminates the data connections (called sessions) between networked devices. The Transport layer also manages the flow of data to ensure that packets are sent at a pace that s suitable for the receiving device and for general network conditions. the Transport layer breaks the data into smaller. manages.OSI Seven Layers ‡ Layer 4: Transport Layer If the data being sent is bigger than the allowable packet size. Sending data too quickly is like speaking too fast: you may have to keep repeating yourself to get the message understood. . Breaking up data into smaller chunks is also known as fragmentation. The Transport layer is also responsible for confirming whether transmitted packets have reached their destination intact (or at all) and retransmitting them if they haven t (error correction/management). For incoming packets. carefully ensuring that received packets are processed in the right order. ‡ Layer 5: Session Layer Layer 5 sets up.

‡ Layer 7: Application Layer Layer 7 represents the network-related program code and functions running on a computer system. allowing a shared network location to appear on a machine as drive W: and providing services such as login authentication. . for example.OSI Seven Layers ‡ Layer 6: Presentation Layer Layer 6 is responsible for managing and translating information by catering to differences in the ways some computer systems store and manage their data. exist entirely on this layer. such as the redirector software discussed earlier. Some application layer functions do exist as user-executable programs. This program code provides network support for the main applications being run. Some file transfer and e-mail applications. Presentation layer protocols are also responsible for data encryption.

The conceptual use of the model assumes that an event on one computer system (for example. The data runs down through the layers on the sending machine and then leaves the system in a data packet.Using the Seven-Layer Model ‡ The seven-layer model is only a theoretical representation of how networks function. a user pressing ENTER on a login screen) creates some data that sets off a chain of events. until the data arrives intact at the application layer and causes something to happen. . which travels across the network and then up through the layers on the receiving machine.

As such. that provided universal communication services over heterogeneous physical networks. Its simplicity and power has led to its becoming the single network protocol of choice in the world today. ‡ The main design goal of TCP/IP was to build an interconnection of networks. perhaps separated by a large geographical area. . The clear benefit of such an internetwork is the enabling of communication between hosts on different networks. ‡ The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite is the engine for the Internet and networks worldwide. ‡ The TCP/IP protocol suite is so named for two of its most important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). referred to as an internetwork.TCP/IP Protocols ‡ The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite has become the industry-standard method of interconnecting hosts. or internet. it is seen as the engine behind the Internet and networks worldwide. networks. and the Internet.

and 5. Network. The 7 layer OSI model has been revised to a 5 layer TCP/IP based Internet Model 1. Internet. which refers to the stack of layers in the protocol suite. Application 2. Physical layer. such as Systems Network Architecture (SNA) and the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. It can be used for positioning (but not for functionally comparing) the TCP/IP protocol suite against others. Transport. and the ability to develop alternative layer implementations. the protocol stack allows for division of labour. 3. This layered representation leads to the term protocol stack. 4.TCP/IP ‡ TCP/IP is modelled in layers. ‡ By dividing the communication software into layers. . ease of implementation and code testing.

TYPES of Networks ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ PAN LAN MAN WAN .

or for connecting to a larger network such as the internet PAN¶s can be wired or wireless ± PAN¶s can be wired with a computer bus such as a universal serial bus: USB (a serial bus standard for connecting devices to a computer. where many devices can be connected concurrently) PAN¶s can also be wireless through the use of bluetooth (a radio standard designed for low power consumption for interconnecting computers and devices such as telephones.Personal Area Network ‡ A PAN is a network that is used for communicating among computers and computer devices (including telephones) in close proximity of around a few meters within a room It can be used for communicating between the devices themselves. printers or keyboards to the computer) or IrDA (infrared data association) technologies ‡ ‡ ± 31 .

and no more than a mile ‡ Is fast. with speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps ‡ Requires little wiring. usually within an office building or home ‡ LAN¶s enable the sharing of resources such as files or hardware devices that may be needed by multiple users ‡ Is limited in size. typically spanning a few hundred meters. typically a single cable connecting to each device ‡ Has lower cost compared to MAN¶s or WAN¶s 32 .Local Area Network ‡ A LAN is a network that is used for communicating among computer devices.

A system of multiple connections of LANs is called a wide-area network (WAN). LANs are limited to a single building or group of buildings. LAN applications are used in hospitals. ‡ A single building or campus of few kilometres in size.LAN ‡ Local Area Networks are widely used to share resources and exchange information by connecting personal computers and workstations in company office and factories. By using telephone lines and radio waves. Local Area Networks become fundamental part of communication. . ‡ In today's world. LAN acts as privately-owned networks. educational facilities businesses. one LAN can be attached to other LANs over any distance. stock exchanges and warehouses.

and enables users to share files and hardware and communicate with other computers. Twisted pair. A Hub is a networking device that connects multiple segments of the network together A Network Interface Card (NIC) is the circuit board that has the networking logic implemented. and provides a plug for the cable into the computer (unless wireless). 34 . etc. coax or fiber optic cable can be used in wired LAN s Nodes in a LAN are linked together with a certain topology. This could be a computer. Windows NT. a printer. etc. Examples of NOS include: Windows XP. Sun Solaris. a router.. In most cases. Linux. These topologies include: ± Bus ± Ring ± Star ± Branching tree A node is defined to be any device connected to the network.LAN basics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ LAN s can be either wired or wireless. this is an Ethernet card inserted in a slot of the computer s motherboard The Network Operating System (NOS) is the software (typically part of the operating system kernel) that communicates with the NIC.

network adapters. and hubs. games or other applications. . A LAN is useful for sharing resources like files. Wireless LAN and other more advanced LAN hardware options also exist. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs ‡ Most local area networks are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables. printers.Local Area Network (LAN) ‡ A local area network (LAN) supplies networking capability to a group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an office building. a school. or a home.

LAN Continue ‡ LAN (Local Area Network) . More efficient person-to-person communication. Consolidated wiring/cabling. ± A collection of nodes within a small area. ring. star. ± Benefits of LANs: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Sharing of hardware resources. or fully connected topology network configuration. tree. Sharing of software and data. ± The nodes are linked in a bus. Simultaneous distribution of information. .

. Without the software. Network operating system(NOS) In order for computers to be able to communicate with each other. they must first have the networking software that tells them how to do so.Components of LAN 1. the system will function simply as a standalone. (for example AppleTalk). or you may install it yourself. Network operating software may by installed by the factory. unable to utilize any of the resources on the network. eliminating the need for you to purchase it.

This connection is made through the connector port. each network device must also have a network interface card. The NIC also provides the physical connection between the computer and the transmission cable (also called media ). When the data is packaged properly. Examples of transmission media are Ethernet. and for controlling access to the network cable. In addition to network operating software. and FDDI. The NIC is also responsible for packaging data for transmission. and the timing is right. These cards today are also referred to as adapters. as in Ethernet adapter card or Token Ring adapter card.Components of LAN 2. Network interface card(NIC) . the NIC will push the data stream onto the cable. Token Ring. The NIC card amplifies electronic signals which are generally very weak within the computer system itself.

With this connection. The computer system is also plugged into the hub. you must have at least two devices that communicate with each other. all network components would have access to all other network components. . Writing Hub In order to have a network. it is a computer and a printer. The printer also has an NIC installed (for example. a few more PCs. In this simple model. an HP Jet Direct card). which in turn is plugged into a wiring hub. and a scanner) may be connected to the hub. which facilitates communication between the two devices. Additional components (such as a server.Components of LAN 3.

laser. ‡ . and infrared transmission occurs).Components of LAN 4. and the atmosphere (through which microwave. *Note that not all wiring hubs support all medium types. Another term for this is physical media. Media are various physical environments through which transmission signals pass. Cables or Transmission Media Cables are one example of transmission media. Common network media include twisted-pair. coaxial cable. fiber-optic cable.

Components of LAN 5. and . Transmission protocols determine how NIC cards take turns transmitting data onto the cable.Fiber-Optic cable . while WAN cables (broadband) carry multiple signals.Coaxial cable. Network Cabling Cable is the actual physical path upon which an electrical signal travels as it moves from one component to another. There are three primary cable types: .Twisted-pair (or copper) . Remember that we discussed how LAN cables (baseband) carry one signal.

Wireless Access Modems etc. Points. Routers. Switches.Networking Devices HUB. .

‡ Physically connect computers together. ± The connections are called network links.Communication Basics of Networks ‡ Types of connections of computers into networks: Physical versus Wireless connections ± The first type: The Physical Connection. ‡ Three most common physical links: ± Twisted pair ± Coaxial cable ± Fiber-optic cable 7-43 . ± Use of wires or optical cables.

± Telephone company uses twisted-pair copper wires to link telephones. ‡ Makes them less susceptible to acting like an antenna and picking up radio frequency information or appliance noise. 7-44 .Communication Basics of Networks ‡ Twisted pair ± Two wires twisted together.

Cable Layout Typical Crossover Cable Wiring: 1-3 White/Orange 2-6 Orange 3-1 White/Green 6-2 Green 4-4 Blue 5-5 White/Blue 7-7 White/Brown 8-8 Brown .

‡ Space between has a non-conducting material. 7-46 . ‡ Makes them more impervious to outside noise. ‡ The wire mesh surrounds a solid copper wire that runs down the center.Communication Basics of Networks ‡ Coaxial cable ± Also two wires: ‡ One of the wires is woven of fine strands of copper forming a tube.

± Each cable can send several thousand phone conversations or computer communications.Communication Basics of Networks ‡ Fiber-optic cable ± Light is electromagnetic. ‡ It can send a wider set of frequencies. 7-47 . ± Can transmit more information down a single strand.

He can approach to any terminal for multi-purpose. By using some commands printout can be taken even another room where the printer is kept. we have not to load the software in each terminal. . The customer has not go to a particular terminal in the branch. ‡ Communication: Terminals can do the job of intercom. We don t need equal number of printers for equal number of terminals. Most Local Area Networks transfer data at the rate of 1 to 10 million bits per second. The high channel speed is another quality of LAN. Similarly. Message can be transferred across the users sitting in other rooms simultaneously.Uses of LAN ‡ Effective Customer Service : LAN is very beneficial in customer service aspect. ‡ Shared use of Hardware & Software: Hardware and Software can be shared.

‡ Additional / Removal of Terminals: As we needed. new terminals can be attached to the existing ones and old terminals can be attached.Uses of LAN ‡ Security : It is noted that users have access to other users but the AN system has in-built security and it is virtually not possible to get hold of files of other users. .

Proper care is to be taken for maintenance. the terminals attached with it will not function. ‡ High quality software has to be used for the system. ‡ Until and unless the Server is started.Limitations of LAN ‡ The maintenance cost of the complete system is enough high. ‡ If the system is not used properly. . the cunning user may have access to the data of other user.

± A message sent out from one node is passed along to each node in between until the target node receives the message. The Computer Continuum 7-51 .Network Topologies ‡ The bus network ± A continuous coaxial cable to which all the devices are attached. ± All nodes can detect all messages sent along the bus. Linking nodes: ‡ The ring network ± Nodes linked together to form a circle.

who delivers it to the proper node.Network Topologies ‡ The star network ± Each node is linked to a central node. Linking nodes: ‡ The tree network (hierarchical network) ± Looks like an upside-down tree where end nodes are linked to interior nodes that allow linking through to another end node. ± All messages are routed through the central node. The Computer Continuum 7-52 .

7-53 .Network Topologies ‡ The fully connected network (Total Link Network) ± All nodes are connected to all other nodes. Linking nodes: ‡ Internetworking ± Connecting together any number of direct-connected networks. ± The largest: Internet.

long cables are required. Therefore in this topology access protocols are very simple. Hence. the failure of the central hub leads to the failure of the entire network. ± If one node of the network fails. ‡ Disadvantage of Star Topology: ± The network operation depends on the functioning of the central hub. it does not affect the connectivity. ± Each and every node involves in this topology only the centralized system and one peripheral. ± Long Cabling : Each node in Star Topology is directly connected in the central node. . therefore. the topology offers simplicity of operation.Star Topology ‡ Advantages of Star Topology: ± Due to its centralized nature. It also achieves an isolation of each device in the network.

it becomes a problem in this network.When one thinks to modify or extend the geographical scope . ± The movement or changes made to network nodes affects the performance of the entire network. A central server is not required for the management of this topology.Ring Topology Advantages of Ring Topology ± There is a lesser number of connections. Each node is connecting to its neighbour node with short cable. ± The data being transmitted between two nodes passes through all the intermediate nodes. Disadvantages of Ring Topology ± The failure of a single node of the network can cause the entire network to fail. . ± Reconfiguration is Difficult .

All the data passes through one cable and there is a smooth propagation. This limits the number of stations that can be connected. Control of the network is not centralized to a particular node. It is best suited for small networks. ± Fault detection is difficult. ‡ Disadvantages of Bus Topology ± The cable length is limited. ± This network topology can perform well only for a limited number of nodes. ± An additional node can be connected to the network at any point its length. .Bus Topology ‡ Advantages of Bus Topology ± It is easy to handle and implement. ± The Bus topology has an inherent simplicity.

such as a city. A MAN is typically owned an operated by a single entity such as a government body or large corporation. ± Span the distance of just a few miles.Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) ‡ Metropolitan Area Network . ‡ MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) ± Consists of many local area networks linked together.a network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN. .

Wide Area Network (WAN) ‡ WAN . In IP networking. spanning the Earth. A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways.Wide Area Network: As the term implies. a WAN spans a large physical distance. the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address. Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. A network device called a router connects LANs to a WAN. The Internet is the largest WAN. .

WANs could also be classified on the basis of what kind of Internet protocol or data sharing technique they use. quantized data interchange and a protocol language that regulates the flow of predestined data. a region. Nowadays. or a country. whose complexity and scale is so huge that it may extend over a city. It makes their internal communication simpler and more secure. private organizations like big software companies have their own WANs constructed. It is like the single most and biggest continuously linked hardware network in the world. Wide area networks can be constructed in a variety of ways depending on what kind of linking or Internet connection is used. Internet service providers provide connectivity and infrastructure to private LANs and integrate them into the Internet.WAN ‡ The Wide Area Network technology is a method of creating an intelligent data sharing network of computers. The Internet is the widest WAN constructed yet. It may even be an international network. The WAN forms and grows like any other network through the integration of small Local Area Networks (LANs) which in turn are clusters of smaller networks. ‡ ‡ ‡ . What kind of infrastructure and technology makes a WAN possible ? It is a combination of an intelligent network architecture.

the HDLC or SDLC protocol. They are all specialized protocol mechanisms designed for security and errorfree operation. Line: ‡ Circuit Switching: These are relatively cheaper connections and rely on making a physical circuit path between two points. .Types of WAN ‡ Leased It is the most expensive of all types and also the most secure. They use the landline telephone infrastructure for data transmission. It uses the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer mode) protocol. the HNAS. The protocols used are PPP or ISDN. It is supposed to be very efficient for synchronous voice and video transmission and gives amazing clarity. The speed offered is usually 30 Kbps to 150 Kbps. The dial up connections are examples of such type. ‡ Cell Relay: This is quite similar in structure to packet switching type but divides data into equally sized packets or cells. It uses the PPP(Point to point protocol). This option is used by most big software corporations as not only does it offer superior security features but also higher data transfer rate. It uses a point to point connection from the WAN hub to the specific LAN point.

The data is sliced into variable sized packets irrespective of its type. It is a part of the Third Generation (3G) Mobile technologies that are being offered. It provides Internet connectivity through the wireless telecommunication mode and is called Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN). It takes advantage of the advances in mobile technology and the development of mobile infrastructure to deliver high quality and high speed Internet Access.25 Frame relay protocol which is one of the first protocols ever developed.Types of WAN ‡ Packet Switching: They use dynamic circuit paths with single point to multiple point linking. It uses the X. Varying types of data use the same media link and therefore there is congestion and queuing delays in delivery. ‡ Wireless WAN: WAN technology has also taken the step to the next level of network integration which is based on the mobile phone platform. .

± Often used to connect keyboards. ± Use infrared frequencies of electromagnetic radiation that behave much like visible light. etc . PDAs. ± Three types of wireless communications commonly used in networking ‡ Infrared (IR) ± Commonly used in TV and VCR remote controls. ± line of sight required. mice.Communication Basics of Networks ‡ Wireless connections ± The link is made using electromagnetic energy that travels over the air instead of along wires or cables.

and Bluetooth ‡ Microwave ± Often used to communicate with distant locations. .4Ghz radio band (as Microwaves. Airport Extreme (802.11g).Communication Basics of Networks ‡ Radio frequency (RF) ± Uses radio frequencies to transmit data ‡ Function even though line of sight is interrupted.11b). ± Satellite communications use microwaves. ± Must be line of sight. ± Interference is a problem with these technologies most use 2. Cordless Phones) ± Used in Apple Airport/WiFi (802.

Sending data on the physical layer ‡ To send a packet to another computer on the LAN (local area network) ± I set the source and destination of the frame accordingly (the destination is the MAC address of the computer I want to reach) ± I send the frame out on the wire (I send the bits to my network interface card which will turn those bits into voltage pulses for me and send them on the wire) B A C D E ‡ All other connected network interfaces on my local network see the frame go across the wire ± Because they each know the protocol they will be able to tell one packet from another ± Only the node with the same MAC address as the destination will accept the frame ± Other network interfaces will ignore the frame. because it is not addressed to them .

Sending data on the physical layer ‡ Shared access may lead to other problems ± Our frames (bits/voltages) may collide! (collision) ± Collisions are caused by two computers simultaneously attempting to send information to the network ‡ If our frames collide both of our frames become garbage! (corrupt) ± the packet is no longer the same as what was originally sent » The payload can be corrupted (that s bad). » The header could be corrupted such that we can t deliver the message any more! ± Fortunately. ‡ Unfortunately. network interface cards can detect collisions on the wire so the receiver will know to disregard the packet. collisions slow down our network by causing time on the wire to be wasted. .

only one person can talk at a time. In Half Duplex transmission messages can move in either direction . such as printers must be able to communicate acknowledgement signals back to the sender devices. Full-duplexing is ideal for hardware units that need to pass large amounts of data between each other as in mainframe-to-mainframe communications. If another computer is transmitting to a workstation.Modes of Transmission ‡ Simplex transmission allows data to travel only in a single. Transmission works like traffic on a busy two way street the flow moves in two directions at the same time. but only one way at a time. pre specified direction. An example from everyday life is doorbell the signal can go only from the button to the chime. Often the line between a desktop workstation and a remote CPU conforms to the half duplex patterns as well. the operator cannot send new messages until the other computer finishes its message to acknowledge an interruption. The simplex standard is relatively uncommon for most types of computer-based telecommunications applications. In this mode data can be transmitted in both directions. even devices that are designed primarily to receive information. Two other examples are television and radio broadcasting. The press to talk radio phones used in police cars employ the half-duplex standard. ‡ ‡ Full duplex: .

‡ A modem modulates outgoing digital signals from a computer or other digital device to analog signals for a conventional copper twisted pair telephone line and demodulates the incoming analog signal and converts it to a digital signal for the digital device. A modem takes a digital signal from a computer and converts to an analog signal so that it can be transferred through a phone line. .MODEM ‡ Modem is actually an odd acronym for ModulatorDemodulator. This conversion is necessary because modems make use of regular phone lines which are analog.

the receiving modem demodulates the frequencies back into digital data. The receiving modem responded with its own dedicated frequencies so that the modems could talk at the same time . At the destination. With this type of modem each bit. The technical term for this type of modem is asynchronous. ‡ The modem has significantly evolved since the 1970s when the 300 baud modem was used for connecting computers to bulletin board systems (BBSs).MODEM ‡ Modem is an electronic device that converts a computer s digital signals into specific frequencies to travel over telephone or cable television lines. Computers use modems to communicate with one another over a network. . was transmitted as a specific tone. represented digitally by a 1 or 0.

A cable modem requires service from a cable TV provider for Internet connectivity. making it possible to use the telephone while cruising the Internet. The ADSL modem has significant. unlike a dial-up modem that cannot be left connected indefinitely. ‡ The ADSL modem can accommodate a telephone conversation because of available bandwidth on the dedicated copper wire. it does not tie up the line. immediate advantages over the dial-up modem. Finally. Frequencies used for data traffic do not interfere with existing TV traffic. Though it uses a standard telephone line like a dial-up modem. . in that digital data is transferred across wires using frequencies that are translated back into digital data. which runs from households and businesses to the telephone company (Telco). ‡ Another type of modem uses cable TV wiring rather than the phone line to provide Internet connectivity. The cable modem works on the same principle as the DSL modem.MODEM ‡ The designation asymmetric simply means that the modem is faster at downloading (getting data). than uploading (sending data). ADSL service is an always on connection. the ADSL modem is far faster than a dial-up modem.

or satmodem.MODEM ‡ A less common modem is a satellite modem. . The satellite modem converts digital data into radio waves to communicate with a satellite dish.

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