Outdoor Durability

Bob Bucholz

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Avery Dennison Worldwide Graphics Division Painesville, OH Technology Track
This program will present a thorough discussion of claims made for outdoor media, and will define the criteria for evaluating outdoor durability. Test methodology (outdoor vs. artificial) and the implications of the specific application in light of durability will also be discussed.

Avery Dennison

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Worldwide Graphics Division offers a full line of wide format digital printing products
ETM EPM IPM IPMIPM-I E-Stat - Transfer E-Stat - Buried Graphics Ink Jet Ink Jet - Idanit TPM TPM TPMTPM-M DOL Thermal Transfer Thermal Transfer - Matan Digital Overlaminates

Industry need . . .

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Emerson Schwartzkopf, Digital Graphics Magazine, July/August 1998: Magazine,
Print providers need a better way to compare the performance of printables. . . . durability statements, including some of the best, end up as just market hype. . . . we need a standard materials test.

Introducing . . .

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media by Avery Dennison

Key Features:
Color Performance
Color Gloss

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Adhesive Performance
Functional Adhesion Overlaminate or Clear Coat Adhesion

Physical Performance
Water Resistance Abrasion Salt Spray Solvent Resistance Tensile Strength & Elongation Dimensional Stability

Graphic Media Components:

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Overlaminate or Clear Coat Ink or Toner Transfer Element Topcoat Facestock Adhesive Release Liner

Outdoor Durability: Weathering
Weathering Test Methods Conventional Weathering
Exterior Materials Direct Weathering ASTM G7 ISO 877 SAE J576 SAE J1976 Interior Materials Weathering Behind Glass ASTM G24 ISO 877 GM 9538P

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Accelerated Weathering
Using Natural Sunlight Exterior Materials ASTM G7 ASTM G90 ISO 877 SAE J576 SAE J1961 Interior Materials SAE J2230 Artificial Lamps Xenon Arc ASTM G26 ISO 4892 SAE J1960 Fluorescent ASTM G53 Carbon Arc ASTM G23

Accelerated Weathering
Natural
(South Florida, 45° S)

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Artificial
(Xenon Arc WOM)

Causes and Effects of Weathering
Oxygen Temperature Conversion Change in Adhesion Loss of Gloss Color Fade
Withstanding the tests of time

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

UV Radiation

Water Pollution Application Dirt Retention Film Failure

UV Radiation - Global

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

UV Radiation - U.S.

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Warranty Info

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media does not constitute a warranty
Warranty information is provided by Avery Dennison on a product-by-product basis product-byFor specific warranty information, please refer to appropriate Avery Dennison product data bulletins

Durability Issues
Color Performance
Color Gloss

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Adhesive Performance
Functional Adhesion Overlaminate or Clear Coat Adhesion

Physical Performance
Water Resistance Abrasion Salt Spray Solvent Resistance Tensile Strength & Elongation Dimensional Stability

Color 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Measured with a spectrophotometer before, during, and after natural & artificial weathering Color durability is evaluated as a color difference or shift in CIELAB (E units Standard allows a maximum (E shift of approximately 10 units  

Color
CIELAB Color Space

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

bblue

(E=˜ (L ²+ (a ²+ ( ²

Color Shift - (E=10
L+, a+,ba+

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

L+, a+, b+

b-

b+

L-, a-, b-

a-

L-, a-, b+

Color Shift - (E=20
L+, a+,ba+

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

L+, a+, b+

b-

b+

L-, a-, b-

a-

L-, a-, b+

Gloss 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media  

Measured with a gloss meter according to ASTM D523 or similar test methods Evaluated using natural and artificial weathering Standard assures that acceptable graphic appearance will be maintained throughout the serviceable lifetime

Durability Issues
Color Performance
Color Gloss

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Adhesive Performance
Functional Adhesion Overlaminate or Clear Coat Adhesion

Physical Performance
Water Resistance Abrasion Salt Spray Solvent Resistance Tensile Strength & Elongation Dimensional Stability

Adhesion 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Two primary areas of concern:
Functional Adhesion 

Ultra Removable, Removable, Permanent/Removable, Permanent Adhesion of the ink or toner to the media is critical Adhesion of the overlaminate or clear coat to the ink or toner layer, in turn, is also critical Ink jet graphics require an overlapped edge

Overlaminate or Clear Coat Adhesion   

Adhesion 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Measured using calibrated load cell device  Standard requires performance within a range of values depending upon product selection  Product selection is dictated by application requirements and intended end use

Adhesion 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Peel Strength:
Initial During service life End of service life 

Ink or Toner Adhesion:
Initial During service life End of service life

Durability Issues
Color Performance
Color Gloss

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Adhesive Performance
Functional Adhesion Overlaminate or Clear Coat Adhesion

Physical Performance
Water Resistance Abrasion Salt Spray Solvent Resistance Tensile Strength & Elongation Dimensional Stability

Water Resistance

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Water Resistance

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Water Resistance 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Graphic performance related to water exposure
Precipitation Immersion Condensation, Humidity, Dew, Frost

Evaluated using weathering exposures, immersion and drip tests, humidity chambers, freeze/thaw chambers, etc.  Standard requires no significant change 

Abrasion Resistance

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Abrasion Resistance 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Graphic performance related to:
Scuffing Scratching Rubbing Wind, Rain, and Road Exposure

Measured using Taber abrasion test  Standard requires no loss of printed pattern or wear through 

Abrasion Resistance 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Taber Abrasion

300 cycles 100 cycles 200 cycles 300 cycles

(DOL)

(WC S)

(WC S)

(WC S)

(DOL)

(WC G)

(WC G)

(WC G)

Other Issues
Salt Spray  Solvent Resistance  Tensile & Elongation  Dimensional Stability 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Other Issues 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Salt Spray
Simulates conditions that can be expected in marine exposures, coastal regions or road salt conditions

Other Issues
Salt Spray  Solvent Resistance  Tensile & Elongation  Dimensional Stability 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Other Issues 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Solvent Resistance

Other Issues
Salt Spray  Solvent Resistance  Tensile & Elongation  Dimensional Stability 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Other Issues 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Tensile & Elongation
Measure properties related to: 
 

Film conformability during application Appearance issues such as cracking or crazing Film removability

Other Issues
Salt Spray  Solvent Resistance  Tensile & Elongation  Dimensional Stability 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Other Issues 

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Dimensional Stability
Test methods evaluate material for performance related to: 


Dimensional shrinkage Resistance to lifting or curling

Questions? Comments?

The Performance Standard for Outdoor Media

Thank-you for your time and attention! Thank-

Robert O. Bucholz Sr. Research Associate

Graphics Division 250 Chester Street Painesville, Ohio 44077 Phone 440 358-3976 FAX 440 358-3911 E-Mail: rbucholz@ averydennison.com