# Chapter Eleven

Sampling: Design and Procedures

11-1

Chapter Outline
1) Overview 2) Sample or Census 3) The Sampling Design Process i. ii. Define the Target Population Determine the Sampling Frame

iii. Select a Sampling Technique iv. Determine the Sample Size v. Execute the Sampling Process

11-2

Chapter Outline
4) A Classification of Sampling Techniques i. Nonprobability Sampling Techniques a. Convenience Sampling b. Judgmental Sampling c. ii. Quota Sampling d. Snowball Sampling Probability Sampling Techniques a. Simple Random Sampling b. Systematic Sampling c. Stratified Sampling d. Cluster Sampling e. Other Probability Sampling Techniques

Chapter Outline
5. Choosing Nonprobability Versus Probability Sampling 6. Uses of Nonprobability Versus Probability Sampling 7. Internet Sampling 8. International Marketing Research 9. Ethics in Marketing Research 10. Summary

Nature of measurement 8. Attention to individual cases © 2007 Prentice Hall Small Short Large Small Low High Destructive Yes Large Long Small Large High Low Nondestructive No 11-5 . Budget 2. Population size 4.Sample Vs.1 Conditions Favoring the Use of Type of Study Sample Census 1. Variance in the characteristic 5. Time available 3. Cost of nonsampling errors 7. Cost of sampling errors 6. Census Table 11.

1 Define the Population Determine the Sampling Frame Select Sampling Technique(s) Determine the Sample Size Execute the Sampling Process © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-6 . 11.The Sampling Design Process Fig.

sampling units. extent.     An element is the object about which or from which the information is desired.g. The target population should be defined in terms of elements. and time. 11-7 © 2007 Prentice Hall . Extent refers to the geographical boundaries.Define the Target Population The target population is the collection of elements or objects that possess the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made. e. A sampling unit is an element. the respondent.. Time is the time period under consideration. that is available for selection at some stage of the sampling process. or a unit containing the element.

Define the Target Population Important qualitative factors in determining the sample size are:         the importance of the decision the nature of the research the number of variables the nature of the analysis sample sizes used in similar studies incidence rates completion rates resource constraints 11-8 © 2007 Prentice Hall .

r print ad ertising (per c mmercial r ad tested) est-market audits cus gr ups 00 00 .00 0. radi .00 00 00 0 0 st res gr ups 00.000.Sample Sizes Used in Marketing Research Studies Table 11.0 st res gr ups 11-9 © 2007 Prentice Hall . 00 00..00 00.2 pe Stud Minimum Size pical Range r lem identi icati n research (e g market p tential) r lem-s l ing research (e g pricing) r duct tests est marketing studies .00 00.

Classification of Sampling Techniques Fig.2 Sampling Techniques Nonprobability Sampling Techniques Probability Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling Judgmental Sampling Quota Sampling Snowball Sampling Simple Random Sampling © 2007 Prentice Hall Systematic Sampling Stratified Sampling Cluster Sampling Other Sampling Techniques 11-10 . 11.

Often. respondents are selected because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. and members of social organizations mall intercept interviews without qualifying the respondents department stores using charge account lists people on the street interviews 11-11     © 2007 Prentice Hall . use of students.Convenience Sampling Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements.

B.A Graphical Illustration of Convenience Sampling Fig. The resulting sample consists of elements 16. 17. 19 and 20. So all the elements in this Group are selected. Note. 18. C and E. 11-12 5 10 15 2 25 © 2007 Prentice Hall . no elements are selected from group A.3 A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Group D happens to assemble at a convenient time and place. 11.

  test markets purchase engineers selected in industrial marketing research bellwether precincts selected in voting behavior research expert witnesses used in court 11-13   © 2007 Prentice Hall .Judgmental Sampling Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are selected based on the judgment of the researcher.

13. 11-14 5 1 15 20 25 © 2007 Prentice Hall .Graphical Illustration of Judgmental Sampling Fig. The resulting sample consists of elements 8. and 24. C and E to be typical and convenient. 10. no elements are selected from groups A and D.3 A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 The researcher considers groups B. 11. Within each of these groups one or two elements are selected based on typicality and convenience. Note. 11.

Quota Sampling Quota sampling may be viewed as two-stage restricted judgmental sampling. of population elements. Population composition Control Characteristic Sex Male Female Percentage 48 52 ____ 100 Sample composition Percentage 48 52 ____ 100 Number 480 520 ____ 1000 11-15 © 2007 Prentice Hall .   The first stage consists of developing control categories. In the second stage. sample elements are selected based on convenience or judgment. or quotas.

A Graphical Illustration of Quota Sampling Fig. 13. 6. one element is selected from each column or group. one element is selected based on judgment or convenience. Note. A to E. The resulting sample consists of elements 3.3 A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 A quota of one element from each group. 20 and 22. 11. 11-16 5 10 15 2 25 © 2007 Prentice Hall . is imposed. Within each group.

an initial group of respondents is selected.Snowball Sampling In snowball sampling. these respondents are asked to identify others who belong to the target population of interest.  © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-17 .  After being interviewed. Subsequent respondents are selected based on the referrals. usually at random.

12. Element 9 refers element 18. and 18. The resulting sample consists of elements 2. 9.A Graphical Illustration of Snowball Sampling Random Selection A B Referrals C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Elements 2 and 9 are selected randomly from groups A and B. 11-18 5 10 15 20 25 © 2007 Prentice Hall . 13. Note. Element 2 refers elements 12 and 13. there are no element from group E.

  © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-19 .Simple Random Sampling  Each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection. Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a known and equal probability of being the sample actually selected. This implies that every element is selected independently of every other element.

7. and 24. 11-20 5 © 2007 Prentice Hall 10 15 20 25 .A Graphical Illustration of Simple Random Sampling Fig. 11.4 A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Select five random numbers from 1 to 25. there is no element from Group C. Note. The resulting sample consists of population elements 3. 16. 9.

  © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-21 . systematic sampling increases the representativeness of the sample.Systematic Sampling  The sample is chosen by selecting a random starting point and then picking every ith element in succession from the sampling frame. is determined by dividing the population size N by the sample size n and rounding to the nearest integer. When the ordering of the elements is related to the characteristic of interest. i. The sampling interval.

323. and so on. i. systematic sampling may decrease the representativeness of the sample. For example.000 is desired. 123. A random number between 1 and 100 is selected. © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-22 . In this case the sampling interval. there are 100. 223.Systematic Sampling  If the ordering of the elements produces a cyclical pattern. this number is 23. If.000 elements in the population and a sample of 1. 523. 423. the sample consists of elements 23. for example. is 100.

Note. all the elements are selected from a single row. The resulting sample consists of population 2. (2+5x3=)17.A Graphical Illustration of Systematic Sampling Fig. (2+5x2=) 12. (2+5=) 7. 11-23 5 © 2007 Prentice Hall 10 15 20 25 .4 A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Select a random number between 1 to 5. 11. say 2. and (2+5x4=) 22.

Stratified Sampling  A two-step process in which the population is partitioned into subpopulations. usually SRS. A major objective of stratified sampling is to increase precision without increasing cost. The strata should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive in that every population element should be assigned to one and only one stratum and no population elements should be omitted. Next. or strata. 11-24    © 2007 Prentice Hall . elements are selected from each stratum by a random procedure.

  © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-25 . the variables should decrease the cost of the stratification process by being easy to measure and apply. The stratification variables should also be closely related to the characteristic of interest. but the elements in different strata should be as heterogeneous as possible. Finally.Stratified Sampling  The elements within a stratum should be as homogeneous as possible.

the size of the sample drawn from each stratum is proportionate to the relative size of that stratum in the total population.Stratified Sampling  In proportionate stratified sampling. the size of the sample from each stratum is proportionate to the relative size of that stratum and to the standard deviation of the distribution of the characteristic of interest among all the elements in that stratum.  © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-26 . In disproportionate stratified sampling.

19 and 21. 5 © 2007 Prentice Hall 10 15 20 25 11-27 . 7. 11.A Graphical Illustration of Stratified Sampling Fig. The resulting sample consists of population elements 4. one element is selected from each column. A to E. 13.4 A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Randomly select a number from 1 to 5 for each stratum. Note.

Then a random sample of clusters is selected. either all the elements are included in the sample (one-stage) or a sample of elements is drawn probabilistically (two-stage).Cluster Sampling  The target population is first divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations. based on a probability sampling technique such as SRS.   © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-28 . or clusters. For each selected cluster.

each cluster should be a small-scale representation of the population. the probability of selecting a sampling unit in a selected cluster varies inversely with the size of the cluster. but clusters themselves should be as homogeneous as possible. In probability proportionate to size sampling. In the second stage. the clusters are sampled with probability proportional to size.  © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-29 .Cluster Sampling  Elements within a cluster should be as heterogeneous as possible. Ideally.

randomly select one or two elements. Note. and 23. 11. B. The resulting sample consists of population elements 7. 20. 11-30 5 © 2007 Prentice Hall 10 15 2 25 .4 A B C D E 1 6 11 16 21 2 7 12 17 22 3 8 13 18 23 4 9 14 19 24 Randomly select 3 clusters. 18. Within each cluster. D and E. 21.A Graphical Illustration of Cluster Sampling 2 Stage Fig. no elements are selected from clusters A and C.

Types of Cluster Sampling Fig 11.5 Cluster Sampling One-Stage Sampling Two-Stage Sampling Multistage Sampling Simple Cluster Sampling Probability Proportionate to Size Sampling © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-31 .

precision Easy to implement. expensive. cost effective Weaknesses Selection bias. not recommended for descriptive or causal research Does not allow generalization. Can decrease representativeness Stratified sampling Cluster sampling Difficult to select relevant stratification variables. no assurance of representativeness Time-consuming Difficult to construct sampling frame. no assurance of representativeness.Strengths and Weaknesses of Basic Sampling Techniques Table 11. convenient. sample not representative. sampling frame not necessary Include all important subpopulations. difficult to compute and interpret results 11-32 © 2007 Prentice Hall . not feasible to stratify on many variables. easier to implement than SRS. subjective Selection bias. lower precision.3 Technique Nonprobability Sampling Convenience sampling Judgmental sampling Quota sampling Snowball sampling Probability sampling Simple random sampling (SRS) Systematic sampling Strengths Least expensive. least time-consuming. results projectable Can increase representativeness. most convenient Low cost. expensive Imprecise. not time-consuming Sample can be controlled for certain characteristics Can estimate rare characteristics Easily understood.

A Classification of Internet Sampling Fig.6 Internet Sampling Online Intercept Sampling Recruited Online Sampling Other Techniques Nonrandom Random Panel Nonpanel Recruited Panels © 2007 Prentice Hall Opt-in Panels Opt-in List Rentals 11-33 . 11.

Select a suitable sampling frame 2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N (pop. size) 3. The numbers generated denote the elements that should be included in the sample © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-34 .1 Simple Random Sampling 1. Generate n (sample size) different random numbers between 1 and N 4.Procedures for Drawing Probability Samples Exhibit 11.

Determine the sampling interval i:i=N/n. r.1.r+4i.r+3i. Systematic Sampling 1.. round to the nearest integer 4. The elements with the following numbers will comprise the systematic random sample: r. as explained in simple random sampling 5..Procedures for Drawing Probability Samples Exhibit 11.. cont. r+i. Select a random number.r+2i.r+(n-1)i © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-35 . size) 3. between 1 and i. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N (pop. If i is a fraction.. Select a suitable sampling frame 2.

Stratified Sampling 1. Divide the entire population into H strata. In each stratum. Select the stratification variable(s) and the number of strata. Based on the classification variable.Procedures for Drawing Probability Samples Exhibit 11. number the elements from 1 to Nh (the pop. size of stratum h) 5. H 3. where H nh = n h=1 6. nh. select a simple random sample of size nh © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-36 . based on proportionate or disproportionate stratified sampling. Determine the sample size of each stratum. cont. In each stratum.1. each element of the population is assigned to one of the H strata 4. Select a suitable frame 2.

. Calculate the sampling interval i. Remove clusters exceeding sampling interval i. © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-37 . as explained in simple random sampling 5. i=N/c (round to nearest integer) 4. Identify elements with the following numbers: r. Select the clusters that contain the identified elements 7..r+2i. Cluster Sampling 1. cont. and new sampling interval i*. number of clusters to be selected C*= C-1.r+i. Select a random number r between 1 and i. Assign a number from 1 to N to each element in the population 2. Select sampling units within each selected cluster based on SRS or systematic sampling 8. Divide the population into C clusters of which c will be included in the sample 3.Procedures for Drawing Probability Samples Exhibit 11.1.. Calculate new population size N*. r+(c-1)i 6.

The units selected from clusters selected under two-stage sampling will therefore be n*=n. If b clusters have been selected with certainty.. we would select ns=(n/N)(N1+N2+. © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-38 .Procedures for Drawing Probability Samples Exhibit 11.ns.. for clusters selected with certainty. select the remaining c-b clusters according to steps 1 through 7. Cluster Sampling Repeat the process until each of the remaining clusters has a population less than the sampling interval. cont.1.+Nb) units. Thus. The fraction of units to be sampled with certainty is the overall sampling fraction = n/N.

4 a tors Con itions a oring th s o Nonprobability Probability sampling sampling ploratory Con l si Nat r o r s ar h lati magnit o sampling an nonsampling rrors Nonsampling rrors ar larg r omog n o s lo n a orabl Sampling rrors ar larg r t rog n o s high a orabl Variability in th pop lation Statisti al onsi rations p rational onsi © 2007 Prentice Hall rations a orabl n a orabl 11-39 .Choosing Nonprobability Vs. Probability Sampling Table 11.

000 was drawn at random. © 2007 Prentice Hall 11-40 . There were 76 post office returns.Tennis' Systematic Sampling Returns a Smash Tennis magazine conducted a mail survey of its subscribers to gain a better understanding of its market.472 subscribers from the publication's domestic circulation list. Six weeks after the first mailing. yielding a response rate of 56%. questionnaire was sent to the whole sample ten days after the initial questionnaire.000 names. An alert postcard was mailed one week before the survey. A second. every 1.000/1. A number from 1 to 1. Systematic sampling was employed to select a sample of 1.396.000 (1. 778 completed questionnaires were returned.000th subscriber was selected.472.472. Beginning with that number. the sampling interval would be 1. A brand-new dollar bill was included with the questionnaire as an incentive to respondents. so the net effective mailing was 1. If we assume that the subscriber list had 1.472). follow-up.