and Customers Shows decision points and If/Then logic Identifies functional responsibilities Separates Value-Added from Non-Value-Added operations. Inputs. Shows physical flow of material and/or information. High level starting point used in most DMAIC projects Displays procedures and logic of process Communicates who does what Identifies waste of many types. distance traveled. process characteristics and control mechanisms. Outputs. Quantifies inventory levels. Illustrates physical complexity. Flow Chart Deployment Flow Chart Value-Added Flow Chart Spaghetti Diagram Value Stream Map . Identifies physical flow of materials and information. cycle time Detailed map for lean improvement projects and Kaizen events. Stratifies time.COMMON PROCESS MAP OPTIONS Map Type Distinguishing Features Comments SIPOC Map Identifies Suppliers.

. * Understand relationships between inputs (X's) and outputs (Y's).Process Maps may also be referred to as Value Stream Maps or S-I-P-O-C Diagrams Two reasons for construction: * Identify waste and prioritize Six Sigma projects.

Step 3 Identify the Outputs of this Process.Create an area that will allow the team to post additions to the SIPOC diagram. . Map it in four to five high level steps. Steps To Complete The SIPOC Diagram Step 1 Step 2 Begin with the Process. Step 4 Identify the Customers that will receive the Outputs of this Process.

and other involved stakeholders for verification.Step 5 Identify the Inputs required for the Process to function properly. . Step 7 Optional: Identify the preliminary requirements of the Customers. Step 6 Identify the Suppliers of the Inputs that are required by the Process. Step 8 Discuss with Project Sponsor. Champion.

Put ground beans in coffee filter 3.Process Mapping & Flow Chart« Supplier Coffee Bean Co. Water Process 1. Place filter in brewer 4. Grind coffee beans 2. Coffee beans 2. Brew coffee Output Customer Hot coffee You . Input 1.


Benefits of Using Flowcharts  Promote process understanding  Provide tool for training  Identify problem areas and improvement opportunities  Depict customer-supplier relationships .What Is a Flowchart? Process Mapping & Flow Chart« A diagram that uses graphic symbols to depict the nature and flow of the steps in a process.

Process Mapping & Flow Chart« Symbols Used in Flowcharts Start / End Process Step N Y Connector Decision Measurement M .


What Is a Flowchart? Process Mapping & Flow Chart« A diagram that uses graphic symbols to depict the nature and flow of the steps in a process. .


Examine each rework loop Can it be shortened or eliminated? Step 4 .Examine each process step Bottlenecks? Weak links? Poorly defined steps? Cost added-only steps? Step 2 .Examine each activity symbol Does the step add value for the end-user? .Process Mapping & Flow Chart« Interpretation Steps Step 1 .Examine each decision symbol Can this step be eliminated? Step 3 .

such as value-added cycle time. .A more focused process map called a Value-Added Flow Chart may be constructed to evaluate a single dimension.

What is a value added flowchart? If your Six Sigma project is focused on reducing cycle time or improving productivity. . it may be useful to use a Value-Added Flow Chart to highlight waste in the process .any part of the process that does not add value. Value Added Flowchart It is a mechanism to improve cycle times and productivity by visually separating value-adding from non-value-adding activities.

You may be shocked to find that less than 10% of total processing time is used to actually create value. As you make improvements to the process by eliminating nonvalue-added operations. but this is not uncommon. use a trend chart to track and communicate the progress: . the usual percentage is closer to 5%. In fact. .The basic format of a Value-Added Flow Chart is shown below using the example of making a bank deposit.

Taiichi Ohno classified seven forms of waste: 7 FORMS OF WASTE Unnecessary Inventory Overproduction Inappropriate Processing Unnecessary Motion . Transporting . the modern prototype of the lean enterprise.During development of the Toyota Production System.

approvals from others. It gets damaged. office supplies Unnecessary ‡ more information on hand than Inventory the customer needs right now. multiple approvals ‡Re-entering data. lost. processing paperwork before the next person is ready for it ‡ System downtime. Movement does not create value. information from customers ‡ Excessive email attachments. multiple hand-offs. Inappropriat . ‡ using the wrong process. extra Waiting ‡ time spent in queues between steps in a process Transportati on ‡ movement of information from one place to another. and each handling step entails a potential for error.Non value-Added Work (7 forms of Waste) TYPES DEFINITION EXAMPLES ‡ Filled in-boxes (electronic and paper). ‡ Printing paperwork out before it is really needed. or becomes obsolescent Overproducing ‡ producing too much or producing it before it is needed. stolen.