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process responsible for formation and change of Earth materials. € Group of cycles: TECTONIC HYDROLOGIC ROCK BIOGEOCHEMICAL

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which produce mountain ranges. the lithosphere . PLATE TECTONICS .slow movements of the several large segments of the lithosphere (Earths outermost rock shell) called plates.rocks are deformed by spreading plates which produce ocean basins. and collisions of plates. . .€ Involves creation and destruction of the solid outer layer of Earth.

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MAP OF THE EARTH·S LITHOSPHERIC PLATES .

altering climate. € Created ecological islands by breaking up continental areas. € ECOLOGICAL ISLAND .ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PLATE TECTONICS: Moving plates change the location and size of continents.

and most volcanic activity and earthquakes occur there.DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARY 2.ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF PLATE TECTONICS: € Boundaries between plates are geologically active areas. € Types of Plate Boundaries that occur: 1. TRANSFORM FAULT BOUNDARY . CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARY 3.

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HIMALAYAS in Asia .

HIMALAYAS in Asia .

ANDES in South America .

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SAN ANDREAS FAULT in California .

SAN ANDREAS FAULT in California .

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.€ The transfer of water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land and back to the ocean.

€ Of the total 1. weathering rocks.3bil km³ of water on Earth. ‡ 97% are oceans ‡ 2% are glaciers and ice caps ‡ 1% are freshwater on land and in the atmosphere € € Water in the atmosphere cycles quickly to produce rain and runoff for our water resources. sculpting landscape. Water on land is important in moving chemicals. transporting sediments and providing our water resources. The rates of transfer of water on land are small relative to what·s happening into the ocean. .

€ Bringing water into semi arid cities by pumping groundwater or transporting water from distant mountains through aqueducts may increase evaporation. € Most of the water on land that falls as precipitation comes from evaporation of water from land. € . thereby increasing humidity and precipitation in a region.Most of the water that evaporates from the ocean falls again in precipitation into the ocean.

‡ Area that contributes surface runoff to a particular stream or river.DRAINAGE BASIN (watershed or catchment) ‡ The fundamental hydrologic unit of the landscape. .

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€ Depends on the tectonic cycle for energy and on the hydrologic cycle for water.Consists of numerous processes that produce rocks and soils. € TYPES OF ROCKS: ‡ IGNEOUS ‡ SEDIMENTARY ‡ METAMORPHIC .

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rocks such as limestone. along with erosion. . are produced. produce Earth·s varied topography. € Plate Tectonic processes of uplift and subsidence of rocks. as well as fossil fuel resources such as coal.€ Through the addition of organic carbon.

GRAND CANYON Of the Colorado River in Arizona AERIAL VIEW .

TOWER KARST In Arizona .

TOWER KARST In Arizona .

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LITHOSPHERE. Chemical. Bio. and BIOSPHERE.€ Complete path a chemical takes through the four major components. because a cycle may include atmosphere. € . because it is chemicals that are cycled. HYDROSPHERE. rocks and soils. or reservoirs of Earth·s system: ATMOSPHERE. because cycle involves life Geo. water.

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short in atmosphere and intermediate in the hydrosphere and biosphere.PROBLEM OF POTENTIAL GLOBAL WARMING € Calls for the understanding of the cycling of carbon transferred into and out of Earth·s atmosphere. . € The average residence time of chemicals is long in rocks.

Those without an atmospheric phase are likely to end up as deep-ocean sediments and recycle slowly. € All living things are made up of chemical elements. but of the 103 known elements. only 24 are required for life processes. .Chemical elements whose biogeochemical cycles include a gas phase and that are stored in the atmosphere tend to cycle rapidly.

4. 3. important in the transfer and use of energy within cells. NITROGEN HYDROGEN OXYGEN SULFUR 1. 6 ELEMENTS THAT FORM THE FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCKS OF LIFE CARBON-basic building block of organic compounds PHOSPHORUS-energy element. 5. .MACRONUTRIENTS-elements required in large amounts by all life MICRONUTRIENTS-elements required either in small amounts by all life or in moderate amounts by some forms of life and not at all by others. 6. 2.

and in the right concentrations relative to each other. in the right amounts. .For any forms of life to persist. chemical elements must be available at the right times.