3.

2 Procesele combustiei

Biomass Oxygen

Thermal conservation

Ash Exhaust gas

Thermal energy
Schema procesului de conversie complet a biomaasei

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SISTEME TEHNICE/INSTALA II . PENTRU C MBUSTIA BI MASEI

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3.3 Principii i tehnici de ardere/combustie
‡ Preg tirea biomasei în vederea arderii
‡

‡

uscare; formare; depozitare

‡ Proiectarea/Alegerea echipamentelor i tehnologiei de ardere
‡ ‡ Instala ii folosite la arderea c rbunilor (inferiori); Instala ii noi, proiectate func ie de destina ie (producere ap cald menajer , înc lzire, producere abur, centrale energetice produc toare de c ldur (CT), electrice (CE) sau de cogenerare (CET); cu unul din combustibili fosili, ardere combustibili solizi cu lichizi sau gazo i etc.)

‡ Instala ii speciale pentru co-incinerare (ardere biomas

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arderea biocomb. ‡ gazele de ardere se amesteca fiind folosite la o singura unitate de producere de caldura sau curent electric (Combustibil fosil + aer) sau/ i (Biomasa + aer) = cenusa + gaze de ardere = curent electric sau caldura ‡ Conceptul III .arderea biocomb. fosil in in doua focare diferite. cu o singura ‡ unitate de producere de caldura sau curent electric (instalatii de capacitate mare) Ardere biomasa + aer + Combustibil fosil =ncenuse + gaze de ardere = curent electric sau caldura ‡ Conceptul II . cu ‡ doua unitati separate de producere de caldura sau curent electric. Si comb.Tehnologii de ardere Co-incinerare ‡ Conceptul I ± arderea biocomb. fosil in acelasi focar. fosil in in doua focare diferite. si comb. si comb. functionand in paralel si caldura sau electricitatea livrate impreuna (Combustibil fosil + aer) sau/ i (Biomasa + aer) = cenusa + gaze de ardere = (curent electric-1 sau 2 unitati electrice) sau (caldura-1 sau 2 unitati termice) DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 4 .

cu tiraj natural .plan orizontal .circular etc.in trepte .rulant .cu tiraj fortat D Dupa tipul de gratar folosit: Gratar fix si gratar mobil . mijlocii si mari C Dupa modul de introducere a aerului: .inclinat cu bare mobile .Tehnologii i echipamente de ardere Ardere biomasa Clasificarea instalatiilor de ardere/generatoare A Dupa felul focarului: In generatoare cu focar deschis In generatoare cu focar inchis B Dupa puterea termica nominala: Generatoare de ardere mici.plan inclinat . DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 5 .

Clasificarea instalatiilor de ardere/generatoare . Dupa starea biomasei si curentul de aer: . reglare usoara a parametrilor DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 6 .continuare E. . .ardere in strat fix. reglarea dificila a aerului primar si a coeficientului P .cu alimentare automata/ continua ± toate fazele arderii sunt continue.cu alimentare manuala/discontinua ± variaza continuu caracteristicile procesului. Dupa modul de alimentare: .arderea in suspensie F.ardere in strat fluidizat (stationar sau circulant).

1 Instala ii de ardere în strat fix. cu focare pe gr tar Cu ardere directa Cu ardere inversa Cu ardere mixta DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 7 .3.In strat fluidizat .4.In strat fix .4 Instala ii de ardere .In suspensie ‡ 3.

d d d i l p i d d .T i Upp -burning Intake f pri ary air Hot gas flow Verti l under ut-burning Side under ut. l d d î i l i) fi p ( l 8 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS .burning iz DEE MM 09 S l: l d p i ipi l f d di .

Generatoare cu focar cu gratar ‡ focar cu gratar orizontal fi cu ardere directa focar cu gratar orizontal fi cu ardere inversa Focar cu gratar tronconic fi sau rotativ Focar cu gratar in panta fi Focar cu gratar in panta obil Focar cu gratar orizontal cu iscare rectilinie Focar cu gratar in panta. cu zone de combustie distincte Vezi diopozitivele pe transparente! ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 9 . obil.

heat exchanger secondary combustion chimney cleaning of exhaust gases fuel feeding combustion chamber ash dis change Instalatie de ardere cu gratar tronconic rotativ DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 10 .

heat exchanger cyclone co bustion cha ber secon ary air intake ash ischange fuell fee ing ri ary air intake grate Sche a instalatiei e ardere a bio asei e focar di bare obile in cascada ± cu ardere in contracurent ( a licabil entru co bustibil u ed) DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 11 .

heat exchanger cyclone secondary co bustion cha ber secondary air intake ash discharge pri ary air intake co bustion retort fuel feeding Sche a instalatiei de ardere a bio asei cu focar fix cu ali entare prin i pingere inferioara DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 12 .

Constructia Sistemelor tehnice pentru combustia lemnului Faciliati pentru combustia lemnului sub forma de bucati Warm air To chimney Cast iron with fire clay Charging door Butterfly gate for po er control Fire clay Cleaning door Rapping grate Ash door Draught flap manual kontrol) Osh box Combustion air Schema functionala a unui generator/cuptor simplu pentru lemn bucati sau brichete. cu ardere directa DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 13 .

chimney s cti 3 hot air channel s cti 1 wall heating surface s cti 2 Sectiune printr-un cuptor din caramida pentru incalzire si gatit DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 14 .

feed duct circulating air co bustion air exhaust gas door with inspection window feeding auger co bustion tub with air nozzles ash box exhaust gas ventilator circulating air grid electric starter Principiul de func ionare al unui generator cu pele i DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 15 .

Generator modern pe pele i DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 16 .

P= 4MW.Centrala termic .Prin utilizarea condensatorului de gaze de evacuare.8 MW. pe peleti si aschii de lemn Danemarca. Umiditatea aschiilor pana la 50% DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 17 .se mai castiga 0.

tertiary air intake secondary air intake pri ary air intake fuel feeding ignition burner exhaust gas intake (recirculation) ash outlay Sche a instala iei de ardere a bio asei sub for cu focar tip ciclon DEE MM 09 de praf sau rumegu . 18 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS .

cu trei zone de ad isie aer. Coef. Exces aer = 1. 1-1. aer preincalzit la 00-250 grade celsius DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 19 .exhaust gas ash tertiary air heat exchanger fuel fluidised beds 1 pri ary air bed 1 secondary air beds and Focar cu ardere in strat fluidizat stationar.3.

fluidised bedr recurrent cyclone heat exchanger heat exchanger secondary air fluidised bed cooler air gross ach air Schema unui cazan cu focar de ardere biomasa. in strat fluidizat circulant DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 20 .

Schema constructiv.func ional a unui emineu cu focar închis (stânga) i a unei sobe cu focar închis (dreapta) DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 21 .

Focar cu circula ia for at a aerului DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 22 .

Schema constructiv-func ional a 2 generatoare de c ldur : cu circula ie natural (stânga i circula ie for at (dreapta) DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 23 .

Vedere exterioar a unui cuptor cu focar închis DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 24 .

Echipamente specifice pentru combustia biomasei 4.4.1 Echipamente specifice pentru combustia reziduurilor agricole .Alegerea sau proiectarea generatoareleor este determinata de caracteristicile combustibilului si domeniul de utilizare Forma si necesarul de energie determina capacitatea generatorului DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 25 . boilere/centrale termice si generatoare de aer cald .Sobe pentru gatit.

‡ Generator/boiler cu circulatia gazelor calde prin conducte DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 26 .

‡ Boiler cu circulatia si incalzirea apei in conducte DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 27 .

Na. al inmuierii cenusii ± Continut ridicat de K.Asigurarea unei raciri intense in zona cu temperatura ridicata.v.p.Cl si N ± pot cauza coroziunea suprafetelor pentru schimbul de caldura .Eliminarea cenusii trebuie facuta des sau autonat .Emisii inalte de praf si particule ± Reducerea lor prin dispozitive speciale DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 28 .d. pentru evitarea topirii cenusii .PROBLEME SPECIFICE LA COMBUSTIA BiOMASEI DIN REZIDUURI AGRICOLE ± Continut mare de cenusa a majoritatii reziduurilor agricole ± Characteristici nefavorabile d.

ACUMULATOARE DE CALDURA -Folosite pentru marirea capacitatii termice a instalatiei si pentru evitare oscilatiilor puterii termice -Permit reglarea mai usoara a caldurii .Asigura functionarea continua la putere nominala -Capacitatea acumulatorului .Minimum 50 l per kW DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 29 .Permit stocarea caldurii pentru perioade reduse de timp .

shut of valve pump T unidirectional restrictor valve temperature measurement heat system pump feed hot water T T return lifting T puffer pump T accumulator pump B A T biomass boiler three way valve return cold water heat accumulator household water accumulator Schema unui sistem de incalzire cu biomasa ± boiler cu acumulator de caldura si acumulator pentru apa calda menajera DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 30 .

controller heat exchanger feed water return flow feeding auger sensor fall wall i pact wall cell wheel pri ary air ventilator fuel and gutt bed arch grate i peller secondary air ventilator Focar cu ali entare fortata cu un rotor cu palete DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 31 .

reglarea dificila a coeficientului de exces de aer si a CO .control usor si securitate mai mare in functionare Cu presiune .Tiraj natural ± cu cos de tragere.TIPURI DE SISTEME PENTRU ALIMENTAREA CU AER Cu depresiune .Cu exhaustor pentru gazele de evacuare .Cu ventilator central sau separat pentru aerul primar si secundar ± reglarea mai usoara Cuptorul sau boilerul si partile aferente trebuie sa fie ermetice DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 32 .

Generatoare/Boilere pentru combustia balotilor de paie -Diferite solutii constructive si puteri ± 30 kW« 1 MW -Boilerele mici -sunt destinate pentru baloti conventionali (mici).secvential. este necesar un acumulator de caldura pentru reglarea temperaturii. control dificil. utilizeaza in general tragere libera a aerului -Alimentarea manuala sau automata . -Exista probleme cu reglarea debitului de aer: in prima faza este necesara o cantitate mare de aer pentru oxidarea rapida a volatilelor. dupa arderea volatilelor ramine o cantitate mica de carbune si aerul trebuie redus. emisii mari de CO. cu ardere directa. -Eficienta scazuta si emisii ridicate pentru o incarcatura DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 33 . NOx si particule.

combust chamber Combustion chamber Insulation Connection for door cooling Big charging door with water cooling Small charging door Grate Door cooling Ash Dust box Return line Schema unui boiler simplu pentru baloti de paie mici/conventionali. utilizat pentru generatoare de puteri mici si mijlocii DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 34 .Power control thermostat Heat exchanger Feed water Insulation Inspection To chimney Flue gas tube Second.

Examplu de acumulator de caldura si schimbator de caldura pentru apa menajera DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 35 .

boiler room staking room storage hall security door slide door staking gate feeding gate Vedere de ansamblu a unei instalatii pentru combustia balotilor intregi de paie DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 36 .

full automatic crane feeding secondary air intake security slider cap feeding space hydraulic drive water cooled grate primary air intake ash removal air fans Schema unei instalatii pentru combustia balotilor intregi de paie pe gratar inclinat din bare DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 37 .

Expansion tank Heat accumulator Heat exchanger ump Combustion air Ventilator Fire clay wall Water cooled door Heat user Straw bale Instalatie/boiler pentru incalzire cu baloti intregi de paie si lemne. prevazuta cu acumulator aditional de caldura DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 38 .

majoritatea cu aer de admisie sub presiune si posibilitatea de control a combustiei Utilizare pentru centrale de putere mare destinate incalzirii centrale si districtuale Sunt prevazute sisteme pentru separarea particulelor evacuate Nu sunt obligatorii acumulatoarele de caldura DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 39 . maruntirea sau dezintegrarea Alimentare continua.Boilere pentru baloti maruntiti/dezintegrati Separaea balotului prin taiere in straturi.

water cooled fire door fire gate feed water return flow security connection straw bale conveyor exhaust gases duct knife feeder ash slider feeding tube water cooled combustion channel Boiler pentru combustia balotilor (maruntiti cu un dispozitiv) si a paielor. prevazut cu un gratar adaptat DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 40 .

prevazut cu dispozitiv de dezintegrare a balotilor DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 41 .cyclone fire wall exhaust gas ventilator Bale desintegrator and storage scraper shredder cylinders heat exchanger combustion chamber fire trough cell wheel lock transport fen Boiler pentru combustia paielor.

prevazut cu sistem de turbionare a combustibilului DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 42 .drought fan tube type heat exchanger P sensor secondary combustion zone temperature sensor fuel ash automatic igniter ash screper water cooled combustion trough two pressure fans exhaust gas combustion air Boiler cu alimentare continua cu melc a combustibiluli maruntit.

Vedere de ansamblu a unei instalatii de incalzire centrala pe baza de paie DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 43 .

1999 DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 44 .Centrala termica districtuala pe paie ± Danemarca.

Warm air Butterfly flap Indikator thermometer Fire clay Warm air Charging door Hot exhaust gases Primary air Movable deashing grate Ash box Tiles with fire clay Secondary heating chamber Cold air Centrala pentru incalzire cu aer cald. Poate folosi si schimbator de caldura cu apa DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 45 . utilizand lemne taiate marunt. prevazuta cu schimbator de caldura aditional.

Schema de principiu a unei centrale termice cu doua faze , pe lemne, numita si gazogen, a) 1±admisia centrala a aerului, 2±peretele din spate din caramida refractara, 3±ventilator sub presiune, 4± regulator automat de aer, 5± reglarea aerului primar 6± reglarea aerului secundar, 7± reglarea aerului tertiar b) 1± spatiu de alimentare cu combustibil, 2± zona de gazeificare, 3± zona de ardere indirecta, 4± placa din caramida refractara, 5± camera de combustie, 6± catalizator, 7± zona schimbatorului AND RURAL AREAS DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE de caldura 46

Vedere de ansamblu a unei centrale cu doua faze ± tip gazogen
DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 47

Schema de principiu a unei centrale pe lemne cu admisia naturala a aerului, 4± reglarea aerului secundar de preincalzire, 5± reglarea aerului secundarr, 12± reglarea zonei de ardere superioare si inferioare, 13± zona flacarii
DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 48

pe lemne cu o capacitate de 60 kW DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 49 .air inlet chimney charging door primary combustion zone slot hot air outlet fire clay tub tube tipe heat exchanger Constructia unui generator de aer cald pentru uscarea materialelor agricole si forestiere.

FACILITATI TEHNICE PRNTRU COMBUSTIA ASCHIILOR DE LEMN. RUMEGUSULUI SI PELETILOR fuel combustion chamber hydraulic slider for coarse material Schema alimentarii cu piston DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 50 .

Alimentatoare cu melc pe gratar in cascada. pentru combustia aschiilor de lemn. in curent direct si invers DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 51 .

cu gratar mobil in cascada si dispunerea mecanica a cenusii DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 52 .Boiler cu functionare pe aschii si rumegus de lemn.

thermal operations control insulation fire channel pre-furnace fan fire protection control panel non-return guard storage for fuel boiler ash box stoker screw security flap feeding screw Centrala pe aschii de lemn cu arzator si boiler ca unitati distincte DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 53 .

feeding auger removable combustion bowl gasification chamber pellet fall duct primary combustion chamber pelletfall duct igniter grate drive primary air secondary air nozzles primary air nozzles (prforated bottom) air intake flow ash box grate ash box Scheme de alimentare a peletilor pe gratare tip farfurie si oscilant DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 54 .

6± gratarulIN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES tip farfurie/retorta 55 . 4± depozitarea cenusii. DEE 5± camera de combustie.Examplu de boiler cu gratar tip farfurie (fix) pentru peleti si aschii de lemn 2± Ventilator cu turatie reglabila pentru gazele de evacuare. 3±sistem semiautomat de curatire a tuburilor de gaz.

heat exchanger exhaust gas ventilator ventilator spiral combustion (secondary combustion) swing grate flow ash box ignitor grate ash box fuel feeding auger Centrala termica cu miscarea in spirala a gazelor din camera secundara de combustie DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 56 .

Centrala termica pe baza de aschii de lemn cu depozitarea libera a combustibilului DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 57 .

emisiile si cenusa ‡Tendinte: Perfectionarea instalatiilor si exploatarea optima DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 58 .Probleme generale privind generatoarele/instalatiile de conversie termiaca. tendinte ‡Eficienta instalatiilor ‡Depozitarea si utilizarea cenusii ‡Emisiile de poluanti ‡Legislatia privind instalatiile termice.

. . functionarea instalatiilor si a proceselor conexe poate controbui la cresterea eficientei acestora. .cunoastere procesului de combustie. conceptia lor fiind rezultatul ceretarilor efectuate DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 59 .emisii reduse de elemente si compusi chimici.efecte economice pozitive privind utilizarea biomasei.ca regula generala.combustie completa. .Eficienta inalta inseamna/presupune: . instalatiile noi au eficienta mai ridicata.

M. Stuttgart. 5. Bulgaria. PhD thesis. Die Stellung der Biomasse. 1994. Landwirtschaftsverlag. Brkic. XII International Symposium of Yugoslav Society of AgEng. Landtechnik. Münster-Hiltrup. Martinov. H. Faculty of Agronomic Sciences. Proucavanje problema skladistenja vlaznih bala kukuruzovine (Investigation of problem of wet maize straw bales¶ storage). 3. 4. 144-148. Rousse. Proceedings of the Conference. M. Djevic. 2. and D. Strehler. Odredjivanje zakonitosti promene otpora strujanja vazduha kroz sloj kukuruzovine u zavisnosti od nacina pripreme biljnog materijala za skladistenje (Determination of maize straw layer air flow resistance respecting method used for their preparation for storage). and M. International Conference: Energy Efficiency and Agricultural Engineering. 2002. 1984. Proceedings of the Symposium. Verlag Eugen Ulmer. M. 1999. Zagreb. Eichhorn. Brkic. Novakovic. and A. Hartmann. Becici. 1986. H. Vol.BIBLIOGRAFIE 1. Fruit and vine pruning residues like energy material. 2. DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 60 . 452-461.

M. 7. 497-513. Razvoj generatora toplog vazduha koji kao gorivo koristi drvo (Development of hot air generator using wood log a s a fuel). IV International Symposium: Agricultural engineering and science. DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 61 . Energetische Nutzung von Stroh. 8. Energie aus Biomasse. Pozarevac. New York. Hartmann. Hartmann. 1982. In Biomass Handbook. Band 17. Zagreb.184-188. and C. 2001. Energetski potencijal sporednih proizvoda ratarstva (Energy potential of field crops residues). Mogu nosti koriscenja slame kao izvora toplotne energije (Possibilities of wheat straw use as a fuel). Martinov. Martinov. Savremena poljoprivredna tehnika. Hall. 2001: Die energetische Nutzung von Stroh und strohähnlichen Brennstoffen in Kleinanlagen. 62-84. 1989. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. 10. Gülzower Fachgespräche. Springer-Verlag. MSc work. Berlin. Martinov. Ganzplanzengetreide und weiterer halmgutartiger Biomasse± Stand der technik und Perspektiven für den ländlichen Raum.V. Proceedings of the Symposium. 9. New York.6. pp. Physical properties of biomass. Kaltschmitt. pp. Heidelberg. pp. Kitani. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e. and M. (FNR). M. Gordon and Breach. 11. Babic. M. 20/4. 1980. 1994. O.W. 880-882.

The centre for Biomass Technology. A2. Wood for Energy Production. 17. Muscle Shoals.1. Martinov. K. Copenhagen. Tennessee Balley Authority. A4. 2000. CNRE Guideline No. 16. Second edition. ISO 1928 standard. 18. Heat from Straw and Wood. Biomass Energy Sourcebook: A Guide for Economic Development in the Southeast. 14. and calculation net calorific value. The centre for Biomass Technology. DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 62 . Osobine i mogucnosti koriscenja sporednih delova kukuruzne biljke (Characteristics and use possibilities of maize residues). 1995. 1988.12. 1998. Copenhagen. Technology±Environment±Economy. A3. Geneva. 564-572. Straw for Energy Production. 13. and S Topalov. Biomass Combustion Technologies. Solid mineral fuels ± Determination of gross calorific value by the calorimeter bomb method. Kleinfeuerungen für Holz ± Verbrennungstechnik/Stand der Technik/ Reglwerke/ Entwicklung. 1984. Proceedings of the Symposium. Technology±Environment±Economy. M. Bundesanstalt für Landtechnik. Rome. 15. XII International Symposium of Yugoslav Society of AgEng.J. FAO. A1. AL: Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program. 1999. Strehler. Muehlenfeld. 1997. Wieselburg. Second edition. Be i i. A. International Organisation for Standardization.

Schema constructiv.func ional a unui emineu cu focar închis (stânga) i a unei sobe cu focar închis (dreapta) DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 63 .

Focar cu circula ia for at a aerului DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 64 .

Schema constructiv-func ional a 2 generatoare de c ldur : cu circula ie natural (stânga i circula ie for at (dreapta) DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 65 .

Vedere exterioar a unui cuptor cu focar închis DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 66 .

UTILIZAREA BIOMASEI PENTRU PRODUCTIOA DE CALRURA SI ENERGIE ± CO-GENERARE CTE DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 67 .

aschiile de lemn si gazele naturale DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 68 .CTE-urile pe biomasa Sunt destinate . AU capacitati mari si au un grad de automatizare ridicat si un bun control al emisiilor Reprezentarea schematica procentuala a productiei si pierderilor in diferite variante de functionare. la fel ca cele pe carbune. producerea de energie termica pentru districte. folosind ca si combustibil paiele. gererarea de energie electrica in retea.

Gaze evacuate Schimbator de caldura Motor Consumator caldura combusti bil Generator Schimbator racire cu lichid Consumator electricitate Scheme unei CTE DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 69 .

Scheme of CHP biomass plant with ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) process DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 70 .

DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 71 . for combination with heating.Steam boilers For conventional electricity generation in steam turbines Optimisation by use of condenser heat for heat Total efficiency. up to 90% Steam used for driving of different engines Steam turbines Steam engines Steam screw engine etc.

Fig. 5 Scheme of steam turbine CHP plant DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 72 .

for plants up to 20 kWe is up to 27%. DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 73 . If 50% of total produced energy is used as heat energy. only really used can be paid. if the feed-in tariff is applied. overall efficiency is 35%. If this is zero electrical efficiency. But. For the other cases are known following figures: If 10% of total produced energy is used as heat energy. it should be considered that the marketing of heat energy is rather complicated. overall efficiency is 68%. and the price of this energy is up to three times lower than electric energy. overall efficiency is 58%. If 70% of total produced energy is used as heat energy. overall efficiency is 46%. If 30% of total produced energy is used as heat energy.Characteristics of steam turbine process Gross efficiency of steam turbine plant depends strongly on share of heat energy produced.

5 Scheme of steam turbine CHP plant DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 74 .Fig.

Characteristics of steam turbine process Gross efficiency of steam turbine plant depends strongly on share of heat energy produced. overall efficiency is 35%. it should be considered that the marketing of heat energy is rather complicated. DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 75 . For the other cases are known following figures: If 10% of total produced energy is used as heat energy. overall efficiency is 58%. and the price of this energy is up to three times lower than electric energy. If this is zero electrical efficiency. for plants up to 20 kWe is up to 27%. overall efficiency is 46%. if the feed-in tariff is applied. If 30% of total produced energy is used as heat energy. If 70% of total produced energy is used as heat energy. If 50% of total produced energy is used as heat energy. only really used can be paid. overall efficiency is 68%. But.

Fig. 6 Scheme of CHP biomass plant with ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) process DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 76 .

thermal oil used for a boiler Very low efficiency of electricity generation. non fleamable mater should be used instead of water for closed process Temperature range of boiler 70-100°C Control of upper temperature needed.ORC process Organic Rankine Cycle As medium is organic matter used with lower boiling and condensation temperature Non toxic. under 10% DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 77 .

thermal oil used for a boiler Very low efficiency of electricity generation.ORC process Organic Rankine Cycle As medium is organic matter used with lower boiling and condensation temperature Non toxic. under 10% DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 78 . non fleamable mater should be used instead of water for closed process Temperature range of boiler 70-100°C Control of upper temperature needed.

7 Simplified scheme of ORC process DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 79 .Fig.

Fig. 8 Energy balance of ORC CHP plant DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 80 .

Stirling process Any heat source can be used for driving Stirling engine Very important to have big regenerator. to the cool zone Isothermal compression tact (4)± heating of cool zone Efficiency of thermal energy of heater is 25% (21 to 28%) Total efficiency of electricity generation is up to 10% DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 81 . high heat capacity Always same gas inside the engine Isochoric heating tact (1)± gas is hated by regenerator Isothermal expansion tact (2)± gas expands using thermal energy of external heater. porous material. thorough regenerator. working tact Isochoric cooling tact (3)± gas flow.

9 Simplified scheme of Stirling engine function DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 82 .Fig.

plant oil Generator Engine Heat energy consumer Cooling fluid exchanger Electricity consumer Fig. 10 Scheme of CHP for plant oil DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 83 .Exhaust gases Exhaust gas exchanger Fuel.

Heat Air O2 Cathode H2O Electrolyte Catalyst Anode Fuel e H2 - Fig. 11 Principles of fuel cells Kanali za Channels for dovod goriva fuel supply Channels Kanali for oxidant za dovod oksidanta supply Katoda Cathode Anoda Anode Elektrolit Electrolyte Katalizator Catalyst 84 DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS .

5 C 5 C S l Liq i r G r r ir ( 000 )   S r El ri ri C r r r G G il r l r L S G l i T r l w r r li r r il r i j i i . 80 li W li El ri i r r i DEE 2S MM 09 i CH l 85 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS   R i r ( 0 000 r ) .

13 CHP plan fo oli bio a n ga ifi a ion DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 86 .G G oole G fil e he G C oo l ze G A bien i I ola e boile A bien i bu ne E hau ga oole Bio a S ea A bien A h i Fl ing h E hau ga fil e E hau ga oole Chi ne Fig.

14 Schematic diagram of CHP plant using straw.Fig. wood chips and natural gas DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 87 .

cooling with heat Stea ra of cooling fl i a Para hla nog re t Con Kon er ator en e Generator Te no ra hla no Li i cooling o flrei t Concentrate Koncentro ani or ent a or ent a I eat or toolote rce A or er I ari a E a orator Coole ena la o watera Ra hla na Cooling o a water a a A P or ent a or ent DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 88 .Three-generation.

Price of the plant ±investment cost. thermal and overall efficiency. There are two final products. Fuel price. 4. Operational costs. DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 89 . 3. and the price of electricity is calculated. 2. In most cases the price for heat is fixed. There are lots of factors that have influences on the final price of electricity. electricity and heat energy. Annual operation period. The most significant are: 1. 5. Electrical.Economy of biomass CHP Calculation of the profitability of the CHP plants is rather complex.

gross net ¼ t-1 MJ kg-1 38 35 62 50 25 600 1. heating value.5 1.9 1.2 14 14 15 11.9 2.7 1. TD up to 20 km Wood processing residues2. MC ca. TD up to 50 km Wood chips2. 35%.Tab.5 41 Biomass Crop residues1.0 0. 10% Plant oil3 1Efficiency 60% 2Efficiency 80% 3Efficiency 85% MC± moisture content TD± transport distance DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 90 . 15%. MC ca.3 1.5 1. straw.8 6. MC ca.6 0. MC ca.5 15.0 0. 15% Wood chips2.6 5. 15% Maize cobs1. MC ca. 1 Prices of biomass per kWh of primary energy and net energy for maximal efficiency of primary conversion (combustion) In ¼c (kWh)-1 Approximate net Price.

The specific investment costs for plant oil CHP plants reduces significantly by increasing its electric power over 150 kW. b) for plant oil For example.2 MW. 15 Specific investment costs.a) b) Fig. the ORC specific investments are reduced for around 20% if the electric power increases from 400 kW to 1. per kW of electric power. DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 91 . for biomass CHP plants a) for solid biomass (CFB± fix fluidized bed).

DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 92 .

DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 93 .

Heating Calculation of heating power in is based on providing indoor temperature e.g. +20° C, if the outside temperature is ±18° C. Taking into account the reduced thermal power during the nights and the temperature change during the day and heating period, the average energy needed makes commonly 25% of maximal heating power. This is not a big problem if li uid or gaseous fossil fuels are used, due to relatively simple control of power. If solid biomass CHP plant is used, control is much more difficult and energy losses considerably higher. That is why combination of solid biomass and li uid/gaseous fuel should be applied. If the power of biomass part covers 50% of calculated plant power (Fig. 16 left), the average load of heat energy is 50%, for average climate conditions in the region, and additionally about 7% of fossil fuel is needed. For the share of 40% of thermal power based on biomass, average load is 63%, and the percentage of additional fossil fuel energy makes 13% (Fig. 16 right).

DEE

MM 09

RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

94

Fig. 16 Effective heat energy use for heating (bright grey colour) of solid biomass CHP plant with nominal power 50% of maximal (calculated) ±left, and 40% of maximal ±right, and share of heat energy from fossil fuel (dark grey) Tab. 2 Heating surface covered by minimal solid biomass CHP plants produced thermal power ± mixture of business and household objects
Type of biomass CHP plant ORC Steam turbine
DEE MM 09

Minimal thermal power, MW 1.0 2.7

Minimal heating surface, m2 18.270 49.330
95

RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

Four examples of biomass CHP plants, two for technological utilization of produced heat energy (T1 and T2) and two with heat energy utilization for space heating purposes (H1 and H2) were elaborated: T1 is a CHP plant based on a steam turbine process with electric and thermal power of 3.05 MW and 24.60 MW, respectively. The fuel is soybean straw, annual consumption 60,000 tonnes. The data for this CHP plant are taken from the pre-project of a CHP plant of a local soybean processing company. T2 is a biogas plant with electric and thermal power 540 kW and 680 kW, respectively. For the annual production of 700,000 m3 biogas 4,000 tonnes of maize silage, 300 tonnes of manure and vegetable waste are used. The data for this example are taken from the feasibility study of a dried vegetable producer. H1 plant represents a biogas based CHP facility with electric and thermal power 440 kW and 560 kW, respectively. The biogas is generated from on site produced manure. The data of this example are taken from pre-project of livestock farm. H2 is a CHP plant based on ORC process with electric and thermal capacity of 5,000 kW and 19,000 kW, respectively. It uses 32,500 tonnes of soybean straw as fuel. This example is an imaginary CHP plant for a small community and data from literature were used.
DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 96

54 0.44 0.900 3.850 H1 0.400 22.500 85.500 3. 3 Technical data of the biomass CHP plants Technical data Electric power Thermal power Operating hours Electricity consumption (total) Produced electricity Produced heat energy Share of marketable heat energy Total fuel primary energy input Unit MW e MW t h a±1 MWhe a±1 MWhe a±1 MWht a±1 % MWh a±1 CHP plant T1 3.630 220 1.000 T2 0.000 DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 97 .68 2.00 19.200 20.300 72 240.05 24.60 6.850 H2 5.Tab.56 8.000 162.790 70 3.00 4.420 1.500 23 2.230 45 7.770 63 136.600 2.

060 4. ¼c kWh±1 T1 17.Tab. If there is need to use co-substrate in a biogas CHP plant. capacity (electric and heat power) of the plant.3 ¼c kWh±1) ±Heat (3. 103 ¼ a±1 Total income. other types of biomass should be considered. use of maize silage for anaerobic digestion. 4 Economic appraisal of biomass CHP plants in Technological utilization CHP facility Investment costs.069 5.080 1.6 ¼c (kWh)-1.195 3. 106 ¼ Total annual costs. The annual operating hours and the share of marketable heat energy. 103 ¼ a±1 ±Electricity (5.5 H2 20. The breakeven electricity price varies between 5. the granted price of electricity from solid biomass should be in the range between 7 and 12 ¼c (kWh)-1. with intermixture of animal manure.129 1. Based on this.5 ¼c kWh±1) Breakeven price of electricity.5 4.6 Heating H1 1.9 T2 1.4 308 119 75 44 18.0 5.253 5.190 1. DEE MM 09 RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS 98 . and 11±16 ¼c (kWh)-1 for biogas.890 10.5 340 199 153 46 10.2 Obviously.9 and 18. The price of electricity primarily depends on the fuel price. is not profitable.

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