PAN African eNetwork Project

Master of Finance and Control Management Information System
Semester - II
Prof.- Nishant K Rai
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‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ General Discussion Instructor¶s Profile Syllabus Review Lecture I

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Syllabus Review
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Module I Role of data and information, Organization structures, Business Process, Systems Approach and introduction to Information Systems. Module II Resources and components of Information System, integration and automation of business functions and developing business models. Classification of Information System Module III Architecture, development and maintenance of Information Systems, Centralized and Decentralized Information Systems, Factors of success and failure, value and risk of IS. Module IV Decision Making Process, Decision Support Systems, Models and approaches to DSS Module V Introduction to Total Quality Management and Enterprise Resource Planning. ERP: role, advantages, reasons of success and failure, Module VI Financial Management Information Systems in Developing Countries by International Monetary Fund

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‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Self Study Material Text & References: Text: MIS: Managing the digital firm, Kenneth C.Landon, Jane P. Landon, Pearson Education. References: Management Information Systems, Effy OZ, Thomson Leaning/ Vikas Publications Management Information Systems, James A. O¶Brein, Tata McGraw-Hill Management Information System, W.S Jawadekar, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publication. Management Information System, David Kroenke, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publication. MIS: Management Perspective, D.P. Goyal, Macmillan Business Books. MIS and Corporate Communications, Raj K. Wadwha, Jimmy Dawar, P. Bhaskara Rao, Kanishka

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Classification of Information System Copyright © Amity University . Systems Approach and introduction toInformation Systems. ‡ Module II ‡ Resources and components of Information System.Lecture I ‡ Module I ‡ Role of data and information. Organization structures. Business Process. integration and automation of business functions and developing business models.

information and knowledge Copyright © Amity University .Module I ‡ Data ‡ Information ‡ Meaning of data.

problem solving and control Copyright © Amity University .Entertainment and enlightenment ± Businesses .Information Systems ‡ Why Do People Need Information? ± Individuals .Decision making.

a number. Information ± Data ‡ A ³given.´ or fact. and Systems ‡ Data vs.Data. a statement. Information. or a picture ‡ Represents something in the real world ‡ The raw materials in the production of information ± Information ‡ Data that have meaning within a context ‡ Data in relationships ‡ Data after manipulation Copyright © Amity University .

Copyright © Amity University . and Systems ‡ Data Manipulation ± Example: customer survey ‡ Reading through data collected from a customer survey with questions in various categories would be time-consuming and not very helpful.Data. the surveys may provide useful information. Information. ‡ When manipulated.

and Systems ‡ Generating Information ± Computer-based ISs take data as raw material.1 Input-process-output Copyright © Amity University . Figure 1. Information. process it. and produce information as output.Data.

Data. and Systems ‡ Information in Context Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful information Copyright © Amity University . Information.

Information. and Systems ‡ What Is a System? ± System: A set of components that work together to achieve a common goal ± Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal ± Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with other systems ± Open system: System that interfaces with other systems Copyright © Amity University .Data.

Information. Copyright © Amity University . and Systems Figure 1.Data.3 Several subsystems make up this corporate accounting system.

Data. Copyright © Amity University . and Systems ‡ Information and Managers ± Systems thinking ‡ Creates a framework for problem solving and decision making. Information. ‡ Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of business.

Information.Data.5 Qualities of humans and computers that contribute to synergy Copyright © Amity University . and Systems Figure 1.

Information.Data. and Systems ‡ The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy ± Synergy ‡ When combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of the outputs of the same resources employed separately ± Allows human thought to be translated into efficient processing of large amounts of data Copyright © Amity University .

Data.6 Components of an information system Copyright © Amity University . and Systems Figure 1. Information.

and Systems ‡ The Four Stages of Data Processing ± Input: Data is collected and entered into computer. ± Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use. ± Data processing: Data is manipulated into information using mathematical. Information. statistical.Data. and other tools. Copyright © Amity University . ± Output: Information is displayed or presented.

telecommunications specialist. specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP). consulting. ‡ Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy ± Key to full participation in western society Copyright © Amity University . etc.Why Study IS? ‡ Information Systems Careers ± Systems analyst. ‡ Knowledge Workers ± Managers and non-managers ± Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to use information technology. database administrator.

Copyright © Amity University . violating privacy and creating stress.Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side ‡ Consumer Privacy ± Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amounts of data on individuals. ‡ Employee Privacy ± IT supports remote monitoring of employees.

intellectual property crime. less than 3% have Internet access. ‡ Social Inequality ± Less than 20% of the world¶s population have ever used a PC. Copyright © Amity University . ‡ IT Professionalism ± No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals-unlike other professions. an d other intrusions. hate speech. prevention may abridge free speech.Ethical and Societal Issues The Not-So-Bright Side ‡ Freedom of Speech ± IT increases opportunities for pornography.

Contemporary Approaches to Information Systems ‡ Technical approach ‡ Behavioral approach ‡ Approach of this text: Sociotechnical systems Copyright © Amity University .


MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Executive Support Systems (Ess) Decision Support Systems (Dss) Management Information Systems (Mis) Knowledge Work Systems (Kws) Office Automation Systems (Oas) Transaction Processing Systems (Tps) Copyright © Amity University .


Staff Example: Contract Cost Analysis Copyright © Amity University .DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) Management Level ‡Inputs: Low Volume Data ‡Processing: Interactive ‡Outputs: Decision Analysis ‡Users: Professionals.

Adaptable.DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Flexible. Quick User Controls Inputs/Outputs No Professional Programming Supports Decision Process Sophisticated Modeling Tools Copyright © Amity University .

EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS (ESS) Strategic Level ‡ Inputs: Aggregate Data ‡ Processing: Interactive ‡ Outputs: Projections ‡ Users: Senior Managers Example: 5 Year Operating Plan Copyright © Amity University .


Organization of the IS Function ‡ Typical firm has a unit called the IS department who are responsible for IT services ‡ Members of the IS department ± Programmers ± System analysts ± Project managers ± CIO ± Database administrators ± Network administrators ± Chief information officer ‡ End users (users of IS services outside the IS department) Copyright © Amity University .

suppliers.IS and Business Strategy ‡ Business strategy determines ± ± ± ± The products and services a firm produces The industries in which the firm competes Competitors. and customers of the firm Long-term goals of the firm Copyright © Amity University .

services. and business models ± Customer and supplier intimacy ± Improved decision making ‡ The contributions listed above can lead to ± Competitive advantage ± Survival Copyright © Amity University .General Ways that IS Contributes to Strategic Business Objectives ‡ IS can contribute to strategic objectives in the following ways ± Operational excellence ± New products.


credit card transactions.Four Strategies Used With the Competitive Forces Model ‡ Product differentiation involves developing new and unique products and services not easily duplicated by competitors ‡ Becoming the low-cost producer (provide same value but at a lower cost than competitors) ‡ Focused differentiation involves ± Narrowing the market by developing niches for specialized products or services where a business can compete better than its rivals ± Use of customer data (data mining. Internet behavior) ‡ Strengthen customer and supplier intimacy ± Use IS to develop strong ties with customers and suppliers (SCM and CRM are major tools in this area) Copyright © Amity University . ± Expansion of options (expedia. ‡ Supplier¶s bargaining power ± Procurement over the Internet raises bargaining power of customer ± Suppliers benefit from reduced barriers to entry and elimination of intermediaries (alibaba. online music ‡ Customer¶s bargaining power ± Availability of pricing information (kbb.Competitive Forces Model and the Internet ‡ Substitute products/services ± Online Copyright © Amity University . pricegrabber. stock trading.

Competitive Forces Model and the Internet (continued) ‡ Threat of new entrants ± The Internet has reduced barriers to entry such as the need for a sales force. access to channels. and physical assets ‡ Rivalries among existing competitors ± Widens the geographic market ± Increases number of competitors ± Reduces differences among competitors ± Pressure to compete on price Copyright © Amity University .

‡ VC model can be used to determine where information systems can have the most impact to effect the competitive position of the firm ‡ Firm gains a competitive advantage when it provides the product or service with more value or the same value at a lower price Copyright © Amity University .Porter¶s Value Chain Model ‡ The value chain model looks at a business in terms of a set of primary and support activities that add value to the firm¶s products or services.

com¶s acceptance of ads ± Rapid growth led to dot-com bubble (burst in 2001) ± Current growth 25% annually ± Today e-commerce revenues picture is very positive ‡ E.E-commerce ‡ E-commerce: ± Digitally enabled commercial transactions between and among organizations and individuals. Number of people who have purchased something online expanded to about 106 million in 2007 Copyright © Amity University .g. primarily over Internet ± Began in 1995 with Netscape.

Copyright © Amity University . 2005.The Growth of E-Commerce EElectronic Commerce and the Internet Retail e-commerce revenues have grown exponentially since 1995 and have only recently ³slowed´ to a very rapid 25 percent annual increase. 2006. which is projected to remain the same until and Forrester Research. and authors. Shop. Source: Based on data from eMarketer.

Ubiquity ‡ Internet technology available anytime and everywhere: work.Electronic Commerce and the Internet ‡ Seven unique features of e-commerce 1. home. geographical boundaries ‡ Shopping can take place anywhere . mobile devices ‡ Business significance: ‡ Marketplace is extended beyond traditional boundaries and is removed from temporal and geographic location ‡ Creates marketspace: Marketplace extended beyond traditional temporal. shopping costs are reduced Copyright © Amity University .customer convenience is enhanced.

Electronic Commerce and the Internet 2. Global reach ‡ ‡ Technology reaches across national boundaries. around Earth Business significance: ‡ ‡ Commerce enabled across cultural and national boundaries seamlessly. without modification Marketspace includes potentially billions of consumers and millions of businesses worldwide Copyright © Amity University .

Universal standards ‡ ‡ There is one set of Internet technology standards Business significance ‡ ‡ ‡ Disparate computer systems can easily communicate Brings lower market entry costs (costs merchants pay to bring goods to market) Lowers search costs for consumers Copyright © Amity University .Electronic Commerce and the Internet 3.

Interactivity ‡ ‡ Copyright © Amity University . text messages are possible Business significance: Video.Electronic Commerce and the Internet 4. consumer is co-participant in delivering goods to market 5. Richness ‡ ‡ Video. text integrated into single marketing message and experience Technology works through interaction with user Business significance: Consumers engaged in dialog that adjusts to individual. audio. audio.

cheap.Electronic Commerce and the Internet 6. Information density ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Technology reduces information costs and raises quality Business significance: Information becomes plentiful. and more accurate Increases price transparency and cost transparency Enables price discrimination Copyright © Amity University .

Personalization/customization ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Technology allows personalized messages to be delivered to individuals as well as groups Permits customization²changing delivered product or service based on user¶s preferences or prior behavior Business significance Personalization of marketing messages and customization of products and services are based on individual characteristics Copyright © Amity University .Electronic Commerce and the Internet 7.

g.Electronic Commerce and the Internet ‡ Key concepts in e-commerce: Digital markets and digital goods ‡ Internet shrinks information asymmetry ‡ Information asymmetry: when one party has more information important for transaction ‡ E. Information asymmetry between auto dealers and customers ‡ Digital markets more flexible and efficient ‡ Reduced search and transaction costs ‡ Lower menu costs (cost of changing prices) ‡ Dynamic pricing Copyright © Amity University .

g. e-books. video. Music tracks.Electronic Commerce and the Internet ‡ Digital goods ‡ Goods that can be delivered over network ‡ E. software ‡ Cost for producing first unit is nearly total cost of product: Cost for producing additional units very low ‡ Impact of Internet on market for digital goods is revolutionary ‡ Video rental services ‡ Hollywood studios ‡ Record label companies ‡ Newspapers and magazines Copyright © Amity University .

e-books.g. software ‡ Cost for producing first unit is nearly total cost of product: Cost for producing additional units very low ‡ Impact of Internet on market for digital goods is revolutionary ‡ Video rental services ‡ Hollywood studios ‡ Record label companies ‡ Newspapers and magazines Copyright © Amity University . Music tracks.Electronic Commerce and the Internet ‡ Digital goods ‡ Goods that can be delivered over network ‡ E. video.

eBay. ‡ Business-to-business (B2B) ‡ ‡ Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) ‡ E.Electronic Commerce ‡ Three major e-commerce categories ‡ Business-to-consumer (B2C) ‡ E. ‡ M-commerce ‡ Use of handheld wireless devices for purchasing goods and services from any location Copyright © Amity University .

Japan. that appeal to people on the move. and countries where fees for conventional Internet usage are very expensive ‡ Content and location-based services ‡ Example: checking train schedules. South Korea. searching for local businesses Copyright © Amity University .M-Commerce ‡ M-Commerce services and applications ‡ Popular for services that are time-critical. or that accomplish task more efficiently than other methods ‡ Especially popular in Europe.

M-Commerce ‡ Banking and financial services ‡ Example: Wireless alerts about changes in account information ‡ Wireless advertising ‡ Example: Wireless service providers including advertising for local restaurants. movie theaters on cell phones and Wi-Fi devices ‡ Games and entertainment ‡ Example: downloading ringtones. movie clips ‡ Wireless portals ‡ Feature content optimized for mobile devices to steer users to information most likely to need Copyright © Amity University .

M-Commerce ‡ M-Commerce challenges ‡ Keyboards and screens tiny and awkward to use ‡ Data transfer speeds (2G networks) slow compared to Internet connections for PCs ‡ Time-based connection fees ‡ Limited memory and power supplies ‡ M-commerce will benefit from: ‡ 3G networks and other broadband services ‡ Standardized mobile payment systems Copyright © Amity University .

‡ Example: Google CheckOut Copyright © Amity University .Electronic Commerce Payment Systems ‡ Types of electronic payment systems ‡ Digital credit card payment systems ‡ Extend functionality of credit cards for online shopping payments ‡ Provide mechanisms for authentication and transferring money from bank to seller ‡ Digital wallets ‡ Software stores credit card and other information to facilitate form completion and payment for goods on Web.

credit card accounts ‡ May require use of digital wallet ‡ Example: Smart cards and devices like EZ Pass Copyright © Amity University .g.Electronic Commerce Payment Systems ‡ Micropayment systems: For purchases of less than $10. checking. such as downloads of individual articles or music clips ‡ Accumulated balance digital payment systems: Accumulate debit balance that users pay periodically on credit card or telephone bills ‡ Stored value payment systems: Allow instant online payments based on value stored in digital account (e.

Electronic Commerce Payment Systems ‡ Digital cash: ³Currency´ represented in electronic form that moves outside normal network of money. Not regulated and not legal tender ‡ Client software allows exchange of money with other e-cash user over Internet or with retailer accepting e-cash ‡ Peer-to-peer payment systems: Serve people who want to send money to vendors or individuals who are not set up to accept credit card payments ‡ Digital checking payment systems: Electronic check with secure digital signature ‡ Electronic billing presentment and payment systems: Used for paying routine monthly bills from bank or credit card accounts Copyright © Amity University .

sports scores) requiring micropayment systems ‡ In Europe/Asia. mobile payments often added and presented on single bill such as mobile phone bill ‡ Virgin Mobile phone can dial Virgin Cola vending machine in London ‡ eBay¶s PayPal Mobile Text2Buy service allows payments sent to mobile PayPal accounts via texting Copyright © Amity University .Electronic Commerce Payment Systems ‡ Digital payment systems for m-commerce ‡ Utilize any form of e-commerce payment systems ‡ Many payments are small purchases (soft drinks. mobile games.

and less expensive ‡ Broadband connections of 1Mbps ‡ Growth of wireless broadband platforms. cable. wireless Internet access Copyright © Amity University .Telecommunications and Networking in Today¶s Business World ‡ Networking and communication trends ‡ Convergence of telephone and computer networks into single digital network using Internet standards ‡ Telecommunications providers offering multiple services: Data. voice ‡ Both voice and data networks have become more powerful. Internet. more portable.

transmission components used in simple network: ‡ Client computer ‡ Dedicated server computer ‡ Network interfaces (NICs) ‡ Network operating system (NOS) ‡ Hub or switch ‡ Routers: ‡ Device used to communicate with other networks Copyright © Amity University . software.Telecommunications and Networking in Today¶s Business World ‡ Most basic computer network: Two or more interconnected computers ‡ Major hardware.

Telecommunications and Networking in Today¶s Business World Components of a Simple Computer Network Illustrated here is a very simple computer network. and a router. a network operating system residing on a dedicated server computer. cable (wiring) connecting the devices. Copyright © Amity University . switches. consisting of computers. network interface cards (NIC).

corporate intranet. use Internet standards Copyright © Amity University . purchasing transactions ‡ Telephone network. financial. extranet ‡ Back-end systems for sales. videoconferencing ‡ Mobile WiFi network ‡ Key issue: Integration of disparate systems ‡ Alleviated as networks digitize.Telecommunications and Networking in Today¶s Business World ‡ Networks in large companies may include ‡ Hundreds of local area networks (LANs) linked to firmwide corporate networks ‡ Multiple powerful servers ‡ Corporate Web site.

to the Internet. or office floors.Telecommunications and Networking in Today¶s Business World Corporate Network Infrastructure Today¶s corporate network infrastructure is a collection of many different networks from the public switched telephone network. to corporate local area networks linking workgroups. departments. Copyright © Amity University .

and then reassembling packets once they arrive at their destinations ‡ TCP/IP and connectivity standards ‡ Protocol: Set of rules and procedures governing transmission of information between two points in network ‡ TCP/IP: Suite of protocols Copyright © Amity University . sending packets along different communication paths as they become available.Telecommunications and Networking in Today¶s Business World ‡ Key digital networking technologies ‡ Client/server computing ‡ Clients linked through network controlled by server computer ‡ Packet switching ‡ Method of slicing digital messages into packets.

Telecommunications and Networking in Today¶s Business World PacketPacket-Switched Networks and Packet Communications Data are grouped into small packets. which are transmitted independently over various communications channels and reassembled at their final destination. Copyright © Amity University .

Application layer 2. delivery. Network interface layer Copyright © Amity University .Telecommunications and Networking in Today¶s Business World ‡ TCP/IP: Suite of protocols developed for U. of Defense ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): Handles movement of data between computers Internet Protocol (IP): Handles assembly.S. disassembly of packets TCP/IP allows two computers of different hardware and software platforms to communicate Four-layer TCP/IP reference model 1. Dept. Internet layer 4. Transport layer 3.

zero bits / on-off electrical pulses ‡ Modem needed to translate between analog and digital ‡ Types of networks (geographic scope) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Local area network (LAN) Campus area network (CAN) Metropolitan area network (MAN) Wide area network (WAN) Copyright © Amity University . analog ‡ Analog: Represented by continuous waveform ‡ Digital: Discrete.Communications Networks ‡ Signals: digital vs. binary waveform ‡ Data as strings of two states: one bit.

Communications Networks Functions of the Modem A modem is a device that translates digital signals from a computer into analog form so that they can be transmitted over analog telephone lines. Copyright © Amity University . The modem also translates analog signals back into digital form for the receiving computer.

Communications Networks ‡ Ethernet: Dominant LAN standard at physical network level ‡ Types of networks (network architecture) ‡ Peer-to-peer or client/server ‡ Types of networks (topology) ‡ Star: All network components connect to single hub ‡ Bus: Signals travel in both directions along single transmission segment ‡ Most common Ethernet topology ‡ Ring: Connects network components in closed loop Copyright © Amity University .

Copyright © Amity University . and ring. star.Communications Networks Network Topologies The three basic network topologies are the bus.

Communications Networks ‡ Physical transmission media ‡ Twisted wire ‡ Pairs of twisted copper wire ‡ Older type of transmission medium ‡ Most common LAN cabling: Cat5 cable ‡ Coaxial cable ‡ Single. thickly insulated copper wire ‡ Used for longer runs Copyright © Amity University .

using different wave lengths to carry separate streams of data over same strand Copyright © Amity University .Communications Networks ‡ Physical transmission media ‡ Fiber optics and optical networks ‡ Strands of clear glass fiber ‡ Used for Internet backbone ‡ Optical networks can boost capacity by using multiplexing (DWDM) .

Communications Networks ‡ Wireless transmission media ‡ Microwave systems ‡ High-frequency radio signals that follow straight line and require transmission stations or satellites to act as relay ‡ Cellular telephones ‡ Radio towers placed in adjacent geographic areas (cells) Copyright © Amity University .

Communications Networks ‡ Broadband network services and technologies ‡ Digital subscriber line (DSL) (1 Mbps ± 9 Mbps) ‡ Dedicated telephone network broadband Internet access ‡ Cable Internet connections (Up to 10 Mbps) ‡ Dedicated cable network broadband access ‡ T lines (1.5 Mbps to 45 Mbps) ‡ Dedicated lines for high-speed data transmission and Internet connection Copyright © Amity University .

The Internet ‡ What is the Internet? ‡ World¶s most extensive public communication system. rivaling global telephone system ‡ World¶s largest implementation of: ‡ Client/server network ‡ Internetworking ‡ Internet service provider: ‡ Commercial organization with permanent connection to Internet ‡ Sells temporary connections to retail subscribers Copyright © Amity University .

g.The Internet ‡ Internet addressing ‡ IP address ‡ Assigned to each computer on Internet ‡ 32-bit number: four strings of numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by periods ‡ E. each carrying destination IP address Copyright © Amity University .119 ‡ Messages decomposed into packets.250.46. 207.

.google.g. ³google´) ‡ Third-level domains/hosts (³ ‡ Root domain (³.g.sales.´) ‡ Top-level domain ( ‡ Second-level domain (e. etc. .google.The Internet ‡ Domain Name System ‡ Converts IP addresses to domain names ‡ DNS servers maintain database of domain names mapped to IP addresses ‡ Domains:´) Copyright © Amity University .edu. sales.

top-level domains. and host computers at the third level.The Internet The Domain Name System The Domain Name System is a hierarchical system with a root domain. Copyright © Amity University . second-level domains.

The Internet ‡ Internet governance ‡ Internet policies established by several professional organizations and government bodies ‡ IAB: Defines overall structure of Internet ‡ ICANN: Assigns IP addresses ‡ W3C: Sets programming standards. HTML standards for Web ‡ These organizations influence government agencies. ISPs. and software developers ‡ Internet must conform to local national law and technical infrastructure ‡ Internet paid for by connection services and fees Copyright © Amity University . network owners.

g. implemented by one or more software programs. World Wide Web. Web browsers) on personal computers or information appliances ‡ Servers: ‡ Store data (e-mails. Telnet. that clients can access ‡ E.g. FTP.The Internet ‡ Internet services ‡ Client/server technology ‡ Client: ‡ Software (e. chat Copyright © Amity University . Web pages) ‡ Transfer data to clients ‡ Run services. newsgroups.

The Internet Client/Server Computing on the Internet Client computers running Web browser and other software can access an array of services on servers over the Internet. These services may all run on a single server or on multiple specialized servers. Copyright © Amity University .

video. and file name ‡ E.: http://www.megacorp.The Internet ‡ World Wide Web: Most popular Internet service ‡ Web pages: Formatted using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) with embedded links that connect documents to one another and that also link pages to other objects. domain name. including protocol.html Copyright © Amity University .g. such as sound. directory or animation files ‡ Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): Communications standard used to transfer pages on Web ‡ Uniform resource locator (URL): Full address of web page.

The Internet ‡ Web servers: Software for locating and managing stored Web pages.g. Microsoft IIS ‡ Web site: Collection of Web pages linked to home page ‡ Webmaster: Person in charge of organization¶s Web site ‡ Search engines: Allow finding information on Web of 50 billion+ pages nearly instantly ‡ Serve as major portals to Web ‡ Early search engines: Simple keyword indexes of visited pages ‡ Yahoo!: Originally organized favorite Web sites into directory lists Copyright © Amity University . typically run on dedicated computers ‡ E. Apache HTTP Server.

The Internet
‡ Search engines: ‡ Google: Utilized new page ranking system and indexed combinations of words ‡ Search engine marketplace very competitive ‡ Search engines have become major shopping tools ‡ Search engine marketing: ‡ Search engine includes paid, sponsored links and advertisements in search results ‡ Fastest growing form of Internet advertising ‡ Shopping bots: ‡ Use intelligent agent software for searching Internet for shopping information
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The Internet
‡ Web 2.0 ‡ Second-generation interactive Internet-based services ‡ Mashups: Software services that mix and match content or software components to create something entirely new ‡ Blog: informal chronological Web site where subscribing individuals can publish stories, opinions, and links to other Web sites ‡ RSS (Rich Site Summary or Really Simple Syndication): Syndicates Web site content so it can be pulled from Web sites and fed automatically to subscribed users ‡ Wikis: Collaborative Web sites where visitors can add, delete, or modify content on site, including work of previous authors
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The Internet
‡ Intranets: Private networks using Internet standards ‡ Protected from public visits by firewalls ‡ Extranets: Limited area of intranet designed for access by authorized vendors and customers ‡ Technologies and tools for communication and e-business ‡ E-mail ‡ Chat, instant messaging ‡ Electronic discussions ‡ Groupware ‡ Electronic conferencing

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The Internet
‡ Internet telephony: ‡ Telephone voice transmission over Internet or private networks ‡ Voice over IP (VoIP): Uses Internet Protocol (IP) to deliver voice information using packet switching, avoiding tolls charged by local and long-distance telephone networks ‡ Fastest-growing form of telephone service in United States ‡ Can reduce communication and network management costs by 20 to 30 percent ‡ Flexible technology: Phones can be added or moved to different offices without rewiring or reconfiguring network
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More mobile phones than PCs (3 billion vs 1 billion) Copyright © Amity University .The Wireless Revolution ‡ Wireless devices: Have become portable computing platforms ‡ Cell phones ‡ Laptops ‡ Handhelds ‡ Personal digital assistants (PDAs) ‡ E-mail handhelds ‡ Smart phones ‡ Cellular systems: ‡ Mobile phones enable millions to communicate and access Internet in countries where conventional phone or Internet service is expensive or unavailable.

CC: manoj.Thank You Please forward your query To: Faculty email Copyright@ Amity University .