1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Stratify data. Pareto diagram Cause and effect diagram Histogram Check Sheets Control Charts

To analyze Quantitative Data

1. Brain Storming - For identifying Problem & Solution 2. Process flow chart - For understanding and defining the problem

For grouping data . Check sheets . Stratification .QUALITY TOOLS 3.For collecting data 4.

Cause and Effect diagram .QUALITY TOOLS 5.For identifying vital few problems 6.For Analyzing Cause and Effect . Pareto Chart .

Charts .For Analyzing Problem and displaying data (i) Bar Chart (ii) Pie-Chart (iii) Bond Chart (iv) Line graph (v) Radar Chart (vi) Histogram .QUALITY TOOLS 7.

. Scatter diagram To analyze interrelationship between dependent and independent variables. Control Charts To monitor control of products and processes.8. 9.

BRAIN STORMING Brain storming is a group technique for generating new. useful and creative ideas at various stages of problem solving. It uses a few simple rules for discussion on a subject matter that contributes to originality and innovation. .

Reverse .BRAIN STORMING HUMAN THINKING 1. Lateral 3. Logical and 5. Creative 4. Analytical 2.

. Slip method.BRAIN STORMING METHODS 1. Free wheeling or unstructured. 3. Round Robin or Structured. 2.

. either on number of ideas or on the order of members.FREE WHEELING OR UNSTRUCTURED METHOD In this method. One can give even hundred ideas at a time. the brain-storming team members give their ideas without any restrictions.

.FREE WHEELING OR UNSTRUCTURED METHOD Advantages : • • • It is Spontaneous. stimulates creativity of the individual. Continuity helps in further thinking process. One can build his ideas on the ideas of others.

dominating persons in the group. Many may speak simultaneously and hence confusion may prevail. • .Free wheeling or unstructured method Disadvantages : • Slow thinking persons and persons lacking confidence may put shutters to their thinking. seeing the enthusiasm of the strong.

Free wheeling or unstructured method Disadvantages : 3. Hence involvement may be lost. People may digress away from main point. One may exhaust all points leaving others with no points. . 4.

Then the chance is given to the next person. the team members sit in circle and the first member give only one idea at a time. .ROUND ROBIN OR STRUCTURED METHOD In this method. This will go on and on until sufficient number of ideas are generated.

ROUND ROBIN OR STRUCTURED METHOD Advantages : 1. 2. Improves involvement and sustain interest. Gives satisfaction to every one . 3. There is opportunity for every one in the group to give ideas.

Control of group is easy and hence less confusion. Possible to generate maximum number of ideas due to hitch-hiking process. .ROUND ROBIN OR STRUCTURED METHOD Advantages : 4. 5.

An active member may loose interest as he wait for his turn.ROUND ROBIN OR STRUCTURED METHOD Disadvantages : 1. . by which time his ideas have been told by others.

the members are giving their ideas on a slip paper.SLIP METHOD In this method. .

When the group is big and arranging a meeting is difficult. . 2.SLIP METHOD Advantage : 1. This helps involve the shy and withdrawn persons.

Disadvantage : 1. One cannot build ideas on others ideas. 2. Hitch thinking is not possible. 3. Illegible hand writing or improper presentations leads to problems. 4. Difficult to trace the originator and get clarifications, if required.

Disadvantage : 5. If analyzing is avoided, then ideas may not flow in. 6. It is very slow. 7. Due to these disadvantages it can be done in stages. i.e. collect ideas and display them. 8. Then again go for more ideas.

1. Choose a meeting place where there is no disturbance or distraction.

STEPS IN BRAIN STORMING 2. Inform in advance the topic for brain storming. . .Broad enough to include useful ideas .Topic is specific and clear .Allow the required incubation period for people to think and contribute.Should not create only biased ideas or opinions in the minds of people .

Create a lively and informal atmosphere to enable people to open up.STEPS IN BRAIN STORMING 3. contribute ideas and sustain interest. .

Assign a person in the group the task of recording the ideas as hey emerge. Use a flip chart or back board or OHP for this purpose.They should be in full view of the group so that development of ideas by hitch-hiking is possible. . .STEPS IN BRAIN STORMING 4.

. Guests invitees who are knowledgeable on the subject may be invited.STEPS IN BRAIN STORMING 5.

Encourage for free flow of ideas one at a time each person.STEPS IN BRAIN STORMING 6. they may say ‘Pass’. .If one cannot think of an idea at a given point of time. .

STEPS IN BRAIN STORMING 7. There should be no criticism or appreciation or laugh during brain storming. No evaluation should be done during brain storming. 8. .

10. Ensure (i) ideas are specific (ii) Broad based (iii) Not biases . Clarify. but do not explain or criticize the ideas.STEPS IN BRAIN STORMING 9.

use five ‘W’ s and one ‘H’ (When.STEPS IN BRAIN STORMING 11. To bring creativity. Where. Maximum time for a session could be 20-25 minutes. Why. Who and How) . 12. What.

13. If possible, allow members to incubate ideas for few days and brain storm again for new and more ideas.

14. After the brain storming is over, take ideas one by one and evaluate critically and Objectively. - While processing the ideas, combine and group similar ideas.

EXAMPLE : Problem: How to improve performance? 1. Teachers should work more problems in class. 2. Teachers should not be very fast in class. 3. Teachers should not be very slow. 4. More home works. 5. More special classes.

More assignments 8. Text book should be available 9. More tutorials should be available. 10.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 6. Notes handouts should be given. . Group discussions 7.

Mini-Project work. More industrial visits 12.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 11. More seminars 13. . Holidays should be less. 15. College functions should be minimum 14.

Students should be interactive. More class tests. 19. Sufficient number of working days. . 17. Questions should be clear. 20. More tutorials. 18.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 16.

23. Teachers should interact with students.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 21. Allow late coming of students 25. . A permanent class room with teaching aids. Some courses on language. More video shown. 24. 22.

28.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 26. 27. Clear explaining of basics. 30. Teachers should complete problems in full with all steps at least for few typical problems. Teachers should solve more problems. . Teachers should come prepared for the class. 29. Teachers should not be very strict.

not easy problems. in class.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 31. . Voice of teacher should be audible. 32. Teachers should solve tough problems. More stress on theory. Not able to understand basics 34. Two continuous hours should be avoided. 33. 35.

. Combined classes should be avoided.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 36. Last row of student are unable to see black boards. Proper ventilation and lighting in class rooms. 37. 39. Teachers should not deviate from subject matters. 38.

Laboratory with working equipment. Examination questions should be clear and within the syllabus.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 40. 42. . Assignment should not be given without teaching the basics. Good teacher. 44. 41. Students should be able to comprehend the subject matter. 43.

Marks should be given for steps also instead of result. 47.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 45. . Re-test can be conducted for those students who got less than 40% marks. Mistakes in the answer sheet should be pin pointed instead of string whole answer. 46.

51. Questions should not be twisted? 49. No unexpected questions. . Problems not taught in class should not be asked? 50. Syllabus should be more specific it should not be very wide or very general.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 48.

54. 53. Reference books should be available at affordable cost. . Questions should be specific. Time for test should be sufficient.Problem: How to improve academic performance? 52.

activities and decisions in a form which can be easily understood and communicated to all.1. A process flow of a manufacturing process is given in fig.PROCESS FLOW CHART Description : A process flow chart is a representation of sequences of operation of a process from the beginning to the end through certain symbols. It records the series of events. .

1. Flow chart of a manufacturing process .Fig.

. .A more detailed flow chart would allow pin pointing of key problem areas.By studying this chart and analyzing its details.They can also identify where delays can occur. .They can identified bottle necks. . redunt steps and non-value added activities. potential problems in the process can be identified.

Then this chart is analyzed and any unwanted or cumbersome processes are eliminated. to solve any problem.Therefore. Improvements can be accomplished by reducing. the process is drawn first. A flow chart is used to solve problems in administration. . manufacturing and service processes. combining or eliminating steps.

Matrix flow chart.Type of flow charts There are three types of flow charts. 3. . High level flow chart. 2. Detailed flow chart. They are : 1.

The following activities are involved to produce the product and supply it to the customer. For example consider a process where customer sends a request for certain product. .A high level flow chart gives the broad out line of the process and avoids the details.

Inspection of the product to ascertain its quality. . 4. Manufacturing the product.1. Purchase of the raw material required to produce the product 2. Sending the products to the customer. 3.

These activities can be represented in a chart as follows Customer sends request for product Purchase of raw material required for product Manufacturing of product Inspection of product Sending the product to supplier .

However. These activities can also be represented in a matrix form as follows : .MATRIX FLOW CHART These charts are sufficient to understand the overall picture and where details are not required. to understand and solve intricate problems.

MATRIX FLOW CHART Customer Inspection Purchase Stores Manufacture Sent request Send to supplier Purchase Manufacture product Inspect product Stored .

to understand and solve intricate problems in the process. . more details are required.These charts are sufficient to understand the overall picture and where details are not required. Therefore each one of the above activities can be split into various smaller activities. However.

before purchase of the material required for the product. Only if the material is not available.For example. Otherwise manufacturing of the product can be started immediately avoiding ‘Purchasing’ activity. it has to be verified whether the material required is already available in the stores. . it has to be purchased.

DETAILED FLOWCHART The detailed flowchart for the purchasing activity is given below. Like this. . the details of other activities such as manufacturing industries can also be split and represented in a detailed chart.

In the detailed flow diagram. certain specific symbols can be used to represent various activities they are : .

Start end symbol Activity symbol Decision symbol Data base symbol .


The detailed flow chart used to understand the possible problems.These Standardized symbols are used by industrial Engineering. bottle necks in the process. . However they are not necessary for problem.

then the existing activities can be studied and eliminate or modify some for the activities. if delay occurs in the purchase activities and it has to be reduced significantly to reduce the lead time.For example. .

Similarly improvement can be made in the other activities also. sending enquiry every time can be avoided by selecting a supplier based on his reliability and quality of supplied items (Deming’s Principle). . This will avoid activities form sending enquiry to finalizing the purchase the purchase order.In this process.

Manufacturing Inspection No Is it Ok Rework Inspection No Is it OK Assembly Yes Scrap .

. Moreover inspection is not adding any value to the product. more stocks. more raw materials and more time.EXAMPLE : This cycle costs more for given output since it needs more area. more personal. more equipment.

This cycle can be simplified by removing the inspection activity based on the concepts of prevention instead of detection as follows and reduce cost. Manufacturing Assembly .

3. 2. Identify potential trowel spots. Analyze this chart and identify any unwanted. Cumbersome process. Draw the flow chart for the existing process. nicks etc. . bottle.PROBLEM SOLVING PROCEDURE 1.

5. . 6. Eliminate the unwanted process. Re-draw new flow chart and compare.PROBLEM SOLVING PROCEDURE 4. Improve the process by reducing combining or eliminating steps.

Construction of a building. Commissioning of a Transform. Manufacture of a PCB.REVIEW EXERCISE Draw a flow chart for the following process. . Development of a software. • • • • • Manufacturing of a shaft.

strain etc. Draw flow charts of processes pertaining to your branch of study .Analyze the flow chart drawn above and suggest ways of improving in terms of number of activities. time. Redraw flow chart after improvements and compare.

What symbols are used for drawing a flow chart? What are its advantage. 2. 3. .EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 1. What is a flow chart? How flow charts are classified? What are the uses of a flow diagram? How flow diagrams are used for solving problems. Explain with examples? 5. 4.

(iv)To measure company’s performance . (iii)To measure improvements.DATA COLLECTION (i) To evaluate quality. (ii) To control process products.

Temperature etc. of products accepted rejected. Measured data : The data is obtained by using an instrument Eg: Dimension. of Students passed failed.Types of data Data could be collected from the available records or by member of observations made. No. 2. The data are classified as: 1. Attribute data : Data obtained by classification Eg: No. .

Process control information check sheets Solder Bath Temperature Checked by : Date : Take readings of Temp. weariest to degree Time 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 Temp 60 62 59 58 59 Time 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Temp 61 58 63 63 59 .

.3 ok 0.... Cleanliness Clean 0.. 4...3 ok 2 Ok 0.....55 ok 3 4 5 Ok 0.4 1 Ok 0.Product Quality Assurance check sheet Actual observation No Parameter Spec..... Surface finish 3. Paint finish Glossary .... .4 ok 2..3 ok Not ok Ok 0. 1.

5. 3. 2.Defective Cause Check Sheet S. Defects Scratch Paint full Bad finish Bare meta Tally 26 35 47 25 - . No 1. 4. 6.

This type of check sheet is used to generate information on cause and their correspondence to the observed defects. .

Poor finish . Others . Blow holes.No operations Mon Tue Wed Thur Fri AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM AM PM 1 1 1 1 Surface finish . Distorted .

05 Process Variation check sheet .Component Operations Nets Speed : 852 0.

Right decision can be made.Benefits of Data Collection 1. 2. Agreement on decisions necessary rather than different . 3. Error due to subjective feeling or personal bias are avoided.

Benefits of Data Collection
4. Measurement understandable to all. 5. Assessment of magnitude of improvements. 6. Identification of causes affecting quality and productivity

Example: Absentness in a class due to various diseases
Nature of disease Stomach Disorders & water borne diseases Viral flu Minor injuries, Head aches, fever Others Total Tally No 19 % 47.5

14 5

35.0 12.5 5.0 100

2 40

For example, consider the following problems. Two lathes were used to produce cylindrical shaft using four operators in two shifts. In two weeks time 96 shafts were rejected out of 2400 shafts produced.


5 48 47.5 46 M/C1 M/C2 .BASED ON MACHINES 49 48.5 47 46.

BASED ON SHIFT 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 DAY SHIFT NIGHT SHIFT .

to confirm customers request .evaluation item inspection .CHECK UP CONFIRMATION . DEFECTIVE ITEM DEFECTIVE CAUSE PRODUCTION PROCESS DISTRIBUTION INSPECTION .CHECK SHEETS 1. 3. 4. 2.request item inspection .


CHECK SHEETS DEFECTIVE ITEM Date Defect Scratch Stain Crack Others 20 / 4 21 .

Assembly miss .Control miss .Changes its time taken .Other .CHECK SHEETS OPERATOR A M C NO 1 2 B 3 4 7 MONTH 8 9 .

Applications • Define the scope of the problem • Define data collection requirements needed to verify a cause and effect relationship Define suspected casual conditions when problem occur For easy analysis of the problem • • .

. This is based on the principle of an Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto.PARETO DIAGRAM Description Pareto diagram is a pictorial arrangement of data in decreasing order of importance so as to enable prioritize problems for solution. He observed during his study on the distribution of wealth that 80% of the wealth is owned by 20% of population.

.PARETO DIAGRAM DR. Joseph Juran later recognized this concept as universal that could be applied to many fields including industries.

.80% of problems in a society come form 20% of people.80% of money is spent on 20% of machines and materials.80% of sales due to 20% of customers. .80% of complaints due to 20% defects. . .PARETO DIAGRAM For example.80% of defects one due to 20% of causes (root causes). . .

PARETO DIAGRAM No. Dimensional Error Geometrical error Surface scratch Surface finish 9 6 42 3 60 % 15 10 70 5 100 .

PARETO DIAGRAM 60 50 40 30 20 10 C A B D Before Solving the problem A B C D After Solving the problem A Dimensional Error 9 B Geometrical Error C Surface scratch D Surface finish 6 42 3 9 6 4 3 .

They are : 1. This gives clarity regarding the level of contribution of each factor.Elements of a Pareto Diagram Pareto diagram and tables include three basic elements. All factors which are responsible for the total effect are arranged in a descending order. .

Elements of a Pareto Diagram 2. The cumulative curve shows the total of ranked contributions. . The levels of contribution of each factor so expressed numerically (in quantity as well as percentage) 3.

Determine the methods of classifying the data by problem. 2.Construction of a Pareto diagram 1. non-conformity etc. Decide the factors to be used to rank the characteristics . cause.

Summaries the data and rank order from largest to smallest (descending order) . Collect data an appropriate time interval 4.Construction of a Pareto diagram 3.

repeat steps 4 through 6 and compare the diagram and measure the percentage improvements. After solving a problem. . 6. Compute the cumulative values in number and percentage and plot the cumulative curve. 7. Construct the diagram and find the vital few.Construction of a Pareto diagram 5.

E IV year B.E Average marks 80% 90% 50% 55% 60% 70% .E II year B.Class Xth Standard +2 I year B.E III year B.

• It is also called Ishikawa Diagram or Fishbone diagram. Kaoru Ishikahawa in 1943. .CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM • Developed by Dr.


MATERIAL . METHOD. Identify the causes through brain storming.CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE 1. 2. Classify the causes under major causes such as MAN. MACHINE.

Evaluate causes to determine most likely Causes.CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM 3. . 4. Develop solutions to correct causes.


4. Run chart (Line graph) Bar chart Pie chart Radar chart . 2.Types of chart The common types of the chart are: 1. 3.

Bar Chart Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Net Profit (in lakhs) 22.83 44.50 42.10 48.80 .75 27.

BAR CHART 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 X XII I II III IV SEM SEM SEM SEM .

Run chart (Line graph) Instead of Drawing bars. then this becomes a run chart or line graph. . Line graph is used for observing quantity changes over time or changing trends. if the performance values are plotted as points and if these points are joined by a line.

Run Chart 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 X XII I SEM II SEM III SEM IV SEM .

. may be shown as circular segments. development etc. For example. salary. the expenditure of a government under various heads such as defense..Pie chart The Pie chart shows the parts in a whole this used for showing relative proportion of various components.


.Band Graph Band graph is another form of a pie-chart instead of dividing a circle according to the parameters a long rectangular strip is divided into various segments as shown in fig.


. A radar chart consists of as many lines as there are parameters starting at a point and extending with equal angular division. then a radar chart can be used. Each line is divided into scale values of respective parameter.Radar chart When more than two parameters are used to measure the performance.

Radar chart Dimension 100 Blow holes 50 0 Surface finish scratches geometry .

Therefore amount of wear depends on time. wear of a machine tool increases with time of operation. one variable is called independent variable. . For example.SCATTER DIAGRAM Description A scatter diagram is graphical representation of relationship between two variables. That is wear depends on time. Therefore amount of wear is dependent0 variable whereas time is independent variables.

00 12.TEMP 50 40 30 20 10 7.00 5.00 9.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 11.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 4.00 .

00 AM 2.00 AM 5.00 AM 1.00 33 30 29 28 At Pondicherry 21 23 22 24 25 26 30 31 35 32 31 28 27 At Trichy 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 36 34 32 30 29 At Trichy 20 21 23 24 26 27 31 31 33 31 29 27 26 .00 AM 7.00 AM 4.00 AM 10.00 AM 12.00 AM 6.Time 6.00 AM 9.00 AM Temperature 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 31 34.00 AM 8.00 AM 11.00 AM 3.

It consists of a set of rectangles that represent the frequency of the observed values in each category. then the result will be as shown in fig below. .HISTOGRAM Description Histogram is a graphical representation of frequency distribution at various levels about the target values. If the heights of students of a class is measured and grouped at various heights.

HISTOGRAM F r e q u e n c y Heights of persons .

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