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Salt Lake 06/13/11 .Techno India.Tech-VLSI.BACKGROUND 4 Courtesy To: Tom Copywrite:M. Tgrace@slusd.

Techno India.Salt Lake 5 .Tech-VLSI. • 1991: Sumio Iijima discovered fullerene related carbon nanotubes 06/13/11 Copywrite:M.HISTORY • Before 1980 Carbon has 2 allotropes – Diamond – Graphite • 1985 : Richard E Smaley and others discovered 60 carbon molecules arranged in a typical structure while working Graphite.

Techno India. • 12 faces are of PENTAGONAL patterns and 20 faces are of HEXAGONAL patterns. • This structure is called BUCKYBALL structure after the name of famous architect Buckminister Fuller who designed the 1st GEODOME in “SPACESHIP EARTH” at EPICOT CENTER(DISNEY WORLD) • When BUCKYBALL structure are converted into cylindrical tube like structure it is called BUCKYTUBE later known as CARBON NANO TUBE.• The structure is a Soccer Ball like strucure of 32 faces.Salt Lake 6 .Tech-VLSI. 06/13/11 Copywrite:M.

Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132. 06/13/11 Copywrite:M. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties. optics. and other fields of materials science. electronics. significantly larger than any other material. making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology. as well as potential uses in architectural fields. and are efficient thermal conductors.     Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.000.Tech-VLSI.Salt Lake 7 .Techno India. They may also have applications in the construction of body armor. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties.000:1.

Have an almost unlimited life.Tech-VLSI.  Cons: ◦ Commercial applications have been rather slow to develop.Salt Lake 06/13/11 8 . ◦ Have remarkable electronic properties and many other unique characteristics-  Great potential for storage memory (116 Gb /cm2 ) Small size offers faster switching speeds (100GHz ) and low power. denser than DRAM. Pros: ◦ One of the stiffest and strongest fibres known. Copywrite:M. cheaper than flash memory.Techno India. Easy to fabricate using standard semiconductor process.because of the high production costs of the best quality nanotubes. Faster than SRAM. resistant to radiation and magnetism—better than hard drive. Nonvolatile nature: no need to refresh.

 Their name is derived from their size.Techno India.Tech-VLSI.  The ends of a nanotube may be capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure.Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family. which also includes the spherical buckyballs.Salt Lake 9 .  Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers (approximately 1/50.  CARBON NANOTUBE STRUCTURE 06/13/11 Copywrite:M.000th of the width of a human hair.

Tech-VLSI.NANOTUBE GEOMETRY Types of carbon nanotubes and related structures : 1.Techno India.Single-walled 2 Multi-walled 3 Torus 4 Nanobud 5 Cup stacked carbon nanotub • 06/13/11 Copywrite:M.Salt Lake 10 .

Salt Lake 11 . the nanotubes are called zigzag. they are called chiral. The integers n and m denote the number of unit vectors along two directions in the honeycomb crystal lattice of graphene. The diameter of a nanotube can be calculated from its (n. the nanotubes are called armchair. The way the graphene sheet is wrapped is represented by a pair of indices (n. Otherwise.m+m^2) a=0.Tech-VLSI.m) called the chiral vector.Techno India.Most single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer.246 nm SINGLE WALL CARBON NANO TUBE 06/13/11 Copywrite:M. The structure of a SWNT can be conceptualized by wrapping a oneatom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder. If n = m.m) indices as followsd=a/π*sqrt(n^2+n. If m = 0.

Salt Lake 12 .Techno India. Electrical conductivity can show metallic or semiconducting behavior. 06/13/11 Copywrite:M.PROPERTIES OF SWNT • • • • Band gap can vary from zero to about 2 eV . as SWNTs can be excellent conductors. The most basic building block of these systems is the electric wire.Tech-VLSI. SWNT are the most likely candidate for miniaturizing electronics currently used in electronics.

Salt Lake 13 .Tech-VLSI. Inverter Logic-> – – Both n-FET & p-FET on same molecule Exposing half of SWNT to Oxygen by protecting other half to be exposed.Techno India. n_-FET: While SWNT is not Exposed to Oxygen. 06/13/11 Copywrite:M. Logic gates are formed using SWNT-FET. SWNT-FET p-FET n-FET • • • • p-FET: While SWNT is Exposed to Oxygen.APPLICATION OF SWNT • • Most popular application ->Intramolecular Logic gates.

Copywrite:M. approximately 3.4 Å.Tech-VLSI.Salt Lake 06/13/11 •Multi-walled   nanotubes (MWNT) consist of multiple rolled layers (concentric tubes) of graphite. •There are two models which can be used to describe the structures of multi-walled nanotubes Russian Doll model. 14 .Techno India. •MWNTs are zero-gap metals as Band Gap=0eV •The interlayer distance in multi-walled nanotubes is close to the distance between graphene layers in graphite. Parchment model.

Techno India.Salt Lake 06/13/11 In the Parchment model. in the Russian Doll is rolled around itself. rolled newspaper 15 .Tech-VLSI. resembling a scroll sheets of graphite are arranged of parchment or a in concentric cylinders.Copywrite:M. a single •In sheet of graphite model.

DWNT synthesis on the gram-scale was first proposed in 2003 by the CCVD technique. But resistance to chemicals is significantly improved. from the selective reduction of oxide solutions in methane and hydrogen. In the case of SWNT. Copywrite:M. covalent Functionalization will break some C=C double bonds. leaving "holes" in the structure on the nanotube and thus modifying both its mechanical and electrical properties. only the outer wall is modified.Tech-VLSI. This is especially important when Functionalization is required.Techno India.    Morphology and properties are similar to SWNT. In the case of DWNT.Salt Lake 06/13/11   16 .

Salt Lake 06/13/11 17 . magnetic moments . • Vary widely depending on radiusfullerenes and •This hybrid material has useful properties of both of CSCNTs carbon •nanotubes. larger (CSCNTs) differ from other quasi-1D carbon structures. etc. Copywrite:M. C. fullerene-like "buds" are covalently bonded to the outer sidewalls of the underlying carbon nanotube.A. such two •Carbon nanobuds are a newly created material combining •Cup-stacked carbon nanotubes previously discovered allotropes of carbon: carbon nanotubes and as fullerenes.Techno India. emitters. electrons. NANO BUDS STRUCTURE NANO TUBE • Have many unique properties. • •In particular. radius of the tube. they have been found to be exceptionally good field microstructure of graphene layers. the torus andexhibit semiconducting behaviors due to the stacking In this behave as quasi-metallic conductors of new material. NANO TORUS STRUCTURE • A nanotorus is a carbon nanotube bent into a torus (doughnut shape).Tech-VLSI. which normally thermal stability.CUP STACKED CARBON B.

Tech-VLSI.Salt Lake 06/13/11 18 .Copywrite:M.Techno India.

Techno India. To describe the geometry of CNT we have to obtained the Cartesian Co-ordinates of an Atomic Sites of particular CN Here we see how to find the co-ordinates of atomic sites of CNT with a specified CHIRAL VECTOR and specified number of UNIT CELLS. CNT have special characteristics that made them special from electronic properties to mechanical properties.Salt Lake     19 . It is a tiny tube made of carbon C60 atoms. The result is a tube consists carbon atoms on its surface arranged in hexagonal patterns as shown below06/13/11   Copywrite:M. One can imagine it as rolling of one graphitic sheet structure into tube structure.Tech-VLSI. It has a diameter in nanometer range and length in micrometer range.

0)  Chiral(n.Salt Lake   20 .Techno India.Tech-VLSI.n)  Zig-Zag(n.m) These are also refered as Flavors. These Flavors can be classified by how the carbon sheet is wrapped into a tube(see pictures below) Copywrite:M.TYPES OF NANO TUBE GEOMETRY 06/13/11  3 basic geometry Armchair(n .

n: Co-ordinate of atom in atomic site a1.CHIRAL VECTOR CONCEPTS   The nanotube can be conceptually viewed as a rolled-up graphene sheet.a2: Basis Vector 21 . The two-dimensional graphene lattice in real space can be created by translating one unit cell by the vectors- 06/13/11 Copywrite:M.Salt Lake R = Chiral Vector Where R: na1 + ma2 m.Techno India.Tech-VLSI.

Tech-VLSI.m ≠ 3q (q: integer): metallic.m = 3q (q: integer): semiconductor. n .Techno India. AFM can determine the diameter Armchair geometry shows metallic behavior Zig-Zag geometry shows semiconducting behavior The conductivity of CNT varies depending on the chirality      n .Salt Lake 06/13/11   Chiral Angle: The angle between the Chiral vector R and the unit vector a1. 22 .Copywrite:M. Let denote it as θ Now see how the geometry is defined with the help of Chiral vector from table belowCo-ordinate ‘n’ Some Integer Some Integer Some Integer Co-ordinate ‘m’ 0 Some Integer and m=n Some Integer And may or may not m=n Type of the Geometry Zig-Zag Armchair Chiral Chiral Angle θ=0° θ=30° 0°<θ<30°  STM can determine the chirality of the structure and STM.

Salt Lake 06/13/11 23 .Copywrite:M.Tech-VLSI.Techno India.

7) Armchair x Copywrite:M.m = 3q (q: integer):semiconductor n .5) (7.2) (3.0) (10.5) (8.3) (8.5) (8.1) (3.0) (11.5) (6.0) (6.2) (5.2) (2.0) (5.4) (8.1) (10.4) (6.4) (5.3) (9.m ≠ 3q (q: integer): metalic 24 .1) (3.0) (3.2) (4.0) (4.1) (2.1) (9.Techno India.3) (7.0) (1.0) (7.Tech-VLSI.3) (8.4) (7.6) (6.4) (4.0) (6.0) (1.0) (9.3) (9.2) (4.3) (6.2) (9.1) (8.2) (7.0) (8.3) (5.2) (5.M) NANOTUBES Zigzag (0.4) a1 a2 y (5.Salt Lake 06/13/11 n .2) (6.HEXAGONAL LATTICE (N.6) (7.6) (7.1) (2.1) (7.1) (10.1) (4.

Techno India.Salt Lake 06/13/11 25 .Tech-VLSI.Copywrite:M.

0) a2 a1 y x .Wrapping (10.0) Ch = (10.0) SWNT (zigzag) (0.

0) a2 a1 y x .Wrapping (10.0) SWNT (Animation) (0.0) Ch = (10.

10) .0) a2 a1 y x Ch = (10.Wrapping (10.10) SWNT (armchair) (0.

Wrapping (10.10) SWNT (Animation) (0.10) .0) a2 a1 y x Ch = (10.

5) SWNT (chiral) (0.Wrapping (10.0) Ch = (10.5) a2 a1 y x .

0) Ch = (10.5) a2 a1 y x .5) SWNT (Animation) (0.Wrapping (10.

Each face is made of approximately 150 million tiny carbon nanotubes. that's about how many Americans voted in the 2008 presidential election.Techno India.Salt Lake 06/13/11 32 .Tech-VLSI. Copywrite:M.

Techno India.Salt Lake 06/13/11 33 .Copywrite:M.Tech-VLSI.

Tech-VLSI.Techno India.Salt Lake 34 .Different Nano Tube STM Pictures 06/13/11 Copywrite:M.

of Chemistry.t.BIBLIOGRAPHY  www. Hongjie Dai. Nano Tube By Dr.  06/13/11 Copywrite:M.wikipedia.Tehran.Techno  Carbon  http://www.Dept.Iran.nccr/nano. Stanford  Geometry of Carbon Nano Tube By Ehsan Ban.utokyo. of Civil Engg.  An Intoduction To Carbon Nano Tube By Tom Grace. Sharif University of Technology.photon.Salt Lake 35 .  http://www. Somenath Chatterjee.

Tech-VLSI.Salt Lake 06/13/11 36 . Copywrite:M.With Sincere Regards To Dr.Techno India.Somnath Chatterjjee.

Salt Lake 06/13/11 37 .Tech-VLSI.Techno India.Copywrite:M.