Sem. M.Des. IDDC, IIT Delhi.












resins. . In scientific sense: . sugar glass. including. transparent. or eyewear. soda-lime glass. including plastics.the term glass is often extended to all amorphous solids (and melts that easily form amorphous solids). solid. or other silica-free amorphous solids.Glass is an inorganic product of fusion which has been cooled to a rigid condition without crystallizing. isinglass (Muscovy-glass). but not limited to. In technical sense: . or aluminium oxynitride. brittle. acrylic glass. borosilicate glass. such as that used for windows. many bottles.Glass in the common sense refers to a hard.In common sense: .

D.C. an Irishman. Stained glass windows introduced in Constantinople 1674 A. Lead crystal invented by George Ravenscroft in England 1688 A.S. First semi-automated bottle maker -England semi1903 A. in the U.D. Crystal Palace built in London-first prefabricated building of iron and glass London1874 A.A.D. Cast plate glass-France glass1690 A.D.D. Invention of borosilicate glass in the U.S.D. moulds1851 A. Photosensitive glass invented by Dalton in the U. Glass toughened by oil quenching -France 1886 A. Chance discovery of laminated glass by Benedictus in France 1915 A. Float glass process for plate glass introduced by Pilkingtons in the U. Glass first used in Egypt and Mesopotamia 1500 B. to 3000 B.D.D. 1959 A.C.C.D. First automatic bottle making machine invented by Michael Owens.D. First glassworks in Ireland 1827 A.4500 B. Glass blowing invented in the near East 600 A. 1937 A.D.S. 1903 A.C.A.S.A.K.A. .S.A. Glass ceramic made by accident by Stookey in the U.D.D. Glass pressed into moulds-U. 1957 A. First glass vessels made in Egypt 200 B.D.

4% .15% .9% .60% .1% .‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Silica Sand Soda Ash Limestone AluminaAlumina-Silicate Salt Cake Minor Ingredients .0.20% .0.

‡ Hand glass manufacture ‡ Sheet glass manufacture ‡ Pilkington float glass process .

a solid "punty" rod is attached and the punty" glass is spun rapidly until a disc is formed. each sheet of glass was laboriously hand ground and polished on both surfaces. glass. and blown to an elongated balloon shape . Blown plate. Produced from Broad Sheet.Broad sheet. plate. outer portion beyond the central knob is then cut into panes. and a balloon shape is blown. The formed. The ends are cut off and the resulting cylinder is split with shears while still hot. then flattened on an iron plate. removed. panes. Molten glass is gathered on a blowpipe. plate. . The plate was of a sufficient surfaces. The blowpipe is blown. Crown glass. Molten glass is gathered on a blowpipe. glasses. sheet. quality and size for mirrors or coach glasses.

The glass is allowed to cool before cutting the cylinder. . A similar process to Broad Sheet. later by machine. Cylinder blown sheet. Larger panes and a much improved surface quality result. which is then reheated and flattened. An expensive process requiring a large capital investment. The above methods of manufacture lasted at least until the end of the 19th Century. originally by hand. except that larger cylinders are produced by swinging the cylinder in a trench. The early 20th Century marks the move away from hand blown to machine manufactured glass.Polish plate Produced by casting glass onto a table and then subsequently grinding and polishing the glass.

glass flows over the molten tin and glass itself is molten by a burner and the finished glass can be pulled out without any strain which can be used for mirror . . Floating Process Utilizing the specific gravity difference between glass and molten tin as glass is lighter than molten tin. This process is good for volume production of thin glass.Colburn Process Nihon Sheet Glass Co. used to produce sheet glasses by means of Colburn process since sheet glass can be pulled out horizontally which allows to have a longer gradual cooling span for producing soft and sticky glass sheets. The Fusion Process The fusion is the process enables to produce sheet glass by not touching impurities contained in the material of a melting chamber.

Cutting The glass ribbon is cut automatically as it moves along the rollers. Furnace Batch materials are fed into the furnace. 6. Irregularities are melted out. Float bath A continuous ribbon of molten glass floats along the surface of molten tin. ensuring flat. Full melting is achieved at around 1 600°C.The Float Line: 1. using overhead cranes and mobile lifting vehicles. soda ash. parallel surfaces in the glass. to relieve stresses and prevent splitting and breaking in the cutting phase. dolomite. 2. 5. Annealing lehr The glass is annealed and gradually cooled to 200°C. The glass is then warehoused for distribution. Distribution . Stacking and offloading A series of automatic stackers offload the glass. limestone and a proportionate amount of cullet are combined to form a batch. Raw material feed Sand. 4. 7. 3.

Glass is 100% recyclable and one of the safest packaging materials due to its composition and properties. These properties can be modified and changed by adding other compounds or heat treatment. .These are the main characteristics of glass: ‡ Solid and hard material ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Disordered and amorphous structure Fragile and easily breakable into sharp pieces Transparent to visible light Inert and biologically inactive material.

is used as the raw material for the most expensive specialty glasses. mirrors. cameras. . Amorphous SiO2 is used as a dielectric material in integrated circuits due to the smooth and electrically neutral interface it forms with silicon. microscopes.Synthetic amorphous silica. and planetarium are based on glass lenses. and prisms. such as optical fiber core. telescopes. Optical instruments such as glasses.

Window panes Bottles Artifacts .

Reflective glass Laboratory ware Displays .

Lighting Equipments Lenses Automobile Glass .

Glass Cookware Buildings Mirrors .

1) Commercial glass or Soda-lime glass: This is the most common commercial glass and less expensive. 12-18% soda.These are the major types of glass with respect to chemical composition.. The composition of soda-lime glass is normally 60-75% silica. and 5-12% lime. A low percentage of other materials can be added for specific properties such as coloring. .

2) Lead glass: lead glass is composed of 54-65% SiO2. 13-15% soda (Na2O) or potash (K2). and various other oxides. When the content of PbO is less than 18% is known as crystal glass. . 18-38% lead oxide (PbO).

and relatively easy to customize . boric oxide B2O3 (7-13%) and smaller amounts of the alkalis (sodium and potassium oxides) such as 4-8% of Na2O and K2O.3) Borosilicate glass Borosilicate glass is mainly composed of silica (70. more heat-resistant than some plastic up to a point. transparent. and 2-7% aluminum oxide (Al2O3).80%). Borosilicate glass is used for laboratory glassware some applications because it is relatively inert.

3) Toughened glass (tempered glass) Toughened glass (also known as tempered glass) is a type of safety glass that has increased strength and will usually shatter in small. structurally loaded applications and door lites and vision lites adjacent to doors. thermal resistance and safety are important considerations. In commercial structures it is used in unframed assemblies such as frameless doors. Using toughened glass on windshields would be a problem when a small stone hits the windshield at speed. . square pieces when broken. as it would shatter into the small squares making visibility difficult and it would also be likely that the wind would blow the small squares into the driver and passengers. Toughened glass is typically four to six times the strength of annealed glass. It is used when strength.

The uneven surface of old glass is visible in the reflection on this window pane. These variations cause lines of slight distortions. After 12 meters or so it was cut off the vertical ribbon and tipped down to be further cut. This film or ribbon was pulled up continuously held by tractors on both edges while it cooled. . This glass is clear but has thickness variations due to small temperature changes just out of the vat as it was hardening. You may still see this glass in older houses.Sheet glass (sometimes called window glass or drawn glass) was made by dipping a leader into a vat of molten glass then pulling that leader straight up while a film of glass hardened just out of the vat.

This was a fairly expensive process. Before the float process. one of which carries a pattern. The pattern is impressed upon the sheet by a printing roller which is brought down upon the glass as it leaves the main rolls while still soft. The glass used for this purpose is typically whiter in colour than the clear glasses used for other applications.Figure rolled glass The elaborate patterns found on figure rolled glass are produced in a similar fashion to the rolled plate glass process except that the plate is cast between two rollers. This glass can be laminated or toughened depending on the depth of glass Polished plate the pattern to produce a safety glass. These rough panes were ground flat and then polished clear. . This glass shows a pattern in high relief. The glass is then annealed in a lehr. mirrors were plate glass as sheet glass had visual distortions that were akin to those seen in amusement park or fun-fair mirrors. The plate glass process starts with sheet or rolled plate glass. This glass is dimensionally inaccurate and often created visual distortions.

such that no electrical leakage is possible. since a typical size of glass brick is 8 by 8 inches. washrooms. such as underground parking garages. and municipal swimming baths. This also helps prevent vandalism and theft of bulbs. Security and safety uses Glass brick can admit light without compromising security. or removal of bulbs . Electrical circuits such as lights can be isolated by placing them in a very small room or passageway outside the area being illuminated. also known as glass block.Glass brick Glass brick. is an architectural element used in areas where privacy or visual obscuration is desired while admitting light. Glass block was originally developed in the early 1900s to provide natural light in industrial factories. fitting within the lattice of standard 8 by 16 inch cinderblock walls.

toughened and laminated glasses. 1 Crown glass: The earliest style of glass window 2 Glass block 3 Cylinder glass 4 Sheet glass 5 Rolled plate glass 6 Figure rolled glass 7 Polished plate glass 8 Float glass 9 Annealed glass 10 Laminated glass 11 Toughened glass (tempered glass) 12 Heat-strengthened glass 13 Chemically strengthened glass 14 Low-emissivity glass 15 Self-cleaning glass 16 Insulated glazing 17 Evacuated glazing . including windows in the external walls. Glass is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature. When used in buildings. It is most typically used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope.Architectural glass is glass that is used as a building material. which include reinforced. glass is often of a safety type.

This coating uses the ultraviolet rays from the sun to steadily break down any organic dirt on the surface using the photocatalytic effect and thus loosen the dirt from the glass. Float glass can be cut using a glass cutter and no special equipment is necessary. 1) Float glass Float glass gets its name from the method of production used to manufacture it.this produces a glass which is flat and distortion free. Float glass is suitable for fixed and opening windows above waist height. .These are some other types of glass with respect to there physical nature and applications. 3) Self cleaning glass Some manufacturers produce float glass with a special thin 'photocatalytic' coating on one side. The molten glass is 'floated' onto a bed of molten tin . The principle behind this is the difference in thermal wavelength of energy transmitted from the sun and that transmitted from the heat within a room.. 2) Energy efficient glass float glass with a special thin coating on one side which. allows the suns energy to pass through in one direction while reducing the thermal transfer the other way.

This produces a glass which. Patterned glass is available in a range of coloured tints as well as plain. 5) Toughened (Safety glass) Toughened glass is produced by applying a special treatment to ordinary float glass after it has been cut to size and finished. If the glass is cracked or broken. bonded together by a flexible. normally transparent material. this type has a design rolled onto one side during manufacture. if broken. The treatment involves heating the glass so that it begins to soften (about 620 degrees C) and then rapidly cooling it. . breaks into small pieces without sharp edges. laminated glass is made up of a sandwich of two or more sheets of glass (or plastic). It can be used for decorative effect and/or to provide privacy.4) Patterned (obscured glass) Made from flat glass. the flexible material is designed to hold the glass fragments in place. 6) Laminated glass As the name suggests.

and silvered on one side. 8) Mirrors Mirrors are usually made from float glass 4-6mm thick. these tend to be referred to as 'diffused reflection' glass or plastic. the wire tends to hold the glass together. and modern mirrors supplied within a frame. They have high transparency but low reflective properties to reduce reflections when the picture or photograph is viewed. . Old mirrors. should not be used unframed as any damage to them might cause the glass to shatter dangerously. Mirrors are available for use without a surrounding frame. 9) Picture frame glass Glass (and plastics) are available specifically for picture framing. It is ideal for roofing in such areas as a garage or conservatory where its 'industrial' look is not too unattractive. these usually are made from a type of safety glass.7) Wired glass Wired glass incorporates a wire mesh (usually about 10mm spacing) in the middle of the glass. Wired glass is generally not considered a Safety glass as the glass still breaks with sharp edges. Should be glass crack or break.

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