Introduction ELETRA transformers factory will be one of the biggest transformers manufacturing companies in the middle east . Air Natural´ cooling system (ONAN). It is the expected step to complete Alfanar electrical systems perfection . ELETRA manufactures a wide range of Three-Phase Distribution Transformers with oil immersed core type and ³Oil Natural. The factory is established to meet the increase in demand in power sector. The main characteristics of the ELETRA Transformers are: Rated power: From 50kVA to 10000kVA Rated voltage: Up to 36kV with two types of tanks: Free breathing with conservator Hermetically sealed The standard products items are listed as follow: Transformer Range 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 300 KVA 500 KVA 1000 KVA 1250 KVA 1500 KVA 2000 KVA 3000 KVA .

When an alternating current flows in a conductor . The use of a magnetic field from one coil to induce a voltage into a second coil is the principle on which transformer theory and application is based.Transformer theory Transformers are devices that transfer energy from one circuit to another by means of a common magnetic field. a magnetic field exists around the conductor If another conductor is placed in the field created by the first conductor such that the flux lines link the second conductor then a voltage is induced into the second conductor. Applications. purpose ) ??? . (Types.2.

KV.Type of Transformers Distribution transformer 100-5000 KVA 11KV.33KV/side cable box type Kiosk type transformer Corrugated tank type oil transformer 100-8000 KVA One Side cable box .

Distribution transformer pad mounted Primary & secondary side cable box transformer with galvanized radiators 100-3000KVA Dry type transformer 100-1000KVA .

E induced voltage for primary and secondary winding N1. I induced currents for primary and secondary winding . of turns -turns ratio E1/E = N1/N E1.N no of turns for primary and secondary winding 3-Amper ±turns balance I1* N1 =I *N I1.EMF equation The relation ship between induced voltage and flux is given by the following equation E= 4.3-Design fundamentals 1.44* F *B* A *N E Induced EMF F frequency B flux density A core area N no.

4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 24 25 26 Transformer type Installation indoor or Outdoor Rated power (KVA ) Rated primary Voltage (KV) Number of taps and voltage % for Off Circuit regulation Rated secondary voltage at no load V Frequency (HZ) Number of phases Connection and voltage group Max Ambient temperature °C Temperature rise top oil °C Average winding Temperature rise °C Altitude (max) .Technical data sheet S.Oil Parallel operation Standard Over all dimensions Width × Depth × Height (mm ) Oil Weight ( KG ) Total Weight (KG ) .m SC.N.Impedance voltage % No Load losses (W) Load losses (W) Type of .

wood . epoxy DDP. DGPT. C. dehydrating breather . paper wrapped copper wire. drain valve . pressboard . tie rods .Cooled rolled grain oriented silicon steel ( CRGO ) B-Copper conductors ( copper foil . etc««. U channel .) D-Transformer oil E-steel (mild steel coils and sheet.etc««) F.transformer accessories ( tap changer.enameled copper wire .5-basic materials The seven main materials in transformer categorized as follow A. etc«. oil temperature indicator .winding temperature Indicator ..solid insulating materials (Kraft paper . Etc«) G.painting materials ) . Buchholz relay . steel pipes . stainless steel. bushings. Bus Bar.

and the conductor of high voltage winding were rectangle of round shape depend on the rating and voltage system of the transformer .Transformer construction The core The purpose of the core is to provide a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux linking primary and secondary windings.6. Core laminations are compacted and clamped together using yoke clamps U channels and by tie-rods locking the top and bottom yoke clamps together. The magnetic circuit in a transformer is made of steel lamination sheets whose basic constituents are iron and approximately 3% silicon as an alloy element. Winding The windings consist of the current-carrying conductors wound around the sections of the core. Conductors for low-voltage windings were originally made from foil copper sheet. Copper is the primary material used as conductor because of high conductivity and mechanical strength. .

Insertion of axial wooden rod studs between iron core and internal diameter of windings for clamping the core and the coil to withstand the axial and radial forces during short circuit 4.Active Part Assembly Process In the previous stage. 4. Transformer core assembly will be inserted into the tank . Completion of the magnetic circuit by stacking the upper yokes 3. The next operation is spot welding to weld all four walls forming the tank .insulators & accessories are added to the final assembly after tanking takes place followed by final testing . Oil is supplied from the oil filtration plant 3. Finally .top plate . The core assembly will be dried in a vacuum oven This step is necessary for removal of moisture from windings Tank Manufacturing Process 1. this the slit is transferred to fin wall machine which forms the steel into corrugated wall 3. the main part of the Active Part (core without the top leg and winding) is finished.The Active Part Assembly is as follows: 1. Insertion of the transformer windings into the iron core . impregnated with oil by means of vacuum . First process in making tank is slitting of steel . Finally tanks are subjected to shot blasting & primer coating to produce tank in its final form Tanking Process 1.

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Measurement of no-load loss and current . ELETRA carries out the following Type Tests on at least two units: -Temperature-rise test (in accordance with IEC 60076.Measurement of winding resistance .) -Dielectric type tests (Lightning impulse test in accordance with IEC 60076-3) Special Tests These tests are carried out after signing a contract with a client: -Measurement of zero-sequence impedance(s) on three-phase transformers -Short-circuit withstand test* (as per IEC 60076-5) -Determination of sound levels (as per IEC 60076-10) -Measurement of the harmonics of the no-load current .Dielectric routine tests (separate source AC voltage withstand test and short duration induced test) .8-testing of transformer Transformer tests are classified into three categories Routine Tests.Measurement of voltage ratio and phase displacement check .Measurement of short-circuit impedance and load loss . Type Tests and Special Tests as described below: Routine Tests Following tests are performed on every transformer in accordance with IEC 60076 standard: . over voltage withstand Type Tests For transformers of new type or design.Measurement of insulation resistance to earth of the windings.

and its class) ‡Indoor or outdoor type ‡Type of cooling ‡Rated power ‡Rated voltage ‡Number of tapings. etc.9-Information Required with Order To fulfill a customer¶s exact requirements. auto transformer.) ‡Single or three-phase ‡Connection symbol ‡Frequency ‡Type of oil (mineral or synthetic insulating liquid. and indication of the side on which meters. the voltage variation type and the location of the maximum current tapping) ‡Highest voltage for equipment ‡Insulation level for each winding ‡Connection symbol ‡Impedance voltage at rated current ‡No-load losses ‡Load losses at reference temperature ‡For transformer with cable end box degree of protection according to IEC 605 ‡Neutral terminals. if required for any winding ‡Fittings required. rating plates and oil-level indicators are to be fitted ‡Accessories required ‡Type of oil preservation system ‡Temperature limits and atmospheric conditions . the following information along with orders requires : ‡Transformer specifications ‡Kind of transformer (For example: Separate winding transformer. tapping range or tapping step (if tapping range is more than 5%.