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Employee Selection

Managing Human Resources
Bohlander ‡ Snell
Copyright © 2007 Thomson/South-Western. Thomson/SouthAll rights reserved.

14th edition
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama

Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process. 2. Identify the various sources of information used for personnel selection. 3. Compare the value of different types of employment tests. 4. Illustrate the different approaches to conducting an employment interview. 5. Describe the various decision strategies for selection.

Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved.

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Matching People and Jobs
‡ Selection 
The process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings.

‡ Selection Considerations 
Person-job fit: job analysis identifies required individual competencies (KSAOs) for job success.  Person-organization fit: the degree to which individuals are matched to the culture and values of the organization.

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Figure 6²1 6²

The Goal of Selection: Maximize ³Hits´

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achievement) Initial interview in HR department Completion of application Note: Steps may vary. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. An applicant may be rejected after any step in the process. All rights reserved. 6±5 .246 Figure 6²2 6² Steps in the Selection Process Hiring decision Medical exam/drug test Supervisor/team interview Preliminary selection in HR department Background investigation Employment testing (aptitude.

and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures. Degree to which a test or selection procedure measures a person¶s attributes. 6±6 .The Selection Process ‡ Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information  Reliability  The degree to which interviews. tests. All rights reserved.  Validity  Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

6±7 .Reliability as Stability over Time HIGH RELIABILITY APPLICANT Smith Perez Riley Chan VERY LOW RELIABILITY APPLICANT Smith Perez Riley Chan TEST SCORE 90 65 110 80 TEST SCORE 90 65 110 80 RETEST SCORE 93 62 105 78 RETEST SCORE 72 88 67 111 Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. 6±8 .Reliability as Consistency (Interrater Reliability) HIGH RELIABILITY APPLICANT Smith Perez Riley Chan Rater #1 9 5 4 8 Rater #2 8 6 5 8 Rater #3 8 5 5 8 VERY LOW RELIABILITY APPLICANT Smith Perez Riley Chan Rater #1 9 5 4 8 Rater #2 5 9 2 4 Rater #3 6 4 7 2 Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

All rights reserved.Valid and Invalid Tests Copyright © 2007 South-Western. 6±9 .

important elements of work behavior. All rights reserved.  A high score indicates high job performance potential. ‡ Concurrent Validity  The extent to which test scores (or other predictor information) match criterion data obtained at about the same time from current employees. 6±10 .Approaches to Validation ‡ Criterion-related Validity  The extent to which a selection tool predicts. a low score is predictive of low job performance. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. or significantly correlates with.  High or low test scores for employees match their respective job performance.

00. respectively. 6±11 .00 and to -1. to 1.  A high or low test score at hiring predicts high or low job performance at a point in time after hiring.00. ‡ Validity (or Correlation) Coefficient  A number ranging from 0. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. indicating a perfect positive and perfect negative relationship.Approaches to Validation (cont d) ‡ Predictive Validity  The extent to which applicants¶ test scores match criterion data obtained from those applicants/ employees after they have been on the job for some indefinite period. denoting a complete absence of relationship. All rights reserved.

Figure 6²3 6² Correlation Scatterplots Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved. 6±12 .

6±13 . Copyright © 2007 South-Western. ‡ Validity generalization  The extent to which validity coefficients can be generalized across situations.Approaches to Validation ‡ Cross-validation  Verifying the results obtained from a validation study by administering a test or test battery to a different sample (drawn from the same population). All rights reserved.

Approaches to Validation (cont d) ‡ Content validity  The extent to which a selection instrument. 6±14 . adequately samples the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job.  Are difficult to validate  Example: creative arts tests. driver¶s license examinations ‡ Construct validity  The extent to which a selection tool measures a theoretical construct or trait. All rights reserved.  Example: typing tests. such as a test. honesty tests Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

Steps in Validating a Test (Criterion-Related Validity) Examination of the job Job analysis/specifications Selection of criteria Collect criterion data (concurrent method) Alternative/ optional Selection of tests for tryout Administer tests OR Collect criterion data (predictive method) Relate test scores to criterion data. 6±15 . All rights reserved. then cross validate Plan research for test (continuing cross validation) Interpret results for operational use of tests Include test(s) in selection process (operational) Analyze follow-up data followRevise operational program Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

6±16 . All rights reserved.249 Sources of Information about Job Candidates ‡ Application Forms ‡ Online Applications ‡ Biographical Information Blanks (BIB) ‡ Background Investigations ‡ Polygraph Tests ‡ Integrity and Honesty Tests ‡ Graphology ‡ Medical Examinations ‡ Employment Tests ‡ Interviews Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

68 References/recommendations 3. All rights reserved. The mean rating for nine methods on a 5-point scale (1 = not good.89 Biographical information blanks 2.Figure 6²4 6² The Effectiveness of Selection Methods In a survey of 201 HR executives.08 Personality tests 2.49 Unstructured interviews 3.49 Structured interviews 3. ³The Search for Effective Methods. Copyright © 2007 South-Western.84 Source: Source: David E.´ HRFocus (May 1996).42 Specific aptitude tests 3. Terpstra. participants were asked which selection methods produce the best employees.93 General cognitive ability tests 2.42 Assessment centers 3. 6±17 . 5 = extremely good): Work samples 3. 3 = average.

6±18 . All rights reserved. Copyright © 2007 South-Western.250 Application Forms ‡ Application date ‡ Educational background ‡ Experience ‡ Arrests and criminal convictions ‡ Country of citizenship ‡ References ‡ Disabilities Weighted application blank (WAB) The WAB involves the use of a common standardized employment application that is designed to distinguish between successful and unsuccessful employees.

application. All rights reserved. and tracking process helps firms to more quickly fill positions by:  Attracting a broader and more diverse applicant pool  Collecting and mining resumes with keyword searches to identify qualified candidates  Conducting screening tests online  Reducing recruiting costs significantly Copyright © 2007 South-Western.252 Online Applications ‡ An Internet-based automated posting. 6±19 .

6±20 .253 Biographical Information Blanks ‡ Sample Questions:  At what age did you leave home?  How large was the town/city in which you lived as a child?  Did you ever build a model airplane that flew?  Were sports a big part of your childhood?  Do you play any musical instruments? Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved.

6±21 .253 Background Investigations ‡ Checking References  Mail and telephone checks  Specific job-related information  Letters of reference  Online computerized databases  Privacy Act of 1974 Requires signed requests for reference letters and signed consent to background checks.   Failure to check references  Negligent hiring liabilities Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved.  Applies to both educational and private employers.

Provide applicants a copy of the consumer report as well as a summary of their rights under the CCRRA. 2. Copyright © 2007 South-Western.Background Investigations (cont d) ‡ Organizations using credit reports must: 1. 6±22 . 3. All rights reserved. Advise and receive written consent from applicants if a report will be requested. Must provide an adverse-action notice a person if that person is not hired and contact information related to the reporting agency. 4. Provide a written certification to the consumer reporting agency as to the purpose of the report.

All rights reserved.Figure 6²3 6² Use of Pre-Employment Selection Tools by Fortune 1000 PreCompanies* *Tools that 212 security representatives at Fortune 1000 companies said their companies use consistently. 6±23 . Inc. Pinkerton Consulting and Investigations. Source: Top Security Threats and Management Issues Facing Corporate America. Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

All rights reserved. ‡ Encouraged employers¶ use of paper and pencil integrity and honesty tests. 6±24 . ‡ Act requires qualified examiners.257 Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988) ‡ Use of ³lie detectors´ is largely prohibited. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. ‡ Act requires disclosure of information where used.

6 (December 1977): 937±48. Inc. 13. All rights reserved. ³Reactions to Overt Integrity Test Items. Reprinted with the permission of Sage Publications. copyright © 1997 by Sage Publications.Figure 6²6 6² Integrity Test Question Examples Note: The number of items in each category was 2. 6±25 . Source: Stephen Dwight and George Alliger. no. 8.´ Educational and Psychological Measurement 57. and 9 respectively. Inc. Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

6±26 .  Testing for illegal drugs is allowed. ‡ Medical Examinations  Given last as they can be costly.  Provides a baseline for subsequent examinations  ADA requires all exams be job-related and conducted after an employment offer is made. All rights reserved.  Ensure that the health of an applicant is adequate to meet the job requirements. Copyright © 2007 South-Western.258 Background Investigations (cont d) ‡ Graphology  The use of a sample of an applicant¶s handwriting to make an employment decision.

6±27 . All rights reserved. ‡ Questions about the efficacy of testing  Why spend large sums on testing when«  testing for drugs doesn¶t appear to make the workplace safer or improve employee performance? few applicants actually test positive and alcohol abuse creates more problems in the workplace?  Copyright © 2007 South-Western.261 Drug Testing ‡ Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988  Testing for illegal drugs is required applicants and employees of federal contractors.

All rights reserved. and other characteristics (KSAOs) in relation to other individuals. Copyright © 2007 South-Western.  Pre-employment testing can lead to lawsuits. skills. 6±28 .261 Employment Tests ‡ Employment Test  An objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior that is used to gauge a person¶s knowledge. abilities.

Measures of what a person knows or can do right now. All rights reserved. conscientiousness. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. agreeableness.  Achievement tests  ‡ Personality and Interest Inventories  ³Big Five´ personality factors:  Extroversion. openness to experience.Classification of Employment Tests ‡ Cognitive Ability Tests  Aptitude tests  Measures of a person¶s capacity to learn or acquire skills. 6±29 . neuroticism.

95 b. What is the meaning of the word ³surreptitious´? a. 12 c. 4d Copyright © 2007 South-Western. direct object b.Figure 6²7 6² Is That Your Final Answer? 1. 105 4. object of the preposition Verbal Quantitative 3. covert c. winding d. sweet 2. Divide 50 by 0. 2c.´ a. subject c. 72 d. What is the value of 1442? a. 30 d.5 and add 5. 6±30 . 25 c. 288 b. All rights reserved. 20736 Answers: 1a. lively b. 3d. What is the result? a. How is the noun clause used in the following sentence? ³I hope that I can learn this game. predicate nominative d.

b. 6c. Reasoning Mechanical 7. It is turning counterclockwise. All rights reserved. It remains stationary. Each woman won the same number of games. c. One game is still in progress. what is happening to gear B? a. ______ is to boat as snow is to ______. How can this be? a. a. The whole system will jam. 7b Copyright © 2007 South-Western. Answers: 5c. d. Sail. yet there were no ties. water 6. Two women played 5 games of chess. winter d. They played different people. ski b. There was a forfeit.Figure 6²7 6² Is That Your Final Answer? (cont¶d) 5. If gear A and gear C are both turning counterclockwise. c. d. One player cheated. It is turning clockwise. Water. ski c. 6±31 . b. Engine. Water.

Schmit. ‡ Neuroticism  Self-confidence²I am confident about my skills and abilities. 6±32 .´ Personnel Psychology 53. All rights reserved. ‡ Extroversion  Adaptability²For me. no. Kihm. 1 (Spring 2000): 153±93. ³Development of a Global Measure of Personality.Figure 6²8 6² CPI Personality Facets and Sample Items ‡ Agreeableness  Trust²I believe people are usually honest with me. Jenifer A. and Chet Robie. ‡ Openness to Experience  Independence²I tend to work on projects alone. change is exciting. even if others volunteer to help me. Source: Mark J. ‡ Conscientiousness  Attention to detail²I like to complete every detail of tasks according to the work plans. Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

6±33 . ‡ Job Knowledge Tests  An achievement test that measures a person¶s level of understanding about a particular job. ‡ Work Sample Tests  Require the applicant to perform tasks that are actually a part of the work required on the job. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved.263 Classification of Employment Tests (cont d) ‡ Physical Ability Tests  Must be related to the essential functions of the the job.

Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved. such as public relations  Interviewers maintain great faith and confidence in their judgments.266 The Employment Interview ‡ Why the interview is so popular:  It is especially practical when there are only a small number of applicants.  It serves other purposes. 6±34 .

while the interviewer refrains from influencing the applicant¶s remarks.267 Interviewing Methods ‡ Nondirective Interview  The applicant determines the course of the discussion. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved. 6±35 . ‡ Structured Interview  An interview in which a set of standardized questions having an established set of answers is used.

6±36 . ‡ Behavioral Description Interview (BDI)  An interview in which an applicant is asked questions about what he or she actually did in a given situation. ‡ Panel Interview  An interview in which a board of interviewers questions and observes a single candidate.Interviewing Methods (cont d) ‡ Situational Interview  An interview in which an applicant is given a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would respond to it. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 South-Western. and the like before incurring the costs of a face-to-face meeting. ‡ Video interviews  Using video conference technologies to evaluate job candidates¶ technical abilities. appearance.269 Interviewing Methods (cont d) ‡ Computer Interview  Using a computer program that requires candidates to answer a series of questions tailored to the job. 6±37 .  Answers are compared either with an ideal profile or with profiles developed on the basis of other candidates¶ responses. energy level. All rights reserved.

Highlights in HRM 2 Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved. 6±38 .

Figure 6²9 6² Variables in the Employment Interview Copyright © 2007 South-Western. 6±39 . All rights reserved.

273 Ground Rules for Employment Interviews ‡ Establish an interview plan ‡ Establish and maintain rapport ‡ Be an active listener ‡ Pay attention to nonverbal cues ‡ Provide information freely ‡ Use questions effectively ‡ Separate facts from inferences ‡ Recognize biases and stereotypes ‡ Control the course of the interview ‡ Standardize the questions asked Copyright © 2007 South-Western. 6±40 . All rights reserved.

age. Copyright © 2007 South-Western. females). All rights reserved. asked of everyone.  Questions related to race.Diversity Management: Are Your Questions Legal ‡ No questions are expressly forbidden. sex. 6±41 .. religion.g. or national origin can be hazardous.  Questions are acceptable if job-related.  Consult EEOC and FEP information when constructing guidelines for interviewers. color. and do not discriminate against a protected class (e.

273 Figure 6²10 6² ³Can³Can-Do´ and ³Will-Do´ Factors in Selection Decisions ³Will- Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved. 6±42 .

All rights reserved.job match. 6±43 .Reaching a Selection Decision ‡ Selection Considerations:  Should individuals to be hired according to their highest potential or according to the needs of the organization?  At what grade or wage level to start the individual?  Should selection be for employee. or should advancement potential be considered?  Should those not qualified but qualifiable be considered?  Should overqualified individuals be considered?  What effect will a decision have on meeting affirmative action plans and diversity considerations? Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

6±44 .Average Multiple Cutoff Model .Selection Decision Strategies Clinical Approach Subjectivity Statistical Approach Objectivity Compensatory Model . All rights reserved.Minimum Multiple Hurdle Model.Sequential Model- Copyright © 2007 South-Western.

Copyright © 2007 South-Western. 6±45 . All rights reserved. ‡ Multiple Cutoff Model  Requires an applicant to achieve a minimum level of proficiency on all selection dimensions.Selection Decision Models ‡ Compensatory Model  Permits a high score in one area to make up for a low score in another area. ‡ Multiple Hurdle Model  Only applicants with sufficiently high scores at each selection stage go on to subsequent stages in the selection process.

6±46 . Copyright © 2007 South-Western.Selection Process (cont d) ‡ Selection Ratio  The number of applicants compared with the number of people to be hired. All rights reserved. ‡ Cutoff Score  The point in a distribution of scores above which a person is considered and below which a person is rejected.

6±47 .Figure 6²11 6² Test Score Scatterplot with Hypothetical Cutoffs Copyright © 2007 South-Western. All rights reserved.

Copyright © 2007 South-Western.  Notification of selection and job offer by the human resources department. 6±48 .281 Selection Process (cont d) ‡ Final Decision  Selection of applicant by departmental or immediate supervisor to fill vacancy. All rights reserved.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ multiple hurdle model nondirective interview panel interview predictive validity reliability selection selection ratio situational interview structured interview validity validity generalization 6±49 . All rights reserved.Key Terms ‡ achievement tests ‡ aptitude tests ‡ behavioral description interview (BDI) ‡ compensatory model ‡ concurrent validity ‡ construct validity ‡ content validity ‡ criterion-related validity ‡ cross-validation ‡ multiple cutoff model Copyright © 2007 South-Western.